Uploaded by aira


PART – A (2 Marks)
1. Define – Project
A project is defined as specific plan or design, planned undertaking and large undertaking.
Project is also defined as a planned activity.
Example: Public works
[N – 11]
2. Define – Process
Process is a set of activities which involves substantial interaction among two or more organizations. If
a single organization performs most or all of the activities, the description of those activities is generally
considered as procedure.
Process description is a document which includes the results of the process definition and describes
the process in more detail.
3. List some of the key characteristics of project.
Some of the key characteristics of project are
 Non-routine tasks are involved.
 Planning is required.
 The project has a predetermined time span.
 People are formed into temporary work group to carry out the task.
 Work is carried out in several phases.
 The resources that are available for use on the project are constrained.
[N – 12, M -12]
4. Define – Software Project Management
 Software Project Management is the art and science of planning and leading software projects.
 It is a sub-discipline of project management in which software projects are planned, monitored and
5. List out the factors that decide the success of a project.
Factors that decide the success of a project are
 Schedule
 Scope
 Cost
 Quality
 Staff
[N – 12, M -12]
6. Distinguish between verification and validation.
1) Are we building the product right?
2) Verification refers to the set of activities that
ensure that the software correctly
implements a specific function.
1) Are we building the right product?
2) Validation refers to a different set of
activities that ensure that the software that
has been built is traceable to customer
7. Define – Management
Management is defined as the combination of set of activities such as planning, organizing, staffing,
directing, monitoring, controlling, innovating and representing.
Management can also be defined as the challenges fared by the leader/manager of an organization.
8. List out the elements of product description.
The elements of product description are
 the name of the product
 the purpose of the product
 the derivation of the product
 the composition of the product
 the form of the product
 the relevant standards
9. List out any three problems associated with software projects.
Some of the problems associated with software projects are
 Poor estimates and plans
 Lack of quality standards and measures
 Change of environment
 Changing requirements
 Lack of communication between user and technician
 Lack of durability
10. Differentiate software projects from other projects.
The characteristics of software projects are
 Invisibility
 Complexity
 Conformity
 Flexibility
[M – 12, N - 11]
[M – 12]
11. Define − Product Breakdown Structure [PBS]
The products will form a hierarchy. The main products will have sets of component products which in
turn may have sub-component products, and so on. These relationships can be documented in a Product
Breakdown Structure [PBS].
Product Breakdown Structure [PBS] is presented as a hierarchy diagram. It may be more convenient
to produce a structured list.
12. List out the categories of stakeholders.
The categories of stakeholders are
 Internal to the project team
 External to the project team but within the same organization
 External to both the project team and the organization
13. List out the competencies of project management skills.
Some of the competencies of project management skills are
 Documenting plan
 Estimating cost
 Estimating effort
 Managing risks
 Scheduling
 Tracking processes
14. Define − Feasibility study
Feasibility study assesses whether a project is worth starting. Information is gathered about the
requirements of the proposed application.
The study could be part of a strategic planning exercise examining a range of potential software
15. Define − Strategic Planning
Strategic planning is an organization‟s process of defining its strategy, or duration and making
decisions on allocating its resources to pressure this strategy including its capital and people.
It is the process of identifying an organization‟s long term goals and objectives and then determining
the best approach for achieving those goals and objective
16. Define – PM Triangle
It is a model of the constraints of project management. It is a graphic aid where the three attributes
show on the corners of the triangle to show opposition. It is useful to help with intentionally choosing project
biases, or analyzing the goals of a project. It is used to illustrate that project management success is measured
by the project team's ability to manage the project, so that the expected results are produced while managing
time and cost.
PART – B (16 Marks)
1. Write notes on contract management. (8)
2. Explain in detail, the various SDLC activities as outlined by ISO 12207 with a neat diagram. (8)
[M-12, N -12]
3. Explain in detail, the various activities to be performed in analyzing the project characteristics. (8)
[M -12]
4. Explain in detail, the activities of software project management with an example. (16)
[N -12, N - 11]
5. What is Project Breakdown Structure (PBS)? Draw the hierarchical diagram of a sample PBS. (16)
6. Explain in detail, stepwise project planning activities with a neat diagram. (16)
[N – 12]
7. Identify the data to be collected to ensure that during the execution of a project things are going
according to the plan. (16)
8. Draw product breakdown structure and product flow diagram for online ticket reservation. (16)
9. What is Management? Explain in detail, management control. (16)
[N – 11]
PART – A (2 Marks)
1. Define – Technical Assessment
Technical assessment of a proposed system consists of evaluating whether the required functionality
can be achieved with current affordable technologies.
Organizational policy aimed at providing a consistent hardware/software infrastructure is limit the
technical solutions considered.
2. Define − Project Portfolio Management
Project portfolio management provides an overview of all the projects that an organization is
undertaking or is considering.
It provides the allocation of resources to projects and decides which new projects should be accepted
and which existing ones should be dropped.
3. List out the disadvantages of project portfolio management.
The disadvantages of project portfolio management are
 The project portfolio may not accurately reflect organizational activity if some projects are
 There are some problems in coordination and resource allocation.
4. Define – Programme
Programme in software project strategic assessment is defined as a group of projects that are
managed in a coordinated way to gain benefits that would not be possible were the projects to be managed
Different forms of programmes are business cycle programme, strategic programme, infrastructure
programme and research and development programme.
5. List out the principles for selecting a project team.
The key principles are
 Good Communication
 Technical skills
 24/7 working time
6. Define – Portfolio
Relates to, denoting, or engaged in an employment pattern that involves a succession of short-term
contracts and part-time work, rather than the more traditional model of a long-term single job.
7. List out the goals of Software project.
 Quality
 Speed
 Accuracy
 Time
 cost
8. List out any two steps that are used in cost benefit analysis.
The two steps that are used in cost benefit analysis are
 Identifying all of the costs and benefits of carrying out the project and operating the delivered
 Expressing these costs and benefits in common units.
9. Define – