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EPE Practical Guide 2020

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
STUDENT LABORATORY GUIDE
NAME OF COURSE
ELECTRICAL POWER ENGINEERING
NQF
LEVEL
NQF
CREDITS
6
14
QUALIFICATION & SAQA ID
Bachelor of Technology in
Engineering
SAQA ID No:080901
Compiled by: N.P Memane
(2020)
COURSE CODE
Electrical
EPE316B
Printed and distributed by :
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND
BUILT ENVIRONMENT
Tshwane University of Technology
Private Bag X680
Pretoria
0001
Contents
1.
Welcome .......................................................................................................................................... 5
2.
LABORATORY Staff ..................................................................................................................... 5
2.1
Contact Details ........................................................................................................................ 5
2.2
Staff availability ...................................................................................................................... 5
Code of conduct ............................................................................................................................... 6
3.
3.1
Attendance .............................................................................................................................. 6
4.2
LABORATORY, HEALTH & SAFETY RULES AND REGULATIONS ........................... 6
4.3
Responsibilities of students ..................................................................................................... 7
EXPERIMENTS .............................................................................................................................. 8
5.
5.1. EXPERIMENT NO 1: The Polarity Testing of Single-phase Transformers ................................. 8
5.2. EXPERIMENT 2: Open-Circuit and Short-Circuit Tests of a Three-phase Transformer ........... 10
5.3. EXPERIMENT NO 3: DC Machine (Separately Excited) .......................................................... 16
5.4. EXPERIMENT NO 4: DC Machine (Separately Excited) .......................................................... 18
5.5. EXPERIMENT NO 5: No-Load and Blocked-Rotor Tests of a Three-phase Induction Motor. . 20
5.6 EXPERIMENT 6: Running-Light and Blocked-Rotor Tests of a Single-phase Induction Motor.
............................................................................................................................................................ 24
GUIDELINES ON COMPILING A REPORT for each experiment ............................................. 27
6.
COVER PAGE ................................................................................................................................... 27
1.
Description: ............................................................................................................................... 27
2.
Purpose/Aim: ............................................................................................................................. 27
3.
Experiment or Practical Work Design: ...................................................................................... 27
3.1.
Experimental Equipment: ..................................................................................................... 27
3.2.
Parts list: ............................................................................................................................... 28
3.3.
Safety .................................................................................................................................... 28
3.4.
Circuit Diagram: ................................................................................................................... 28
3.5.
Wiring list: ............................................................................................................................ 28
3.6.
Procedure: ............................................................................................................................. 28
7.
4.
Results and/or Findings: ............................................................................................................ 28
5.
Comments and Conclusion: ....................................................................................................... 28
6.
Literature review: ...................................................................................................................... 28
7.
Appendix A ... ........................................................................................................................... 28
Experiments / Practical work Evaluation ....................................................................................... 29
1.
WELCOME
Welcome to laboratory session of Electrical Power Engineering. This following
practicals will provide you with application part of the theory in the field of static and
rotating alternating current (AC), three-phase and single- phase electrical machinery.
It is offered via theory and experimental over (13) weeks. The course is structured in
such a way as to master theoretical concepts and principles and various practical skills
to provide a sound foundation complement the major courses in the qualification and
paves the way for more advanced learning. We trust you will enjoy the course, and
find it interesting and informative.
2.
LABORATORY STAFF
2.1
CONTACT DETAILS
NAME
CAMPUS
ROOM NO
TEL NO
E-MAIL
ACADEMIC
FUNCTION
Ms N.P Memane
Pretoria
Building 6-267
012 382 2866
[email protected]
Lecturer
Mr P Magabane
Pretoria
Building 6-269
012 382 3616
[email protected]
Technician
2.2
STAFF AVAILABILITY
The technical and academic staff is available for consultations fixed at a timetable
during the semester. Check lecturers’ timetables on MyTutor, for consultation times.
If, after attending class and making every effort from your side to master content, you
still have problems with understanding key concepts or principles or their application,
lecturers are available for consultation.
 Students should show that they have done some work before consulting, otherwise
no student will be attended to if they do not show any work.
3.
CODE OF CONDUCT
Please take note of the following regulations. These regulations are in addition to the
standard rules and regulations as determined by the TUT. Please familiarise yourself
with the TUT rules and regulations as set out in the student diaries received on
registration.
Few things among others that cannot be tolerated in the laboratory are: late coming,
ill behaviour of any kind, and lack of respect towards fellow students and lecturers or
laboratory staff.
3.1
ATTENDANCE
Regular attendance of all the laboratory work is of primary importance. It is the
learner’s responsibility to sign the register each week. A minimum attendance of 75%
is mandatory for all courses. In a 30 week year, 8 classes that have not been attended
and for which you have not furnished a valid doctor’s letter or other proof of
extenuating circumstances, amounts to 25% absenteeism. This level of absenteeism
will lead to exclusion from the final moderation at the end of the year, which means
that you will fail the course and will have to repeat it the following year.
4.2
LABORATORY, HEALTH & SAFETY RULES AND
REGULATIONS
4.2.1. LABORATORY RULES
 Students are required to arrived on time for the laboratory sessions
 No students will be allowed in the laboratory without the supervision of the
lecturer or lab assistant.
 No eating in the laboratory.
 After the student has completed a specific experiment, he/she should call a
supervisor, before switching on the equipment.
 If a student blows up the Lab equipment, he/she will be required to replace the
specific equipment.
 Bags and book cases should be put against the wall in front of the lab
 Smoking drinking and eating are strictly prohibited in the lab
 Any faulty equipment should e reported immediately to the lecturer or lab
technician.
4.2.2. LABORATORY HEALTH AND SAFERTY RULES AND
REGULATIONS
Student must adhere to the following health and safety rules at all times, and failure to
do so might lead to refusal of access into the lab.
 Safety clothing suitable for laboratory environment should be worn at all times.
 No person is allowed to switch on any power source without the authority of the
lecturer or lab technician or lab assistant
 Any faulty equipment should be reported immediately to the lecturer/lab
technician.
 Strong action will be taken against any person who misuse equipment. e.g. other
than for educational purposes.
 Strong action will be taken against persons who intentionally/ unintentionally
damage the equipment.
4.2.3. USAGE OF CELL PHONES IN CLASSES
Cell phones should be switched off completely during lab sessions, lecture sessions,
test and examinations. Failure to do so might lead to dismissal from that specific
session.
4.3
RESPONSIBILITIES OF STUDENTS
It is your responsibility to make a success of learning in this course. To this end you
are encouraged to attend class, write set tests and hand in your assignments/projects
on the set due dates.
5.
EXPERIMENTS
5.1. EXPERIMENT NO 1: THE POLARITY TESTING OF SINGLE-PHASE
TRANSFORMERS
Aim: The Aim of this experiment is to determine the polarities of a transformer by
means of both the additive polarity and the subtractive polarity methods.
Apparatus:

1 X single- phase transformer (100VA, 230/15.6 V)

Leads

Voltmeters

AC Variable power supply
Circuit
Figure 1.1: Single-phase transformer polarities
Procedure:

Connect the transformer as shown in the diagram.

Connect the high-voltage side to a ac source.

Connect the jumper between any two adjacent high voltage and low voltage
terminals.

Connect a voltmeter V1, between the other two adjacent high voltages and low
voltage terminals.

Connect another voltmeter, V2, across the high voltage winding.

Switch on and carefully turn the variable supply till the rated high voltage is
indicated on the voltmeter, V2.
Readings:

If the reading of V1 is greater than V2, the polarity is additive. This indicates
that H1 and L1 are diagonally opposite.

If V1 is less than V2, the polarity is subtractive and H1 and L1 is adjacent.
Practical Report:
1.1
There is another method to determine the polarities of a single- phase
transformer which called the battery method.
1.1.1 Draw the circuit diagram for such a method.
1.1.2 Give a brief description thereof.
1.1.3 Does this method have any limitations?
1.2
What is the importance of determining the polarities of a transformer?
5.2. EXPERIMENT 2: OPEN-CIRCUIT AND SHORT -CIRCUIT TESTS OF A
THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMER
AIM: The aim of this experiment is to determine the parameters of the approximate
equivalent circuit of the transformer and to refer them to the low and high-voltage
sides. Also the experiment is intended to obtain data for the calculation of the
efficiency and the voltage regulation of the transformer.
OPEN-CIRCUIT TEST:
Measurements are made on the low-voltage side and are converted to phase
quantities. The low-voltage windings are connected in Y and the high-voltage
windings in delta (). The test is made at rated low-voltage and frequency. The
transformer parameters can be calculated from the following equations:
LOW VOLTAGE (Y)
P. oc 
Poc
3
V. oc 
Voc
3
P. oc 
I. oc 
TotalPh  e  Poc
Ioc
3
TotalPh  e  Poc
V. oc 2 Voc 2

Poc 3
Poc
Rc. LV 
Poc
3. Voc. Ioc
cosoc 
cosoc 
Im  Ioc.sin oc
Xm. LV 
Poc
3
V. oc  Voc
I.oc  Ioc
Rc. LV 
HIGH VOLTAGE ()
V. oc

Im
Im 
Voc
3 . Ioc. sin oc
V. oc 2 3.Voc 2

Poc 3
Poc
Poc
3. Voc. Ioc
Ioc
.sin oc
3
Xm. LV 
V. oc
3.Voc

Im
. Ioc. sin oc
W oc
W
V
Io c
A
a
A
b
B
c
C
V
SU PP LY
A
V oc V
W
A
TRN S FO RM ER
Figure 2.1: Open circuit test wiring diagram
Table 2.1: Measured values
PARAMETERS
V1
Ioc1
Ioc2
Ioc3
P1
P2
Voc
Ioc
cosoc
Poc
UNITS
V
A
A
A
W
W
V
A
-
W
MEASURED VALUES
Table 2.2: Calculated parameters
PARAMETERS
a=
V1/V2
oc
Ic
Im
Rc.LV
Xm.LV
Re.LV
Xe.LV
UNITS
-
Deg
A
A




CALCULATED
VALUES
SHORT-CIRCUIT TEST:
The three low-voltage terminals are connected and short-circuited together. The high-voltage
side is supplied with a voltage at rated frequency so that rated full-load current flows through
both sides. The transformer windings are connected according to the name plate
specifications.
HIGH VOLTAGE (Y)
LOW VOLTAGE ()
Full-load Pcu = Psc
Full-load Pcu = Psc
P. sc 
Psc
3
I. sc  Isc
V. sc 
Ze. HV 
Re . HV 
Vsc
3
Xe. HV  Z 2 e. HV  R 2 e. HV
Psc
3
I. sc 
Isc
3
V. sc  Vsc
V. sc Vsc

I. sc
3. Isc
P . sc
Psc

2
I  . sc 3. I 2 sc
P. sc 
Ze. HV 
Re . HV 
V. sc Vsc 3

I. sc
Isc
P . sc
Psc 3
Psc

 2
2
2
I  . sc ( Isc 3 )
I sc
Xe. HV  Z 2 e. HV  R 2 e. HV
I sc
W
V
A
a
B
b
C
c
A
V
SU PP LY
A
V sc V
W
A
TRN S FO RM ER
Figure 2.2: short circuit test wiring diagram
Table 2.3: Measured values
PARAMETERS
V1
Isc1
Isc2
Isc3
P1
P2
Vsc
Isc
cossc
Psc
UNITS
V
A
A
A
W
W
V
A
-
W
Ze.HV
Re.HV
MEASURED
VALUES
Table 2.4: Calculated values
PARAMETERS
UNITS
CALCULATED
VALUES
sc
Rc.HV
P.sc
deg.
W



Xm.HV
Xe.HV


Efficiency:

n. SFL.cos
n. SFL.cos  Poc  n 2 . Psc
Table 2.5: calculated values

p.u.
Iload
A
PARAMETERS
%VR
%Re
%Xe
%VR
CALCULATED
VALUES
Practical report:
Use the practical work report template in Appendix A and include this calculations and graphs in your
report.
1. For rated voltage Vrated =.............. V and current of Irated =..................A calculate the
parameters of the approximate equivalent circuit referred to the low and high-voltage sides of
the transformer.
2. Draw the above two equivalent circuits and assign the calculated values on them.
3. Calculate the percent R and X for the rated full-load current.
4. Calculate the efficiencies for (0, 2; 0, 4; 0, 6; 0, 8; 1, 00; 1, 1) of full-load current and for
power factor of 0, 8 lagging. Plot the graph  = f (Iload) calculate the transformer’s: copper
losses, core losses and efficiencies for load factor of (n = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.00, 1.2) and
plot the curves: Pcopper = f (n), Pcore = f(n) and  = f ( n ). Use Table 1.6.
5. Calculate the full-load voltage regulation at power factor of 0,8 lagging using the
conventional and per unit methods.
Table 2.6: Calculated report results
n
-

p.u.
Pcopper
W
Pcore
W
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
Figure 2.3: Efficiency v/s Load factor graph
1.00
1.2
5.3. EXPERIMENT NO 3: DC MACHINE (SEPARATELY EXCITED)
Aim: To examine the change in speed with the change in load of a DC series motor.
Apparatus:

Direct current motor test bench.

Connection leads.

Voltmeter.

Ammeter.

DC supply.

Variable load resistor.
Circuit diagram:
Figure 3.1: Separately excited DC Machine
Method:

Connect the circuit as in the diagram, with no load resistance on the armature of the
generator.

Switch the power on and adjust the supply voltage to 100 V.

Measure the current and speed and note them both.

Increase the load by connecting a 50 Ω resistance over the generator and by
increasing the field voltage of the generator systematically until the motor current
drawn is 1.112 A.

NB DO NOT SUPPLY A CURRENT HIGHER THAN 1.112 A.

Keep the supply voltage constant at 100 V.
Readings:

Note the readings of armature voltage , current and speed of the motor, and record
them in the table below:
Table 3.1: Speed against armature current Ia of a DC series motor.
Ia (A)
0.97 A
1A
1.03 A
1.06 A
1.09 A
N (rpm)
Vtach (V)
Practical Report:
3.1 Use graph paper and draw a graph of speed against armature current Ia.
3.2 Comment on your observation of the speed against armature current Ia.
1.12 A
5.4. EXPERIMENT NO 4: DC MACHINE (SEPARATELY EXCITED)
Aim: To examine the change in speed with the change in load of a DC compound motor that
is:

Differentially coupled.

Cumulatively coupled.
Apparatus:

Direct current motor test bench.

Connection leads.

Voltmeter.

Ammeter.

DC supply.

Variable load resistor.
Circuit diagram:
a) Motor
b) Generator
supplies 160V to armature winding
Supplies variable voltage to field winding of gen
Se motor
M
Armature
winding
MG
Supplies 190V to Field winding
Field
winding
V
V
Figure 4.1: Separately excited DC Machine
Method:

Connect the circuit as in the diagram, with no load resistance on the armature of the
generator.

Switch the power on and adjust the supply voltage to 160 V

Measure the current and speed and note them both.

Increase the load and note the current each time and the speed until the current is
1.112 A

NB: DO NOT SUPPLY A CURRENT THAT IS BIGGER THAN 1.115 A THIS
WILL MAKE THE MOTOR GO INTO SATURATION.
Readings:

Note the readings of armature voltage, current and speed of the motor for each case up
to the point where the motor draws a current of 1.112 A and record them in the table
below.

Swap the polarities of the main (shunt) field of the generator, and repeat the same
experiment and record the results in the table.
Table 4.1: Speed against armature current Ia of a Cumulatively coupled DC motor.
Ia (A)
0.66 A
0.72 A
0.77 A
0.82 A
0.88 A
0.93 A
N (rpm)
Vtach (V)
Table 4.2: Speed against armature current Ia of a Differentially coupled DC motor.
Ia (A)
0.66 A
0.72 A
0.77 A
0.82 A
0.88 A
0.93 A
N (rpm)
Vtach (V)
Practical Report:
4.1 Use graph paper and draw a graph of speed against armature current Ia.
4.2 Comment on your observation of the speed against armature current Ia for both machines.
5.5. EXPERIMENT NO 5: NO-LOAD AND BLOCKED-ROTOR TESTS OF A THREEPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR.
AIM: The aim of this experiment is to determine the parameters of an approximate
equivalent circuit of an induction motor. Also the experiment is intended to obtain data for
the calculation of the efficiency and evaluation of the performance of the machine.
Table 5.1: Induction motor nameplate information:
PARAMETERS
RATED
VALUES
REMARKS
Voltage [V]
Current [A]
Power [kW]
Power Factor [ -]
Speed [rev/min]
Number of poles [-]
NO-LOAD TEST:
Connect the circuit diagram as shown in figure 5.1. Run the motor on no-load at rated
voltage. Measure the three line currents, voltages and the three-phase power supplied to the
motor during the test. Complete table 5.2 and 5.3.
W oc
W
V
Io c
A
V
SU PP LY
A
V oc V
W
A
T h ree -pha se Indu c toi nM o o
t r
Figure 5.1: No-Load test wiring diagram
Table 5.2: Measured Values
PARAMETERS
V1
Ioc1
Ioc2
Ioc3
P1
P2
Voc
Ioc
UNITS
V
A
A
A
W
W
V
A
cosoc Poc
-
MEASURED
VALUES
Table 5.3: Calculated Values
PARAMETERS
oc
Ic
Im
Rc.LV
Xm.LV
Re.LV
Xe.LV
UNITS
Deg
A
A




CALCULATED
VALUES
SEPARATING THE MECHANICAL LOSSES OF THE INDUCTION MOTOR:
With motor connected as in Figure. 5.1, increase the supply voltage in four steps until equal
to the rated voltage and measure the corresponding power input of the motor by the two wattmeters. Complete Table 5.4. Plot the graph Poc = f (Voc).
Prolong the curve until
intersection with the vertical axis. The intersection point (when Voc = 0) gives the value of
the total mechanical losses of the motor.
Table 5.4: Induction Motor Mechanical Losses
(V)
PARAMETE
RS
P1
(W)
P2
(W)
Poc
(W)
Voc(1) =
Voc(2) =
Voc(3) =
Voc(4) =
W
BLOCKED-ROTOR TEST:
Block the rotor of the machine with a vice. Follow your instructor’s advices about the safety
during the experiment. Connect the diagram as shown in Fig.5.2. Increase the supply voltage
until the current is equal to the rated motor current. Measure line currents, voltages and the
three-phase power supplied to the motor. Complete Table 5.5.
R o ot rB ol cked
W b
b
I
W
V
A
V
SU PP LY
A
Vb
V
W
A
T h re e -p h a se n
I du c toi nM o o
t r
Figure 5.2: Blocked-rotor test wiring diagram
Table 5.5: Measured Values
PARAMETERS
V1
Isc1
Isc2
Isc3
P1
P2
Vsc
Isc
cossc
Psc
UNITS
V
A
A
A
W
W
V
A
-
W
X1
X1
MEASURED
VALUES
Table 5.6: Calculated Values
PARAMETERS
UNITS
CALCULATED
VALUES
sc
P
deg.
W
Ze
Re

Xe




STATOR RESISTANCE TEST:
Measure the resistance between the lines of the machine in hot condition (after the blockedrotor test). Make three measurements. Take the average value. Take into the consideration
how the stator winding is connected (star or delta). Assign your measurements in Table 5.7.
Table 5.7: Measured Values
PARAMETERS
RA-B
RB-C
RC-A
Raverage
R1
UNITS





MEASURED
VALUES
Practical Report:
Use the practical work report template in Appendix A and include this calculations in your
report.
1. For rated voltage Vrated =.............. V and current of Irated =..................A calculate the
parameters of the approximate equivalent circuit of the motor.
2. Draw the above equivalent circuit and assign the calculated values on it.
3. Calculate for rated motor load and power factor:
3.1 the stator current,
3.2 stator copper losses,
3.3 stator iron loss,
3.4 gap power,
3.5 rotor current,
3.6 rotor copper losses,
3.7 developed power and torque,
3.8 Output power and torque and the efficiency.
5.6 EXPERIMENT 6: RUNNING-LIGHT AND BLOCKED-ROTOR TESTS OF A
SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR.
AIM: The aim of this experiment is to determine the impedances of the approximate
equivalent circuit of a single-phase induction motor. Also the experiment is intended to
obtain data for the calculation of the efficiency and evaluation of the performance of the
machine.
Table 6.1: Induction motor nameplate information:
PARAMETERS
RATED
VALUES
REMARKS
Voltage [V]
Current [A]
Power [kW]
Power Factor [ -]
Speed [rev/min]
Number of poles [-]
NO-LOAD TEST:
Connect the diagram from Fig.6.1. Run the motor on no-load at rated voltage. Measure the
current, voltage and the power supplied to the motor during the test. Complete Table 6.2.
W oc
Io c
M a ni W ni d ni g
A
SU PP LY
W
~
V oc
V
A u x ilai ryW ni d ni g
Figure 6.1: No-Load test wiring diagram
Table 6.2: Measured Values
PARAMETERS
V1
Inl
P
Vnl
cosnl
Znl
Rnl
Xnl
Xm
UNITS
V
A
W
V
-




