# Chem Module 1

```CHEM MODULE 1
Lesson 1: What is Chemistry?
New vocabulary
MATTER
chemistry
science
hypothesis
theory
scientific law
pure research
applied research
substance
mass
weight
model
MATTER
chemistry
science
hypothesis
theory
scientific law
pure research
applied research
substance
mass
weight
model
chemistry
science
1
Compare and contrast mass and weight using the Venn diagram below.
• does not reflect gravitational pull on matter
• a measure of the effect of gravitational pull on matter
• a measurement that reflects the amount of matter in an object
MASS
WEIGHT
*Explain a chemical model by completing the following sentences. Use the words listed below
The ____________, composition, and ____________of all matter can be explained on
a____________ level. All that we observe depends on____________ and the____________ they
undergo. ____________seeks to explain the submicroscopic events that lead to____________. One
way to do this is by making a chemical model, which is a____________ of a ____________.
Word choices
Atoms
Behavior
Changes
Chemistry
Macroscopic observations
Structure
Submicroscopic
Submicroscopic event
Visual representation
*Explain why scientists use mass instead of weight for their measurements.
2
Lesson 2: Measurement
New vocabulary
base unit
second
meter
kilogram
kelvin
derived unit
liter
density
scientific notation
dimensional analysis
base unit
derived unit
density
scientific notation
conversion factor
dimensional analysis
conversion factor
Match the SI base units with
their functions
Meter
Distance
Liter
Temperature
Kilogram
Time
Kelvin
Mass
Second
Volume
The Metric System
BASE UNITS
Kilo
Hecto
Deca
Meter
Gram
Deci
Centi
Milli
Liter
Larger Units
Smaller Units
“
“
If you move to the _________ in the diagram, move the decimal to the________
If you move to the _________ in the diagram, move the decimal to the ________
3
Using the pneumonic to remember the prefixes, draw the boxes for the metric system and answer the following
questions:
Practice
Problem
#1
1 meter = ___________________ centimeters?
Practice
Problem
#2
1,000 millimeter = ___________________ centimeters?
Practice
Problem
#3
16,093 meters = ___________________ kilometers?
Practice
Problem
#4
40,000 meter = ___________________ kilometers?
Practice
Problem
#5
4,000 meters = ___________________ kilometers?
Practice
Problem
#6
4,000 centimeters = ___________________ meters?
Practice
Problem
#7
5 meters = ___________________ centimeters?
Practice
Problem
#8
0.3 kilometers = ___________________ meters?
Practice
Problem
#9
0.04 kilometers = ___________________ millimeters?
Derived Units/Density
One of the derived units that we will be using is what? Also give the formula.
For example, imagine a piece of an unknown metallic
element that has a volume of 5.0 cm3 and a mass of 13.5
g. Find the density of the unknown element. What is
the identity of the unknown element?
A 147-g piece of metal has a density of 7.00 g/mL. A
50-mL graduated cylinder contains 20.0 mL of water.
What is the final volume after the metal is added to the
What is the volume of a sample that has a mass of 20 g
and a density of 4g/mL?
When a piece of aluminum is placed in a 25-mL
graduated cylinder that contains 10.5 mL of water, the
water level rises to 13.5 mL. What is the mass of the
aluminum? Given the density of aluminum is 2.7 g/mL.
4
Scientific Notation
Scientific notation: is a method of representing very _______ or very _____ numbers in the form
“M” is called the __________ and is a number between _________ and_________
“n” is called the __________ and is either __________ or ___________
Standard Form: is when a number is written all the way out. Example:460,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
Scientific Notation: is when a numbers is written in the form M x 10n . Example 4.6 x 1023
Scientific
Notation
the EASY
way
•
•
•
•
•
If number is larger than 1 your exponent will be positive #&gt;1
•
If your number is smaller than 1 your exponent will be negative. #&lt;1
Then move your decimal to make it “happen”
Step 1: Insert an understood decimal point
Step 2: Decide where the decimal must end up so that only 1 number is to the left
Step 3: Count how many places you move the decimal point
Step 4: Rewrite in the form M x 10n
2,500,000,000
38,000
0.0000579
0.00602
Express each number in scientific notation
4,500,000
685,000,000,000
0.0054
0.0000000008
Express each quantity in regular notation along with its appropriate unit
3.6 x 105s
5.4 x 10-5 g/cm3
Write the following data in scientific notation.
The diameter of the Sun is 1,392,000 km.
3.060 x 103 km
8.9 x 1010 Hz
Write the following data in scientific notation.
The density of the Sun’s lower atmosphere is
0.000000028 g/cm3.
5
Using Scientific Numbers with your calculator
(5.63 &times; 10-5) + (2.32 &times; 10-4)
(9 &times; 102) - (7 &times; 102)
(2.23 &times; 10-5) x (3.43 &times; 10-4)
(5.43&times; 105) &divide; (9.32 &times; 10-4)
Dimensional Analysis/ CONVERSION FACTOR
Dimensional analysis: is a systematic approach to _________ solving that uses ___________ factors
to move, or convert, from one unit to another.
Conversion Factor:
Examples of conversion factors:
1 week =
days
1 year =
days
1 foot =
1 dozen =
inches
eggs
A conversion factor MUST:
Steps to solving conversion factor problems:
a) Always take what is given and create a ____________. Don’t forget_____________
b) Write a new conversion factor that will __________ the original units with another one.
c) Continue to do this until you are left with the ________________ you want
Convert 35 days to weeks
Convert 672 cm to inches (1in=2.540cm)
Convert 1,892 ml to quarts (1 liter =1.06 qt)
In ancient Egypt, small distances were measured in
Egyptian cubits. An Egyptian cubit was equal to 7 palms,
and 1 palm was equal to 4 fingers. If 1 finger was equal
to 18.75 mm, convert 6 Egyptian cubits to meters.
Write the conversion factors needed to determine the
number of seconds in one year.
How many seconds in 5 days?
How many pizzas do you need to order if 32 people will
attend a party, each person eats 3 slices of pizza, and
each pizza has 8 slices?
6
CONVERSION FACTOR
Distance/ Length
Mass
1 Meter = 100 cm = 1000mm = .01 km
1 Gram = .001 kg = 1000 mg
12 inches
1 foot
16 ounces
1 pound
3 feet
1 yard
2000 pounds
1 ton
36 inches
1 yard
1 Newton
100 grams
1760 yards
1 mile
1 pound
454 grams
1 mile
1.61 kilometers
2.20 pounds
1 kilogram
1 inch
2.54 centimeters
1 kilogram
1000 grams
1 kilometer
1000 meters
5280 feet
1 mile
Volume
Time
1 Liter = 1000 ml = .01 kl
1.06 quarts
1 liter
1 gallon
3.78 liters
2 pints
1 quart
42 gallons
1 barrel
4 quarts
1 gallon
1000 Liters
1 kiloliter
1 year
1 week
1 day
1 hour
1 minute
1 century
52 weeks
7 days
24 hours
60 minutes
60 seconds
10 years
100 years
Temperature Formulas
&deg;𝐶 = (&deg;𝐹 – 32) ∙
5
9
&deg;𝐹 =
9
5
&deg;𝐶 + 32
(9/5 = 1.8)
𝐾 = &deg;𝐶 + 273
7
Lesson 3: Uncertainty in Data
New vocabulary
accuracy
precision
error
percent error
significant figure
accuracy
precision
error
percent error is the __________ of an ________ to an
_____________.
significant figure
Rules for significant figures
• Rule 1: Nonzero numbers are always significant.
• Rule 2: Zeros between nonzero numbers are always
significant.
• Rule 3: All final zeros to the right of the decimal
are significant.
• Rule 4: Placeholder zeros are not significant. To
remove placeholder zeros, rewrite the number
in scientific notation.
• Rule 5: Counting numbers and defined constants
have an infinite number of significant figures.
Problem
Determine the number of significant figures in the
following masses.
a. 0.00040230 g
b. 405,000 kg
c. 72.3 g
d. 6.20 g
e. 0.0253 g
f. 4320 g
Lesson 4: Representing Data
New vocabulary
graph
graph
independent variable
dependent variable
interpolation
extrapolation
independent variable
dependent variable
interpolation
extrapolation
8
9
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