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HIST 218 Week 11-12

March 18th: USA in Asia: Japan, Taiwan, and Korea.
US Entered WW2 after Japanese attack on US.
A. Area Studies and Cold War: East Asian studies related to Cold War, as USAF needed to understand parts
of the world, their language, history, culture, in order to counter Soviet influence.
II. America and Post-War Japan: US occupation of Japan began August 30 1945 by SCAP MacArthur.
A. Occupation shifted from punishment to building free Capitalist Japan after formation of PRC.
1. Emperor was used as figurehead to maintain public order in Japan.
B. Demilitarize and Democratize: Japanese armed forces dissolved, Shinto removed as state religion.
1. Constitutional Reforms: Reforms based on idea Japanese militarism derived from monopoly, tyranny,
and poverty, thus create peaceful pacifist Japan.
a) Article 9: Japan renounce war, and no military allowed.
b) Additional Reforms: Land reform to fairly distribute land, and new school curriculum.
C. Post-War Demise of Pan-Asianism: Proponents of Pan-Asianism purged from office as US officials
believed it was disguise for Japanese imperialism.
1. 1955 Bandung: Creation of Non Aligned Movement, proposed new Asian leadership cohort to resolve
global conflicts and promote anti-colonialism.
2. American Interests: Surplus capital in US, thus move to export it. America sought de-colonization as
way to access new markets (Marshall Plan esque, give them money, they build up their country and buy
US products). ~Japanese economy grows thanks to surge in demand due to Korean War.
3. First Post-War Election of Japan (1946): Only ethnic Japanese could vote, DLP formed through
coalition of two conservative parties.
4. End of US Occupation: Ended through 1951 San Francisco Peace Treaty, Japan independent but US
maintained Okinawa and Iwo Jima.
III. Divided Koreas: US aware Soviets were advancing into Korea in 1945, thus proposed 38th parallel division,
but this was not done with consultation with the Korean people.
A. Political Divides: Colonial rule heightened class conflict; colonial policy stifled united nationalist
movement, thus factionalism.
1. In ROK, those who benefitted from Japan formed Democratic Party, in DPRK executed
B. Leaders in South and North: Elections held 1948 in ROK with Syngman Rhee, in DPRK Kim Il Sung was
Chairman, both sides sought to unify Korea.
1. Korean War: Kim received Soviet aid to invade ROK, US intervened as per containment theory, and
by 1951 fighting is stalemate and armistice in 1951.
C. DPRK: Kim Il-Sung relied on Soviet and Chinese aid after the war, invested in heavy and defence industry.
1. Initial land/farming reforms were successful, but technologically outdated in 1970 due to lack of
investment in electronics industry. BY 1972 sought imports of Western tech, but had no exports of
2. Juche: Kim Il-Sung gained power over country throughout 70s, created cult of personality.
a) Juche (self-reliance) became state ideology, stated correct thought would lead to correct action,
thus why DPRK perceived itself as having to stay independent.
D. ROK: Rhee dictatorship built on police, bureaucracy, and army. 1950 Student protest forces Rhee to
abdicates, Second Republic formed but ousted by 1961 coup, becomes president in 1963.
1. In 1979, assassinated by KCIA director during 1979 labour protests.
IV. America in Taiwan: US supported KMT to counter PRC, but switched allegiance to PRC in 1979.
March 20th: Vietnam War:
Martial Law in South Korea: Park Chung Hee seized power in coup in 1961, maintained legitimacy through
economic development and anti-communism.
A. His regime increasingly beset by protests and decreasing popular support, thus 1971 Yushin Constitution to
guarantee his Presidency and authoritarian powers.
1. 1979 YH Incident and Dongil Strikes lead to general labour protests, but Park assassinated by KCIA
B. US’s Anti-Communism and Support for South Korea:
1. Social Argument: Anti-Communism as rhetoric, and that democracy and individual freedom should be
maintained, but promoted authoritarian governments.
2. Economic and Military Arguments: Fear of loss of allies to USSR, end of trade with Korea, and
ideological issues with Communism.
II. Bandung 1955 Conference: Proposed new Asian leadership cohort to help resolve global conflicts, many postcolonial states did not believe in West/US claim of leadership of free world due to colonial history + how
African-Americans were treated in the US.
III. Independent Vietnam and August Revolution of 1945: ICP caught unaware by Japanese surrender, and
quickly moved to assert Vietnamese control over Vietnam.