MEASURED
VALUES
BLOCKED-ROTOR TEST:
Block the rotor of the machine with a vice. Follow your instructor’s advices about the safety
during the experiment. Connect the diagram from Fig.6.2. Increase the supply voltage until
the current is equal to the rated motor current. Measure line currents, voltages and the threephase power supplied to the motor. Complete Table 6.3.
W b
Ib
M a ni W ni d ni g
A
SU PP LY
~
W
Vb
V
A u x ilai ryW ni d ni g
Figure 6.2: Blocked-rotor test wiring diagram
Table 6.3: Measured Values
PARAMETERS
Vb
Ib
Pb
cosb
Zb
Rb
R1
R2
X1
X1
UNITS
V
A
W
-






MEASURED
VALUES
STATOR RESISTANCE TEST:
Measure the resistance between the terminals of the main winding of the machine in hot condition
(after the blocked-rotor test). Assign your measurements in Table 6.4.
Table 6.4: Measured Values
PARAMETER
RL-N
UNIT

MEASURED
VALUE
Practical Report:
Use the practical work report template in Appendix A and include solutions of these
questions in your report.
1. For rated voltage Vrated =........ V and current of Irated = ………. A calculate the
parameters of the approximate equivalent circuit of the motor.
2. Draw the above equivalent circuit and also the two equivalent circuits as modified
when applying the blocked rotor and no-load conditions. Assign the calculated values
on the circuit diagrams.
3. Calculate for rated motor load and power factor: the motor fixed losses (the sum of
core and mechanical losses) and the efficiency.
6. GUIDELINES ON COMPILING A REPORT FOR EACH EXPERIMENT
The Following headings must be included in the report:
COVER PAGE
Name
:
Student Number
:
Group
:
Full Name and Surname
Experiment/Practical Work Number :
Date
Qualification
:
:
Subject Name
:
Experiment/Practical Work Heading :
Lecturer
:
1. DESCRIPTION:
A short description of the experiment or practical work should be given under this heading.
2. PURPOSE/AIM:
The purpose of the experiment or practical work should be outlined under this heading.
3. EXPERIMENT OR PRACTICAL WORK DESIGN:
3.1. EXPERIMENTAL EQUIPMENT:
A list of all the equipment to be used should be under this heading.
3.2. PARTS LIST:
A list of all components in the circuit diagram should be under this heading.
3.3. SAFETY
List all the safety precautions that must be in place to do the experiment or practical
work.
3.4. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
A fully labeled circuit diagram should be drawn under this heading.
3.5. WIRING LIST:
A list of all connection to be done should be under this heading.
3.6. PROCEDURE:
A detailed step by step procedure or description of what has been or is done should be
under this heading.
4. RESULTS AND/OR FINDINGS:
That which has be discovered can be written under this heading.
5. COMMENTS AND CONCLUSION:
Students will have to state what has been achieved through this experiment and if the purpose
of the experiment has been achieved, if so the student will have to motivate why they say so,
if not the student will also have to state why they say so. Under this heading, they will also
have to state if the practical complements the theory part of the experiment, with valid
motivation of their conclusion.
Reconciliation of theory and practical plus the students’ views about the experiment should
be under this heading.
6. LITERATURE REVIEW:
A list of all documentation that has been consulted should be listed under this heading.
7. APPENDIX A ...
All relevant information not covered above should be placed under these headings
7. EXPERIMENTS / PRACTICAL WORK EVALUATION
Criteria
(4) Excellent
Description:
A short overview of the
practical/experiment
should be given under
this heading.
Excellent, original
(depending on nature of
assignment); insight
shown. To industry
standards.
Very good, interesting,
material or
subject/section well
covered technically;
omissions only minor.
Average, superficial;
only the obvious
present.
Below average, thin,
insufficient
material/information;
unconvincing.
2
Purpose
Why was the study
undertaken? What was
the research question
or the purpose of the
research?
Method of
Experiment or
Practical Work
Design
When, where, and how
was the study done? .
Results / Findings
What answer was
found to the research
question; what did the
study find?
Comments and
Conclusion:
What might the answer
imply and why does it
matter? How does it fit
in with what other
researchers have
found? What are the
perspectives for future
research?
Literature Review
Use the Harvard
method of citation to
indicate all references
used.
Excellent, original
(depending on nature of
assignment); insight
shown. To industry
standards.
Very good, interesting,
material or
subject/section well
covered technically;
omissions only minor.
Average, superficial;
only the obvious
present.
Below average, thin,
insufficient
material/information;
unconvincing.
2
Excellent, original
(depending on nature of
assignment); insight
shown. To industry
standards.
Very good, interesting,
material or
subject/section well
covered technically;
omissions only minor.
Average, superficial;
only the obvious
present.
Below average, thin,
insufficient
material/information;
unconvincing.
5
Excellent, original
(depending on nature of
assignment); insight
shown. To industry
standards.
Very good, interesting,
material or
subject/section well
covered technically;
omissions only minor.
Average, superficial;
only the obvious
present.
Below average, thin,
insufficient
material/information;
unconvincing.
Excellent, original
(depending on nature of
assignment); insight
shown. Work is to
industry standards.
Very good, interesting,
material or
subject/section well
covered technically;
omissions only minor.
Average, superficial;
only the obvious
present.
Below average, thin,
insufficient
material/information;
unconvincing.
Complete. All entries in
accordance with the
TUT accepted method.
In accordance with the
Guide to referencing
and citations.
Minor errors/
inconsistencies only, but
correctly referenced in
accordance with the
Guide to referencing
and citations.
Unacceptable. More
incorrect than correct
entries; text references/
bibliography incorrect.
Organisation of
work, strategy,
logic
Excellent. Logical,
systematically
organized. Links clear,
coherent. Key ideas
supported, developed.
Well-integrated
introduction and
conclusion.
Very good. Logically,
systematically
organized with minor
faults. Links mostly
clear, almost totally
coherent. With only a
few exceptions, all key
ideas supported,
developed, although not
always fully. Some
incoherence.
Introduction and
conclusion acceptable
but not fully integrated.
A few obtrusive errors/
inconsistencies in
bibliography/text
references, but correctly
referenced in
accordance with the
Guide to referencing
and citations
Organization and
system need some
attention, but one can
still follow. Some links
appear, but not
everywhere they should.
Some worrying
incoherence. Key ideas
somewhat supported,
developed and arranged.
Introduction and
conclusion still
acceptable but not so
well integrated.
Distinctive, sparkling,
sophisticated,
resourceful.
Pleasant to read, use of
language entirely
appropriate to content.
Pleasingly fluent.
Conveys message with
some difficulty; tone
sometimes
inappropriate/irritating,
jerky; slight limitations
in style and mastery of
idiom.
Clumsy or careless;
style and tone
inappropriate; meaning
clouded; stylistically
poor; chatty, hazy,
woolly; wordy.
Language, style
and tone
(3) Exceeds minimum
requirements
(2) Meets minimum
requirements
(1) Does not meet
minimum
requirements
(Mark)
Weight /
25
4
5
Organizations and
system need much
attention; difficult to
follow. Links
infrequent and not
always meaningful.
Frequent incoherence.
Key usually not
supported, developed or
well arranged.
Introduction and
conclusion unacceptable
and/or missing.
2
1
2
Result
(Mark x
weight)
General look of
report
Professional
appearance; neat
writing/typing and
spacing; hardly any
typing errors. All
required parts/pages
(e.g. table of contents,
page numbers) supplied;
correct numbering,
format per study guide.
Neat but not quite
professional in
appearance;
typing/spacing/numberi
ng inaccurate but not
obtrusive; minor
errors/omissions in
formatting, but
generally to format per
study guide.
Acceptable but not
impressive in
appearance; some
untidiness, a few typing/
spacing/numbering
errors; errors/omissions
in formatting.
Unacceptable. Untidy;
illegible; typing errors
impede reading; many
errors/omissions in
formatting.
2
TOTAL
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