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INTRODUCTION : In French , the word characteristic is derived from chair cuite,
meaning cooked meat. It usually centers around pork products , including some of the
prides of French cuisines . Pate’s and terrines ranging from simple pureed liver to
textured real Pates or rustic country mixtures studded with hazelnuts or pepper corns
and a selection of stuffed galantines and ballontines coated with aspic. Ham, bacon,
sausages and cured meats are the staple of charcuterie, found world Wide in
innumerable guises. Traditionally, charcuterie consists only of completely or partially
prepared pork dishes , but now a days it also includes game or real and ham pies, as
well as pork pies and pate en croute . Fish and vegetable terrines and mousselines as
well as the famous pate de foie gras and even prepared salads are also included in
the range.
Any mixture stuffed into a casing (traditionally the large or small intestines of domestic
animals) is known as a sausage. In practice most sausages are pork-based though
beef and real feature in a few types and game can add a ripe flavour. While sausages
are some times made with chicken or real while fish or shellfish sausages are a
gastronomic conceit often based on luxury ingredients such as lobster or sea scallops
.They usually take the form of fish mouisselines stuffed in a casing .
Additions to sausages fall into two that lighter the meat and make it go further , as in
the British “Banger “and seasonings , Commonly hot red peppers in sage and thyme
,spices such as the pensable salt. Small casings are used for fresh sausages so heat
penetrate easily to the center.
As fresh Sausages may contain raw ingredients ,they have a short shelf life although
this may be extended by additional cooking processes such as smoking , drying
blanching or boiling .Both the delicate bondin blance of France , made from pore ,
chicken or real and sometimes eggs and cream and the heartier bondin noir or German
slutwurst made of blood ,spices and onions are examples of semi cooked sausages
that has been blanched to firm their feature and extend their shelf life by a few days.
Seasoned with spices and garlic , the famous Polish Kielbasa and German Knack
wurst are both slightly smoked. Like all pork , fresh and semicooked sausages must
be thoroughly cooked before eating to avoid any danger of trinchinosis infection.
Distinct from fresh and semi cooked sausages are those that are sold ready to eat
These may be fully cooked ,sometimes by hot smoking or completely cured by drying
included in this wide category are the familiar Mortadella belogna and liver sausage.
Some liver sausages are soft enough to spread ,they may be flavoured with onion
,herb, garlic, anchovies or spices and resemble Pate packed in a anchovies or spices
and resemble Pate packed in a Casing .The distinctive French andouille made of Pig’s
intestines stuffed one inside the other combines smoking , drying and cooking in its
The third general category is the sausages that are uncooked but are totally presented
by drying .They are eaten without further cooking ,often thinly sliced and served cold
with cheese ,veg and salads. Although these sausages do not require cooking , some
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varieties notable Italian Pepperoni and a dried version and stews. The second type
Salami style sausages are
drier and more highly spiced . Since they may be dried for up to six months , they have
a harder texture pork and beef are often combined in salami ,and frequently wine is
added to the mixture , giving the sausage a characteristic tangy flavour.
Casings vary in size from the ½ in /1.25 cm diameter of small pigs intestines to the 34 in /7.5-10 cm of large beef intestines, and each sausage calls for a specific type.
Synthetic casings are commonly used for fresh sausages .Bladder or stomach living
may also used.
Before use, soak the casings for 1-2 hours in cold water to remove salt and make them
pliable .Drain but do not dry them.
Steps :
1). Clean and open each casings by attaching one end to a tap and running cold water
through it.
2).Tie each casing with string at one end. Attach the open end to the base of a funnel
.Slide the casing up the funnel until the closed end of the casing is reached.
3).Work the sausage filling through the funnel into the casing .Do not pace the filling
too tightly or the sausages will burst as they cook.
4).Twist the casing at intervals as you go to make a string of sausages .Tie the casing
with string at the end.
1. Polish Kaszanka
21. Toulouse
2, Boudin noir
22. Dried Chorizo
3. Haggis
4. Morcille
25. Crepinettes
6.English Slack Pudding
26. Pepperoni
27. Zampone
8.Bock Wurst
9.Knack Wurst
29. Napoli
31.Jesu de Lyon
12.Pork Chipolata
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34.French Hers
36.German Cervelat
38.Strasboung liver
19.Northampton Pork
20.Brat Wurst
40. BierWurst.
The term Forcemeat or farce, is used to describe the basic mixture that needs to be
prepared in order to produce charcuterie products.
The word farce comes from the Latin farcire. A farce or forcemeat is a ground
seasoned mixture of meat, game, poultry, fish or vegetables, prepared as a dish on its
own or used to stuff other numerous other items such as eggs, meat, fish and poultry,
pastry shells and perhaps even pasta. Such dishes are prepared in the Garde Manger.
Forcemeats are used in the preparation of a various cold dishes such as pate, terrines,
galantines, ballotines, quenelle, roulade, mousse and mousseline.
Pate: from the old French paste, meaning paste.
Terrine: from the Latin Terra, meaning earth.
Galantine: from the old French galant, meaning gorgeous or showy Also from the
old French term galine, meaning chicken.
Ballotine: from the Italian Balla, meaning ball.
Quenelle: from the Alcascian French knodel, meaning dumpling
Roulade: from the French rouler, meaning to roll
Mousse/Mousseline: from the French, meaning froth.
Timbale: from the English Thimble
Traditional forcemeat /farce is made up of four parts:
The Meat (Primary Ingredient)
The Binder
Seasoning, Flavoring and Garnish
The Additives
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The Meat :
Consists of three elements:
– The Dominant Meat (basic meat) which could include veal, game, poultry, rabbit,
duck, or even fish. This will provide the dominant flavor and will also name the dish.
e.g. chicken liver in a Chicken Liver Pate. These ingredients should be fresh and of
prime quality. All bones, skin, sinews and gristle must be removed and the flesh cut
up into ½” pieces for grinding. The dominant meat normally accounts for 40% of the
meat component.
Lean Pork which contributes to the bulk as well as the flavor. This will be about 30%
of the meat component. Nowadays, when preparing forcemeat using other varieties of
meat, the lean pork an be substituted with another subsidiary meat. For example, in a
Lobster Mousse, the lean pork will be substituted with shrimp or some other cheap
white fish. The important thing to remember is that the subsidiary meat should
complement the dominant meat Pork fat which gives richness and smoothness to the
product as well as for its binding qualities. This too will be 30% of the meat component.
Again, other fats such as butter and cream can be substituted in order that the meat
and fat compliment each other. In the Lobster mousse, cream would be better suited
as a fat instead of pork fat.
There are many types of forcemeats, farces and stuffings .They are used in variety of
ways for making quenelles mousses mousselins, pates, galantines, for stuffing breast
of lamb or veal , poultry , game, fish, vegetables and eggs. Forcemeats are made of
meat , poultry and close grained fish , finely ground or pureed and mixed with
1. Fine Forcemeats for Quenelles
2. For Galantines
3. Mousseline Forcemeat
4. For Pates
5. Fish
6. Quenelles Forcemeats with Panada.
A wet cure is also called a brine, although brine literally means a salt solution.
Brining is also a method of curing and preservation and can be achieved by any of the
following methods:
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In steeping, the food item is immersed in the brine solution for a period of time, turning
over occasionally to ensure even brining. Injection involves a brine pump wherein the
brine is injected directly into the muscle fiber thereby reducing the time it takes to
achieve curing/salting. Spray brining is when the brine solution is sprayed by injection
at several points in the muscle at the same time. This method is even faster than the
injection method.
Salting and Pickling Brine
Meat contains about 75% water in the form of inter and intra cellular liquids distributed
all over the tissues. These liquids contain several substances such as mineral salts,
proteins, amino acids and lactic acids. When meat is in contact with a heavily salted
brine, an osmotic exchange occurs between the meat and the brine. During this
exchange, the meat absorbs some of the brine and the brine receives some of the
meat substances. This process of a two way exchange is very slow and almost never
The PH of the Brine
The alkalinity/acidity factor of meat that is to be salted is of extreme importance in
obtaining a good result. The ph factor is highly influenced by the carbohydrate in the
meat. If the ph (acid) is low, it is good for salted meats such as ham and bacon. They
have less tendency to develop bacteria which cause the spoilage of meat. Meat with
a relatively high ph (alkaline) is ideal for cooked salted meats such as sausages,
cooked ham, pate and galantine. They retain the soft pink color that is ideal for
presentation. Meat having a relatively high acidity will take on a darker color.
The Sugar in the Brine
Within the recent years the technique of sweet salted products have started to become
popular. It is important to add a small amount of sugar, preferably brown to the brine
for a milder taste. Sugar also acts as a meat tenderizer during the marination.
The Water
It is the main ingredient. Water has great importance in the composition of the brine.
For optimum results, water should be very clear, free of pollution and low mineral
content. Hard waster should be avoided and is not recommended in the making of
brine solutions.
The Salt Petre
The old brine formula consisted of salted water aromated with herbs and spices.
However, the presentation and the appearance was not appetizing and the meat rather
difficult to slice and kept breaking into small pieces. In order to avoid these
inconveniences, it was found that the addition of a small proportion of salt peter in the
brine would solve these problems. The meat changed from an ugly grey – brown to a
pleasant pink color. It also held well together so that it could be sliced properly.
The Aroma and Spicing of the Brine
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Brine should never have a strong or bad odor. On the contrary, it should give a
pleasant smell and an appetizing aroma to the meat.
Storage of Brine
Brine should be stored in non corrosive containers such as steel, enamel, glass. Avoid
aluminum and plastic. Fix a tap to the base of a brine container so that it can be drained
easily. The strictest rules of hygiene must be applied to ensure that bacteria growth is
minimized. Do not use bare hands and put pre washed meats into the brine. Brine can
be used up-to 4 times.
Method of Mixing the Brine
– Heat the water to boiling point, but it is not necessary to keep it boiling.
Add all ingredients except the spices and the herbs.
Skim the top of the liquid.
Stir frequently to cool down the brine and dissolve the ingredients.
Strain through a Tammy.
to act as a tenderiser and break down the connective tissue (this is done by the acid
in the marinade.
To act as a preservative.Tie the aromates in a sachet and add to the brine the next
A marinade is a seasoned liquid with various aromatics in which meat, poultry, game
and even vegetables are steeped. Marinades are made up of the following
Oil – could be olive, peanut, salad or plain refined oil. Flavored oils such as garlic oil,
chilli oil and herb flavored oil can also be used. The oil in the marinade helps to prevent
moisture loss.
Acid – A whole range of acid products can be added into the marinade. Citrus fruits,
vinegar (plain and flavored), lemon juice, yogurt, red and white wine are generally
Aromatics – such as herbs, spices, proprietary sauces.
Seasoning – primarily salt, sea salt, black salt, garlic salt, rock salt and grain salt.
The function of a marinade is
A . to add flavour and taste to the food.
When only their flavor is intended, the aromates can be tied in a sachet to be removed
after their flavor has been released. All marinaded meats must be dried properly before
use. Wet meats will not brown properly.
The length of time for marination depends on several factors
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The type of meat or food stuff. Beef will take longer than chicken to marinade. Also the
cut of meat is important. Tenderloin will need very little marinading time compared to
the rump.
The size of the item. A leg of pork will take longer than the leg of chicken The
temperature. Foods marinade best at room temperature. However, at times
refrigeration will be required if the item is being kept overnight. In any case, fish has
to be marinated at refrigerated temperatures.
Some marinades are cooked, others are uncooked. A cooked marinade, because it
is heated, allows the aromates to release their full flavor. Raw marinades are ideal for
long term periods. In both cases, the marinating should be done in non corrosive
containers such as glass or stainless steel. Avoid plastic and aluminum.
Enhance flavour by having the object being marinated absorb some of the Marinade;
Tenderize meat;
Short-term meat preservation.
A cooked marinade is best stored under refrigeration, and has a long shelf life.
Uncooked marinades should be prepared for instant use. If necessary, these should
also be refrigerated.
Curing is a process of surrounding meat, fish or poultry with salt. The salt contains
curing agents and is called curing salts. Curing is a method of preservation and the
process dehydrates the meat and thereby preserves it.
The salt is the most important part of the composition . It inhibits the growth of the
bacteria, yeasts and molds. Salt also add flavor. Common salt (NACL) makes up 94%
of curing salts. He other 6% are the curing agents which include:
Nitrates and Nitrites of Sodium and Pottassium. These control the growth of botulism
Salt Petre which is a nitrite and reacts with the pigmen in meat and gives it a pink
color. Notice the color of Ham.
Sugar will reduce the strong flavor of salt, lowers the PH varience, and it add flavor
and taste
BHT and BHA are two anti oxidants which retard the onset of rancidity of fat. If the
food to be cured has a high fat content (bacon), these are required.
Sodium Erythorbate is also a preservatve
MSG is a flavor enhancer.
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Spices and herbs which contribute to the taste and the flavor.
There are dry cures and wet cures.
Dry cures are those which are applied directly to the food. Dry curing is a prolonged
process and the cure needs to penetrate into the food. The thickness and the weight
of the food needs to be considered. When ready, the excess cure is rinsed off.
A Wet Cure is when the curing salts are added to a brine solution. The process is
much shorter as due to osmosis, the penetration is much faster.
Ham is pork from a leg cut that has been preserved by wet or dry curing, with or without
smoking. As a processed meat, the term “ham” includes both whole cuts of meat and
ones that have been mechanically formed.
Ham is the cured hind leg of a pig , smoked or salted and smoked to preserve it. Ham
that are dry salted has the best flavour and are the most tender but other hams are
plunged straight into brine, or cured in a way that combines both methods. Curing time
can as long as 2 months .Salt used for curing is usually mixed with sugar an
assortment of spices, particularly pepper and with nutritive preservatives.
Bacon is a type of salt-cured pork. Bacon is prepared from several different cuts of
meat, typically from the pork belly or from back cuts, which have less fat than the belly.
It is eaten on its own, as a side dish (particularly in breakfasts), or used as a minor
ingredient to flavour dishes (e.g., the club sandwich). Bacon is also used for barding
and larding roasts, especially game, including venison and pheasant. The word is
derived from the Old High German bacho, meaning “buttock”, “ham” or “side of bacon”,
and is cognate with the Old French bacon.
Gammon is the hind leg of pork after it has been cured by dry-salting or brining. It may
or may not be smoked. Like bacon, it needs to be cooked before it can be eaten. It
may be sold on-the-bone or without bone, or as steaks or slices. It differs from ham in
that ham is cured after being cut from the carcass and the curing process for ham may
be different. Additionally, ham in Britain tends to be sliced extremely thinly, whereas
gammon is sliced thickly as a steak, from a joint.
It is a bacon which is cured, salted but not smoked and not processed.
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Streaky & Flank Bacon
These are used diced for soups or to add flavour to stews.
For Boiling & Stewing
All cuts are suitable. but the lean pieces (forehock, gammon, collar) are sometimes
casseroled or stewed whole, tied with string.
For Frying or Grilling
All cuts are suitable but rashers are usually cut from the back. streaky or collar. Steaks
are cut from the gammon or prime back.
For Baking
Large lean pieces are generally used – whole gammon or ham, whole gammon hock,
large piece of back, whole boned and rolled foreHock or either of the collars. These
cuts are usually boiled first before baking.
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boiled, Cured or cooked
Wet cured
or fresh.
All ham is taken
Types of bacon either from thigh or Gammon
the rump and varies comes from the
thickness and where only in the curing joints of the
the cut of meat is process according front legs of the
taken from in the pig. to
different pig.
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Cured in brine or in a
packing Can be cooked and Can be cooked
large served fresh; wet or and
amounts of salt, dry cured usually fresh,
smoked, boiled or with honey or sugar cured.
dried in cold air.
Meat from the thigh Hind leg of the
meat or rump of a pig, cut pork which is
prepared from a pig. from the haunch of cooked,
a pig or boar.
Bacon processing
Fresh pork bellies are shipped to processing companies in large containers called
“combo bins.”
Individual bellies undergo the following before being converted into sliced bacon for
the consumer:
Skinned (using a Townsend skinner)
Trimmed of ragged edges (using Whizard knives)
Pumped (usually Townsend injector)
Placed on bacon combs and put on trees or trucks for thermal processing
Thermal processing
Slicing (Anco slicer)
Premium slices
Secondary slices
Ends and pieces
Ham processing
There are three general ham processing systems depending on the ultimate product:
Traditional bone-in cured/smoked ham
Boneless, premium ham
Boneless, sectioned or chopped and formed ham
Traditional bone-in cured/smoked ham
Made in the following sequence:
Arrive at processing plant in “combo bins” in weight range categories
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Trimmed of some of the collar fat and skin (Townsend skinner)
Placed on tree or truck for thermal processing
Thermal processed
Wrapped with paper
A galantine is a French dish of de-boned stuffed meat, most commonly poultry or fish,
that is poached and served cold, coated with aspic. Galantines are often stuffed with
forcemeat, and pressed into a cylindrical shape.
Galantines is rolls made from birds or cuts of meat that have been boned and stuffed
.A galantine is shaped in a cylinder (so that it is easy to slice ), then wrapped in a cloth
and poached in stock .It is always served cold ,usually in spic ,Chicken and turkey
galantine often have a real or ham stuffing , while a pork stuffing is more common for
richer meats.
PRESENTING GALANTINES & BALLOTINESWhen sliced a galantine displays an attractive mosaic of meat and stuffing dotted with
nuts, olives,chunks of ham or pork fat and sometimes truffles slices are arranged flat
on the dish so that they scarcely overlap. The classic decoration is a shiny coating of
aspic and sometimes part of the galantine is left unsliced to coat with chaudfroid
sauce.A garnish such as stuffed tomatoes adds colour but it is not obligatory
given the colourful appearance of the dish itself.
PROBLEM IN COOKING – If cooked too fast ,busts ,if overdone, dry for storage
refrigerate for 3 days .
Duck apricot (Belgium )
Fish asparagus ( France)
Tuna Fish roll (Spain)
Turkey Sherry and Truffles(Spain)
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Capon and Mushroom (France)
Ham and bacon(UK)
The terms Galantine and Ballotine are often confused. Both are similarly prepared,
but they are cooked and served differently. The ballotine is also boneless meat that
is stuffed and rolled into a ballot or bundle. Like the galantine, they are also poached,
but may also be baked or braised in their skins and served hot as entrees.
The ballotine can be considered the smaller relative of the galantine. A ballotine is
prepared from a boneless leg of poultry that is stuffed with a forcemeat.
A ballotine may be rolled or sewn in a cushion shape .It is poached or braised to serve
hot sauce made from the cooking liquid ,or presented cold in aspic . Individual
ballotines may be made from boned poultry legs, Dodine (Fr-dodu , meaning Plump)
is another word for ballotine , it also refers to a medieval Poultry dish in spice sauce.
The ballotine is an excellent method for using the leg portions of poultry when the
breast portions have been used for other purpose. The legs of the poultry are removed
leaving the skin and meat intact. Forcemeat is stuffed into the pocket that forms when
the leg bone is removed. Although the ballotine is baked or braised or even roasted,
they are usually served cold after coating with chaud – froid and aspic.
A PATE is distinguished from a terrine by the way in which it is cooked , a pate is
baked in pastry and a terrine (Fr. terre meaning earth) is cooked in a special Earthen
ware terrine mould. Fine textured , rich mixtures , that used to be baked in pastry are
still known as pates even though the pastry has been replaced by a terrine mould or
bread tin.
The name pate is also applied to mixtures that have been baked in the oven or sautéed
mix frying pan , then pureed to a smooth consistency. Pate’s and terrines are based
on a stuffing , somelime called forecmeats (Fr. farec) which varies in texture from
velvety smooth to coarsely chopped . The stuffing can be plain or layered with strips
of meat such as veal , ham or game , which are often marinated first in wine and
brandy , it can be dotted with liver for richness , or with pistachios ,truffles or pieces of
blanched red and green pepper for colour. Egg may be added to blind the mixture and
bread crumbs for lightness. Pork valued for its flavour and rich fat, is the primary
ingredient of Pates and terrines.
1 kg
Butter 150 gm
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200 gm
Baking powder 15 gm
Water 250 ml (approx.)
25 ml
2 tsp
Sift the flour and the baking powder.
Rub the shortening and the butter into the flour
Combine and add the remaining ingredients into the flour.
Mix until the dough is formed and knead till smooth.
Shape the dough into a flat rectangle. Refrigerate overnight.
Note: pate dough can also be made out of yeast and brioche dough
Assembling the pate:
Lightly oil the mould.
Roll the dough and line the mould leaving an overhang on the four sides.
Carefully press the dough into the corners of the mould.
Refrigerate the lined mould for at least an hour.
Fill the mould with the prepared farce ½ inch short of the top edge.
(the forcemeat should be placed in the mould in several layers. Use a palette knife to
press into place. This will reduce the risk of air pockets in the finished product. There
may be a central or dispersed garnish)
Fold the overhanging dough over the top of the mould and the seal.
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Carefully cut two small holes from the top and provide chimneys for the excess steam
to escape during the cooking.
Cooking the Pate:
The cooking takes place in two stages
Browning stage: Cover the surface with foil and place the mould in a pre heated 475°F
oven for approximately 10 minutes. Remove from the oven and allow to rest for 15
minutes. The surface should show hints of brown.
Cooking stage: Uncover the pate and lightly egg wash the top of the pate
Place in a pre heated 375°F oven until an internal temperature of 170°F has been
reached. Temperature can be taken through the chimney. Make sure the thermometer
reaches the center of the pate.
Finishing the Pate:
The pate is not complete when removed from the oven. It must now be filled with aspic.
First, allow the pate to cool to room temperature. This will allow for the fat and the
juices to be re absorbed into the meat. Through the chimneys, carefully pour in good
quality aspic. The aspic will slowly be absorbed into the meat and will fill the sides
(where the meat has shrunk), and any crevice and air pockets that might have formed.
Allow the pate to chill overnight before removal and slicing.
The cold mousse is a delicacy that is sure to delight the eye and please the palate as
well. A mousse can be defined as a mixture of cooked ingredients, pureed and held
together with gelatin, veloute sauce, mayonnaise or aspic jelly, then enriched with
cream and sometimes flavored with wine. The mousse is always served cold, very
often attractively moulded.
A mousse is made with cooked meat, fish, poultry and nowadays, increasingly with
vegetables. The method of preparation is the same for all recipes, whatever the
ingredients used. The ingredients are first pureed, and then mixed with a binding agent
like gelatin. Then cream and seasoning are blended in. Mousse is often served on the
cold buffet and at times for luncheon.
Mousseline is made out of a combination of uncooked meat that are pureed and
bound with egg white and sometimes cream. They are set by cooking.
Normally, the forcemeat for a mousseline is made out of fish. The raw fish is processed
along with egg white to a fine paste. Seasoning and a little cream can be incorporated
towards the end of the procesing. The mixture may be flavored with herbs like dill and
parsley. It is then spooned into moulds like a timbale and then covered and steamed
until the mixture has set. Mousseline can be served hot or chilled in the refrigerator
and then serve cold. Fish like salmon, trout, sole and other light white fish are normally
used. Shell- fish like crab, shrimp, prawn and lobster are also popular. Mousseline is
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a good way to use p trimmings and left overs while pre- preparing fish. Besides fish,
other ingredients like ham can also be used to make mousseline. Small timbales of
mousseline can also be used as an accompaniment of the main course and also to
decorate the cold meat platters that are set out on a buffet presentation.
Preparation of mousse
Mousses have 3 basic components –
1. BASE – can be a meat, fish, cheese or vegetables. The base provide flavor, color,
body and character to the product.
2. BINDER – provides structure to the finished product. This can be done by the
inclusion of gelatin or aspic jelly which will set as the mousse is chilled. A flavorful fat
will also contribute to the structure of the cold mousse.
3. AERATION – the lightening of the mousse by adding a component which introduces
air into the mixture. Whipped cream works well giving it a richer texture. Whipped egg
whites add lightness without adding extra fat to the mousse. This results in a leaner
1. MOLDS- molds should be prepared first to ensure that the mold can molded before
it sets. Individual molds such as ramekins or small timbales should be lined either with
aspic jelly. Decorations may be inlaid. When the mold is unmolded it is the finished
product both coated and decorated. The contemporary method calls for molds to be
oiled. When the mousse is set it is then turned out and can be decorated or coated
2. BASE- base preparation is the next step. Fully cook the base product. Do not
overcook it will result in a dry product. The base product should be pureed. The
consistency can be corrected by veloute, mayonnaise, béchamel, sour cream or
cream. The resulting puree should have a smooth velvety texture. The pureed mixture
should be put through a fine sieve to make it refined.
3. BINDER – the gelatin has to be weighed according to the proportion
4. AERATION – will require the whipping of either cream or egg whites to a soft peak.
5. WHISKING- whisk the binder into the base and the binder should beat room
temperature for this step.
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6. FOLD- fold the aeration agent into the binder mixture. If the base is too thick or cold,
the aeration will be deflated before it is worked into the mousse. Mold the mousse
before it starts to set. The molded mousse should be allowed to chill overnight.
The characteristics of a well made mousse are –
Mousseline style is the fourth type of farce. The most distinctive characteristic of this
method is the type of fat that is used in its preparation. The use of cream as the source
of fat, combined with the processing of the components to an ultra fine consistency,
results in an extremely light and smooth product. This product is in sharp contrast to
that produced using the harder types of fat.
Mousseline –style forcemeats are made using lean white or light meats and fish.
Chicken, rabbit, shellfish, sole and trimmed lean pork fillet is ideal to use. Although a
panada is not needed for additional binding for this type of forcemeat, one is
occasionally added to achieve a lighter consistency. Due to the delicate nature of the
meats and the cream, the seasoning to should be very delicate. Care must be taken
not to overpower the flavors of the components of the forcemeat. Shallots, ground
white pepper and white wine can be used.
Difference Between Mousse and Mousseline
A mousse is soft prepared food that incorporates air bubbles to give it a light and airy
texture. It can range from light and fluffy to creamy and thick, depending on the
preparation techniques. A mousse may be sweet or savory. Sweet mousses are
typically made with whipped egg whites or whipped cream, and flavored with one or
more of chocolate, coffee, caramel, puréed fruits, or different herbs and spices. Savory
mousses are made from meat, fish, shellfish, foie gras, cheese, or vegetables. Hot
mousses often get their light texture from the addition of beaten egg whites. It is
sometimes stabilized with gelatin.
Mousseline may be used either for a sauce or for a type of fabric. Sauce Mousseline
is also known as Sauce Chantilly, is produced by folding whipped cream into
hollandaise sauce. Mousseline is also used for a very fine, semi-opaque fabric that is
similar to muslin. It is a cotton fabric of plain weave.
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A very fine, semi opaque fabric similar to muslin, typically made of silk, wool or cotton.
A soft, light sweet or savoury mousse.
A hollandaise sauce that has been made frothy with whipped cream or egg white,
served mainly with fish or asparagus.
Chaud – froid, translated literally means hot – cold. This name refers to the fact that
the sauce is cooked and is applied hot, but then chilled and served cold.. The high
gelatin content of the sauce makes it possible to apply it to an item while still warm
and flowing. As the sauce cools, it gels and adheres to the product. It gives a smooth,
pristine surface and seals the product from the air. Chaud – froid is a sauce that is
applied to a product and is never served as an accompaniment or used to cook an
item in like other sauces.
The two primary methods of preparing Chaud – froid are the classical and the
contemporary methods.
The classical method calls for the use of Béchamel or Veloute. This is reduced with a
stock, suitable for the product that needs to be coated. This reduction is then fortified
with a suitable aspic jelly and cream.
modern variation of the sauce is prepared without a base of the roux. The result is a
sauce, which has a less starchy mouth feel. The method is also faster to prepare.
Chaud – froid can be made in a variety of colors. Only natural ingredients must be
used to obtain the colors using the basic colors. For a brown chaud – froid, replace
the cream with a reduced jus. A green chaud – froid can be made by using spinach
puree. Red chaud – froid needs paprika plus tomato puree. Carrots, red peppers and
even saffron are used to create a variety of colors.
There are a series of steps involved in the application of chaud – froid.
Preparing the item for coating
Items to be coated should be well chilled. This helps to adhere the sauce to the
surface. Chaud – froid will run off the surface of a warm item before it can set.
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The surface of the food to be coated should be smooth and trimmed of any rough
edges. It is not possible to create a smooth finish to a product if the under surface is
rough and jagged.
Surface grease must be removed before the coating of chaud – froid is applied. The
coating will not stick to a greasy surface. If there is a skin attached to the product, it
should be removed. This will ensure that the fat and the grease are also removed.
The item to be covered should be blotted/dabbed dry. This will allow better adhesion
of the sauce.
Tempering the Chaud – Froid
Chaud – froid sauce should be tempered before applying. Once the item has been
properly prepped, the sauce may be tempered. This involves bringing the temperature
of the sauce, either by heating or cooling, to a point that will allow the best and easiest
coating. Gelling takes place at around 85°F. Normally, the closer you can maintain the
sauce to this temperature without it getting too thick, the more evenly it will coat. In the
ideal situation, it should take only 2 or 3 coats for a smooth and glistening finish.
If the sauce is too warm, it tends to wash over the item leaving only a thin layer of the
sauce. If extremely warm, it might even melt the previous layers that have already
been applied.
If the Chaud – froid is too cold and thick, it will not form an even layer. The sauce will
form lumps and might even leave air bubbles on the surface. The sauce will not coat
the item smoothly, because it sets too quickly in runs.
A sauce that is tempered properly will be easily controled, it will give a smooth and
even coating and it will make the application of the coating easier and more efficient.
Ladle Method or Dipping Method?
There are two ways to apply a Chaud – froid sauce. It can either be ladled onto the
product r the item to be coated can be dipped into it. The ladling method is suitable for
large joints or pieces of meat. Smaller items are more evenly coated by dipping. Also,
unevenly shaped items are more easily coated by the dipping method. In each case,
it is advisable to apply more than one coat of the sauce to give an even appearance
and a smooth complete finish. Whichever method of coating is used, it is essential to
refrigerate them between each coat and before the final trim.
Trimming is the final step in preparing the item for decoration. Carefully remove the
item from the pan in which it was coated taking care not to rip the product away. The
item should be cut away with the help of a palette knife being run around the base of
the product. Preferably, dip the knife in hot water first. Line up the trimmed chaud –
froid on a clean and fresh tray.
At this point, they are no longer items or products….they are now Chaud – froids. They
now need only to be decorated before they can be set out on display.
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Decorating the Chaud – froids
The Chaud – froids can now be decorated tastefully with a variety of food items. There
are many choices available. Aspic cutters can be used to punch out a variety of shapes
out of vegetables. These may be applied in pleasing patterns such as geometric
shapes, floral or abstract.
A more natural, pleasing effect comes from using foods in their natural shapes.
Capers, caviar, chives and slices of olives are a few examples. Each component must
be dipped into warm aspic jelly and placed onto the surface of the chaud – froid. Avoid
dripping excess aspic jelly onto the surface. These droplets of aspic are difficult and
almost impossible to remove and can make the most beautiful designs look sloppy.
After the decorated chaud – froids have been chilled; they are glazed with a single
coat of well-tempered aspic jelly. This will protect the surface of the chaud – froid that
could become dull and dry looking. The final glaze of aspic will keep the chaud – froid
looking sparkling and fresh.
Uses of Chaud Froid
Galantines, timbales, terrines, whole or smaller joints of poultry and ham are some of
the products that can be coated with a chaud – froid. The purpose of coting items with
a chaud-froid are:
Protection of the item from the air while it sits on the buffet.
The sauce acts as a background or a canvas on which to decorate. The chaudfroid is
an adornment itself.
The sauce can complement the flavor of the coated item.
Aspic and Gelee play an important part in the preparation of many cold dishes that are
created in the Grade Manger. The glistening coating or the sparkling bases help to
highlight the dishes that are being presented. Proper presentation and application of
aspic and gelee are essential to assure maximum impact for a large piece of meat or
There is a certain amount of confusion related to the term ‘aspic’ and ‘gelee’ and very
often they are used inter changeably and the same confusion prevails when the terms
‘aspic’ and ‘aspic jelly’ are used. Aspic, Aspic jelly and Gelee are three different items
and we will make an attempt to distinguish the three.
Aspic Jelly must always be crystal clear and of a light golden (amber) color. The
quantities of gelatin used in the aspic jelly should be of the correct proportion so that
the jelly, when set, will neither be too rubbery, nor too light in consistency. Moreover,
the aspic jelly provides special protection for cold dishes. A display of poultry, fish,
game or similar ingredients when coated with aspic jelly will keep its freshness and
original flavor when covered with aspic jelly. The making of fresh aspic is an elaborate
process and in the modern kitchen is fairly time consuming.
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A Gelee or jelly in English is a gelatinous meat or fish stock. A Gelee becomes an
aspic jelly when it is clarified. The word aspic is used to refer to a combination of cold
meats, fish, vegetables or eggs, which are set in an aspic jelly in a decorative mould.
When thoroughly chilled, the arrangement is de molded onto a service platter and
perhaps surrounded with aspic jelly croutons.
Quenelles are products that are made out of forcemeat as well. The forcemeat in this
case is fish and is made out of a raw meat mixture. The forcemeat is similar to that
used to make a mousseline. The fish is processed to a fine puree along with egg white
which acts as a binder. Sometimes, bechamel sauce is also used. Seasonings, herbs
and sometimes, light spices can also be added. Two tablespoons dipped in hot water
are used to shape the quenelles. These oblong shaped quenelles are then poached
in fish stock for a couple of minutes until they are cooked. The stock is then used to
prepare a sauce like a Fish Veloute that will accompany the quenelles.
This is the French term that means perfect. In culinary usage, it refers to two distinct
and different products. One is a frozen mousse like dessert served in a tall glass. The
other is a savory terrine, which, by its delicacy, is almost near to perfection. This is the
one that we refer to here. A savory parfait makes use of vegetables, fish, shellfish or
poultry. It is distinguished by its very fine texture and is made of a puree of the
ingredients that is lightened by egg whites and cream, which is then moulded and then
Comes from the French word ruler (meaning to roll).The only criteria for a food item
to be called roulade is that it should be rolled.
he term roulade can be applied to contemporary products prepared in a manner similar
to a galantine yet do not fully satisfy the definition of a classical galantine.
An example of a roulade can be a flank steak that has been butterflied, pounded,
spread with a sausage paste and then rolled like a Swiss roll, secured and cooked.
Or, it could be a large fillet of fish, flattened lightly and spread with a tuna/salmon paste
and then rolled and secured. Roulades can be poached, baked, braised or even
roasted and can be served hot but usually are presented cold. The varieties of
roulades are unlimited.
Preparation of Quenelles
A variety of different fish can be utilized to prepare quenelle. Shellfish is not very
popular to make quenelles, but fleshy fish like cod is ideal. Quenelles can be served
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hot with a suitable sauce as the fish course on the menu. Quenelles also feature as a
starter for luncheon or even dinner
Cod/Sole Quenelles
Shallots, minced 30 gms
450 gms
Unsalted Butter
100 gms
Egg Whites
4 no
200 ml
Thick Bechamel
100 gms
Salt and Pepper
to taste
Fish Stock
400 ml
White Wine
a dash
Place the fish and the shallots in a food processor. Puree roughly.
Add the bechamel and cream along with the egg whites and process till smooth.
Add seasoning and butter.
Dip two spoons in hot water and then shape the quenelles.
Poach in fish stock flavored with wine.
When cooked, drain on absorbent paper and serve with an appropriate sauce like
sauce americaine.
Preparation of Parfaits
Yogurt and Fruit Parfaits
3 cups vanilla nonfat yogurt
1 cup fresh or defrosted frozen strawberries in juice
1 pint fresh blackberries, raspberries or blueberries
1 cup good quality granola
Layer 1/3 cup vanilla yogurt into the bottom each of 4 tall glasses. Combine defrosted
strawberries and juice with fresh berries. Alternate layers of fruit and granola with
yogurt until glasses are filled to the top. Serve parfaits immediately to keep granola
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Preparation of Roulade
2 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil plus more for brushing
4 6-8-ounce skinless, boneless chicken breasts, pounded to 1/8-inch thickness
Kosher salt and freshly ground black pepper
4 ounces feta, crumbled
2 tablespoons minced fresh oregano
4 garlic cloves, minced
1/2 teaspoon finely grated lemon zest
1/2 cup dry white wine
1/2 cup low-salt chicken broth
2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice
Lemon wedges
Line a baking sheet with waxed paper; brush with oil. Arrange chicken breasts in a
single layer on prepared sheet and brush all over with oil. Season with salt and pepper.
Sprinkle chicken with feta, oregano, garlic, and lemon zest, dividing evenly and
keeping filling away from edges. Beginning at the narrower end of 1 chicken breast,
roll up, enclosing filling as you would a jelly roll; tie with kitchen twine at 1″ intervals to
secure. Repeat with remaining chicken breasts.
Preheat oven to 450°. Heat 2 Tbsp. oil in a large heavy skillet over medium-high heat.
Add chicken roulades and cook until brown on all sides, about 10 minutes. Transfer
chicken roulades to a small roasting pan and bake until an instant-read thermometer
inserted into the thickest part of roulades registers 160°, 5-7 minutes.
Add wine, broth, and lemon juice to skillet; bring to a boil and cook, scraping up any
brown bits, until reduced to 1/2 cup, about 5 minutes. Cut strings from roulades and
place on plates. Spoon pan juices over; serve lemon wedges alongside for squeezing
In French they are known as “Piece Montée”.
Originally a large ornamental item of patisserie used to decorate the table at a banquet
or a party. It usually reflects the theme of the occasion. In France, it is still popular for
a wedding or baptism and displays the artistic skills of the confectionary trade. It was
very popular in the Middle Ages, today a simple type of piece montée is the
croquembouche, made of profiteroles filled with cream which has been sweetened
and suitably flavoured, glazed and decorated with fancy sugar work.
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Although food holds the spotlight in all buffet presentation, the objective of buffet
planning must be to achieve visual beauty both in the artistic presentation of each item
of edible food and in the arrangement of the many dishes on the buffet table. Nothing
heightens the beauty of the buffet more than an outstanding centre piece (piece
montée) which may be made of ice, tallow or other such materials. The term nonedible is used generally, to indicate that the centre piece is not meant for consumption
along with the rest of the food on the buffet.
The guest should be able to identify the theme of the buffet at a glance, just by
observing the non-edible decorations that provide eye-catching background for the
presentation. A non-edible decorative display piece should be a work of art, always in
good taste, whether the figure is made of ice sugar, tallow or any other material.
The Ice sculpture is the highlight of any buffet, and its focal point. Ice can be carved
into any shapes, size or figure that fits the theme or occasion. For e.g. ChristmasSanta Clause, Anniversary- a heart.
The essentials of Ice-carvings.
1. Use 100-300 pound block of ice 40 inches high by 20 inches wide by 10 inches
2. A pair of ice tongs for moving ends and handling the ice.
3. An ice shaver with 3 to 4 prongs used to carve out the details and do the small
cuttings on the block of ice.
4. An ice pick is used to split block of ice.
5. A hand saw is used to remove large cuts of ice or to make rough outlines
6. Chisels ranging in size from 1⁄2 to 2 inches.
7. A good pair of gloves which have metal finger tips to prevent accidents.
8. A variety of templates
9. An electric chain saw-(optional)
10. Salt is used for mending broken pieces of ice.
Points to be kept in mind
the rate of half to an inch per hour at room temperature.
carvings must have a base that is at least 6 inches high, for stability.
for a few minutes till it holds.
eight of the ice.
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base of the wooden block, on which, the ice carving will rest securely on top of the
wooden block.
flowers, ferns or other decorative material.
Patterns and sculptures made with animal fat creating an eye- catching tallow piece is
always time consuming, and should be planned well in advance. Such displays can
be used over and over again but they should be covered with translucent wrap when
not in use as dust tends to stick to them.
ccessful in the execution of a tallow display, the person making the display
should have a model or a photograph of the piece to be made. In general a formula
made up in the following proportions work well in tallow displays: 1/3 beeswax, 1/3
paraffin wax, 1/3 beef fat the quantity of fat may be increased to make it more pliable.
When deciding on the selection of a pattern for a tallow display piece, it is essential
that the display piece chosen match the theme of the food design buffet. It is even
more desirable, to select a pattern that may also fit into the décor theme of other
buffets at a later date. Creating on eye-catching tallow piece is always time-consuming
and should be planned well in advance.
A French restaurant serving a French buffet would add effectiveness to the
presentation by displaying a bust of Napoleon or Escoffier or the Eiffel Tower. Such
displays can be used over and over, but they should be covered with transparent wrap
when not in use as dust tends to stick to them.
To be successful in the execution of a tallow display, it is essential that certain rules
be followed. The person making the tallow display should have a photograph or model
of the piece o be made. In general, a formula made up in the following proportions
work well in tallow displays:
1/3 beeswax
1/3 paraffin
1/3 beef fat
The quantity of fat can be increased if a more pliable and workable mixture is needed,
especially if the working area is cool, that is, below 65° F.
A solid structure and base for the tallow piece must be created, especially if the
finished piece has to be transported. A wooden base with dowels and a rough structure
made of Styrofoam, metal armature, and aluminium foils have been used
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Patterns and sculptures made with animal fat creating an eye- catching tallow piece is
always time consuming, and should be planned well in advance. Such displays can
be used over and over again but they should be covered with translucent wrap when
not in use as dust tends to stick to them.
should have a model or a photograph of the piece to be made. In general a formula
made up in the following proportions work well in tallow displays: 1/3 beeswax, 1/3
paraffin wax, 1/3 beef fat the quantity of fat may be increased to make it more pliable.
When deciding on the selection of a pattern for a tallow display piece, it is essential
that the display piece chosen match the theme of the food design buffet. It is even
more desirable, to select a pattern that may also fit into the décor theme of other
buffets at a later date. Creating on eye-catching tallow piece is always time-consuming
and should be planned well in advance.
A French restaurant serving a French buffet would add effectiveness to the
presentation by displaying a bust of Napoleon or Escoffier or the Eiffel Tower. Such
displays can be used over and over, but they should be covered with transparent wrap
when not in use as dust tends to stick to them.
To be successful in the execution of a tallow display, it is essential that certain rules
be followed. The person making the tallow display should have a photograph or model
of the piece o be made. In general, a formula made up in the following proportions
work well in tallow displays:
1/3 beeswax
1/3 paraffin
1/3 beef fat
The quantity of fat can be increased if a more pliable and workable mixture is needed,
especially if the working area is cool, that is, below 65° F.
A solid structure and base for the tallow piece must be created, especially if the
finished piece has to be transported. A wooden base with dowels and a rough structure
made of Styrofoam, metal armature, and aluminum foils have been used
Fruit & vegetable Displays
Very attractive centre pieces can be made by carvings various shapes out of fruits and
vegetables. Large pumpkins, melon and such vegetable vegetables can be used as
containers or carved into objects such as boat, ships, birds etc. various flowers can be
made, the variety in colour of fruits and vegetables adds to a lot of eye appeal and the
presentation of the centre pieces. Care should be taken not to use non food items
such as pins, staples, toothpicks,
drawing pins to hold the arrangement in place. Water may be sprayed to make to look
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Basic Salt Dough for Sculptures
1 cup cold water
1 cup corn starch
2 cups warm popcorn salt.
Combine the water and cornstarch. Mix well over medium heat, stirring constantly, to
a very thick paste. Knead 2 cups of salt into hot cornstarch mixture (for best results
use a mixing machine). For brown colour, add some Soya sauce to the water. To make
brown point, brown cornstarch to various shades of light and dark brown and mix with
water and some gin. When sculpture is finished, use a brush to paint it with the
cornstarch mixture.
To create successful sculptures
For large salt-dough sculptures, a good solid metal armature is needed to support the
weight of the sculpture.
Cover the armature with aluminum foil to create desired shape.
Cover aluminum foil with thin sheets of salt dough. Dry. Repeat and dry again.
Finish details on the third layer of salt dough. Dry and paint with brown cornstarch
color or dust with herbs and spices.
Yield: 5 1b
3 lb
Salt (table)
1 lb
Plain powdered gelatin
6 oz
Boiling water
1 ¼ pt
Colorings: turmeric, paprika, vegetable or confectioner’s color spices, dried herbs
poppy or caraway seeds, finely chopped nuts.
Dissolve the gelatin in boiling water; make sure it is well dissolved. Use extra heat if
necessary, but do not boil. Strain the liquid through cheesecloth or filter paper and let
Place cornstarch and salt in mixing bowl and stir in liquid gelatin a little at a time until
you get a smooth paste. When you notice that the saltillage clears the sides of the
mixing bowl, it is ready. Add desired colorings. Roll into clear plastic and store in an
airtight container.
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Saltillage has the same appearance and texture as pastillage. It dries quickly and for
some reason tends to crack easily. Do not make large pieces out of this paste unless
you have a base; a Styrofoam sculpture that you may wish to cover will do. Any small
animals or birds, flowers, mushrooms umbrellas, wheel-barrows, Chef’s hats or other
decorations that you already have made out of marzipan or pastillage can also be
made of saltillage. The rest is left to the imagination
SUGAR CRAFT (Pastillage)
This could include:
Pulled sugar
Poured Sugar
Blown Sugar
Spun Sugar
Cooked sugar can be used in various forms to provide stunning works of art. They
could adorn a dessert buffet.
Very often in place of tallow, butter and margarine is used to produce center pieces.
Margarine is the preferred medium as it has a higher melting point and is easier to
handle than butter. An outline of the sculpture is made out of suitable stiff material
such as a wire piece, aluminum foil, and strips of wood. This is called the armature
and the butter or margarine is molded around it to give the desired shape. Ideally, the
work should be carried out in a cool environment such as an air- conditioned room.
The advantage here is that the sculpture can be re done if it does not have the desired
effect and re started. Also tallow, butter and margarine sculptures can have a re usable
value unlike ice carvings. However, care should be taken to in storing these pieces as
they tend to attract dirt and dust which will cling and be difficult to remove without
damaging the structure. Very often a protective cling film can be wrapped around the
sculptures during storage
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