A. Post-War Problems: Southern Vietnamese coalitions challenged ICP’s rule, and Britain and French troops
begin to exert influence in the region once more.
1. Ho Chi Minh negotiates with France, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam would be autonomous part
of French Indochina.
2. Consolidating Power in the North: Communist forces crack down on opposition, forced nonCommunists to reform their thoughts, and began move towards one party state.
B. The French Return: France unwilling to give up Southern Vietnam, and French attempted to retake ports
in North Vietnam. ~Began Vietnamese War.
1. The French War: France fought for status and to retain its empire.
a) French established Republic of Cochinchina and appointed former Emperor Bao as its leader. This
was met by Soviet/Chinese aid to North Vietnam.
(1) Dien Bien Phu 1954: French forces in the valley massacred by Vietnamese forces.
2. Geneva Accords 1954: Vietnam formally split into South and North, which would be reunited
following 1956 elections.
a) Republic of Vietnam: Ngo was prime minister, and established dictatorship with support from US.
Censored media and abolished monarchy.
b) National Liberation Front (Viet Cong): Led by Viet Minh, and Ngo countered it through
increasing crackdown on the people.
(1) Protests and a Coup: Buddhists protested in 1963 against Ngo’s banning of freedom of
religion. Government crackdown led to greater protests, and army launched coup against Ngo
with US support.
C. From Civil to American War: Military coup beget further coups.
1. North Vietnamese attacked US intel ship, provoked US Tonkin Gulf Resolution permitting
President Johnson to take any members to aid member of South-East Defence Treaty.
a) American Tactics: Bombed North Vietnam to try to force them to negotiate.
2. Tet Offensive: Northern general police coinciding with Lunar New Year.
a) Major psychological victory for the North, led to 1968 Peace Talks.
(1) Caught the American forces by surprise.
3. Slow Retreat: Nixon maintained bombing during peace talks, and sought to find Viet Cong
HQ (even invaded Cambodia to do so). Whilst Southern Vietnam moved towards dictatorship.
4. Final Days of the American War: Ho died 1969; Nixon began most intense bombing
campaign in 1972 against infrastructure.
a) Paris Peace Accords: Talks resumed, and signed 1973. Elections to be held in the South,
and Northern forces permitted to garrison the South.
(1) Civil War and Communist Victory: South Vietnam refused to sign, and Northern
forces fought Southern forces until victory was attained.
D. Communism in Asia, and American in Asia: US used pretext of anti-communism to partake in
global conflicts. But, propped up authoritarian leaders despite ideological facet of Cold War.
Global East Asia:
Post-War Japan and Four Asian Tigers:
Post-War Japan:
A. Japan’s Post-War Economy: America rebuilt sites of capital accumulation in Japan/Western Europe.
1. Led to revival of their economy, and growth of global economy.
2. Japanese economy grew further thanks to the Korean War: produce armaments and munitions.
B. Economy and Society: Expansion of wartime heavy industry, and new companies producing items for
export and domestic consumption.
1. Individuals expected to put aside older ideals, and instead expected to work on rational choice theory:
find best employment for their abilities/efforts.
a) Create society based on personal achievement and meritocracy.
(1) However, cultural norms were slower to change than the economy.
2. Shift from family business to large corporate entities as primary unit of production:
a) From social sanction to codified law as primary mechanism of social control.
3. Occupation period emphasized universal/modern, and saw state support and rhetoric for union, thus
class, as marks of progress and democracy.
a) Shifted in later occupation, as US focused on cracking down socialism.
4. Salaryman: New middle class, a white collar in large corporation/bureaucracy.
a) Expected to work long hours, marry full-time housewife, a figure of consumerism.
b) Working Women: Women in different social classes expected to work.
(1) Factory Girls: Many women forced to navigate between economic necessity and social
(2) Women re-represented their situation as one of independence.
(a) Contrast to god wives who were viewed as living a dark, shut-in life. Many working class
mothers had view that professional caregivers could provide better care than them.
5. Theories about Japanese People: Argued for uniqueness of Japanese economy/culture.
a) Economic miracle of Japan demonstrated this: underlying principle of Social Order in Japan was
membership in heterogenous vertical frames unified by mutual commitment to supporting
integration of institution which they are a part of.
(1) In Modern Japan, where firm was seen as family, company became primary productive entity.
b) Japan Inc: Workers at all levels devoted to corporate goals.
C. Protests against US Occupation: 1951 San Fransisco Treaty ended US occupation of Japan.
1. Target of protests were renewal of US-Japan security treaty. Revised treaty in 1960 saw US commit to
defending Japan it it was attacked, thus fears of being drawn to US wars.
a) Despite large protests, treaty was passed, but PM Nobusuke retired.
D. Television: Began to be produced in Japan during 30s and 40s.
1. Post-war saw mass production of TVs, and 1950 Broadcast law created NHK, Japan’s national public
broadcast channel into two channels: news and sumo; education.
2. Private Networks: Matsutaro fought against national monopoly on TV.
a) Exploited U concern about Communism’s spread to promote his channel NTV, and other channels
soon followed. ~Japan’s national unity isn’t as clear cut as in first glance.
E. Tokyo Olympics: First Olympic Games in Asia, media focused on Japan as peaceful modern state.
1. Prompted vast infrastructure projects throughout Tokyo: new streets, stadiums, subway, airports,
buildings, bullet-train from Tokyo-Osaka.
2. Problems Caused by Olympics: Large environmental damages, and cost-overruns.
a) Loss of low-cost public transport; river dicks rendered useless by waterways being filled with
Democracy in ROK and Taiwan:
South Korea:
A. Korea under Chun Doo-Hwan:
1. Chun came to power after 1980 12-12 Coup which gave him control of military.
a) However, had no legitimacy as Park for economic development, thus faced mass protests which he
counters by dissolving National Assembly, and martial law.
2. Kwangju Massacre: Students demonstration for democratization, paratroopers sent to dispel them but
led to tit-for-tat escalation which ended in use of ROK to crush protestors.
3. 1987 June Uprising: Student movement after Kwangju ally with Left, and by June massive protests
calling for democratization. Combination of citizen protest, lack of US support, led to democratization.
4. Democratizing South Korea: Rho Tae Woo, Chun’s successor issued declaration for democratization.
a) Roh won 1987 election due to vote-splitting between Kim Dae Jung and Kim Young Sam.
(1) Cholla supported Dae Jung, Pusan Supported Young, Kyongsang Rho. ~Korean regionalism.
B. Korea under Rho Tae Woo: Began de-militarization of Korea.
1. Nordpolitik to normalize relations with USSR and PRC ~isolated DPRK.
C. Kim Young Sam Presidency: Elected 1992, purged high-ranking military officers in power.
1. Prosecuted Rho and Chun Doo Hwan, and promoted local governance in ROK.
II. Four Asian Tigers: Taiwan, Hong Kong, ROK, and Singapore.
A. Underwent rapid industrialization and high economic growths from 60s-90s.
B. Singapore Model: Market economy supported, but overseen by bureaucracy.
1. Officials seen as in charge of moral governance based on Confucian values. Seen as cure for
2. Asian Values: Aimed to unify peoples of East and South-East Asia.
a) Focus on collective not individual: filial piety, familial loyalty, and social stability.
C. Korean Economy: Developmental state, Young Sam advocated globalization and adoption of liberal, freemarket principles.
D. Asian Financial Crisis of 1997: Began in Thailand, spread to South Korea which caused its economy go
nearly collapse.
1. Kim Dae Jung elected in South Korea in 1997, and appealed to IMF for bailout package.
E. Kim Dae Jung and Economic Crisis: IMF plan called for Kim Dae Jung to oversee neo-liberal
downsizing. Massive layoff, income reduction, and asset depreciation led to social crisis in ROK.
1. Divorce rate jumped to 34%.
III. Ching Kai-Shek and KMT on Taiwan: Martial Law imposed 1949.
A. KMT maintained tight control of national government, but permitted popular elections for local assemblies.
1. By 60s however, party opposition at local levels rose.
B. Chiang Ching Kuo: Son of Chiang Kai-Shek, cracked down on corruption, promoted affirmative action to
hire Taiwanese in senior positions, and encouraged local elections.
1. Maintained authoritarian control, limited freedom of speech, and crackdown on protestors.
C. Social Change: Taiwan’s populace was increasingly educated and aware of world.
1. By 80s, media to world was widely available.
D. End of Martial Law: Occurred 1987, KMT tolerated formation of opposition through partial democracy.
E. Lee Teng Hui: Recognized society’s call for democratization, pledged reform.
1. 89 Election saw KMT win, but rise of DPP opposition. National Assembly under Lee pushed bills to
permit new elections in three parliamentary branches.
1991 Democratic Elections: DPP ran on platform of independence, but KMT won 71 of vote.