ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT MODULE 1I: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, AND EMERGING CONCEPTS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT HUMAN SOCIETY VERSUS THE ENVIRONMENT THOMAS ROBERT MALTHUS "The power of population is so superior to the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man…Population, when unchecked, increases in a geometrical ratio, Subsistence, increases only in an arithmetical ratio.” Year 1 Year 25 Year 50 Year 75 Year 100 POPULATION 100 200 400 800 1,600 FOOD 100 200 300 400 500 HUMAN SOCIETY VERSUS THE ENVIRONMENT Humans and societies around the world had primarily relied on food that came from their surroundings and their own hands for nutrition. The Agricultural Revolution as the beginning of the Industrial Revolution saw an unprecedented increase in agricultural production due to increases in labor, technology and land productivity The shift in the labor from agriculture to an industry based labor force provided the tools for a change in the production and accessibility to food. 4 “ ”Population does invariably increase when the means of subsistence increase.” MALTHUSIAN TRAP ” HUMAN SOCIETY VERSUS THE ENVIRONMENT As world population explodes, environmental management is faced with ‘real-world’ challenges, which include: ▰ greed, corruption and foolishness; ▰ knowledge and technical skills which are still too limited; ▰ increasing numbers of people who demand more and more material benefits; ▰ the time available to make real progress in resolving key environmental degradation is probably limited HUMAN SOCIETY VERSUS THE ENVIRONMENT COLBY’S EVOLUTIONARY PARADIGM ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT 1. FRONTIER ECONOMICS (PROGRESS AT ALL COST) ▰ Nature was treated as an infinite supply of resources to be used by humans, and a limitless sink for wastes. ▰ Managing the environment was more or less irrelevant because it was ‘outside’ economics. ▰ Technology was for improving human welfare and successfully stretching resources to improve crop yields, fish catches, energy supply and so on. ▰ The attitude to pollution was usually to clean up later, if forced to, or disperse it and forget it. Some developing countries still fall into this category. HUMAN SOCIETY VERSUS THE ENVIRONMENT COLBY’S EVOLUTIONARY PARADIGM ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT 2. DEEP ECOLOGY (ENVIRONMENTAL UTOPIA) ▰ The opposite of frontier economics. ▰ It is a dark-green (deep-green) philosophy, with an ecocentric rather than human-centric outlook and a great diversity of supporters. ▰ It aims for harmony between humans and nature; ▰ It opposes the use of technology, and voices a wish to develop new ethics and development outlooks (Devall and Sessions, 1985). HUMAN SOCIETY VERSUS THE ENVIRONMENT COLBY’S EVOLUTIONARY PARADIGM ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT 3. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION (TRADE-OFFS) ▰ It was necessary to make trade-offs between development and environmental protection. ▰ Tools like environmental impact assessment (EIA) were developed. ▰ Remedial measures were promoted to counter environmental damage. HUMAN SOCIETY VERSUS THE ENVIRONMENT COLBY’S EVOLUTIONARY PARADIGM ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT 4. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (SUSTAINABILITY) ▰ Threats of resource degradation, poverty, and population growth ▰ Sustainability as necessary constraints for growth and development ▰ Needs integration of multiple levels of government HUMAN SOCIETY VERSUS THE ENVIRONMENT COLBY’S EVOLUTIONARY PARADIGM ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT 5. ECO-DEVELOPMENT (GREEN GROWTH) ▰ Threats of ecological uncertainty and global change ▰ Emphasised the need to restructure society and economics to ensure that development worked with, rather than against, Nature. ▰ The emphasis was on qualitative development rather than economic growth and on an awareness of the need for sustainability. HUMAN SOCIETY VERSUS THE ENVIRONMENT UNITED NATIONS DECADES OF DEVELOPMENT 1960s – GROWTH AT ALL COST 1970s – GROWTH WITH EQUITY 1980s – NEW INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORDER 1990s – SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2000s – MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS 2010s – SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THE PRIMARY GUIDING PRINCIPLE OF ENVI. MGMT. 13 “ Sustainable Development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” - Bruntland Commission (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987) ” 14 Sustainable Development consists of 3 fundamental tenets: That we should strive to increase the quality of human life, now and into the future; That this should be done in a just and equitable manner; That it should be done while respecting the limits of supporting ecosystems Agyeman, Bullard and Evans 2003) 15 As a concept, sustainable development draws upon two, often opposed, intellectual traditions: • One concerned with the limits nature presents to humans, They see it as a quest for harmony between humans and their environment. That there can be a shift less environmentally damaging improvements in realizing higher quality of life • The other with the potential for ever-increasing human material development They fail to accept that in a finite world there cannot be unlimited demand on resources. They depend largely on technology to allow limits to be stretched in a sustained manner (Redclift, 1 1987: 199; Barrow, 1995b). 16 MAINSTREAM SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Currently, ‘mainstream’ sustainable development typically urges: the maintenance of ecological integrity; the integration of environmental care and development; the adoption of an internationalist (North–South interdependence) stance; the satisfaction of, at least basic, human needs for all; ‘utilitarian conservation’; concern for inter-generational, inter-group and inter-species equity; the application of science, technology and environmental knowledge to world development; the acceptance of some economic growth (somehow without exceeding environ mental limits); the adoption of a long-term view.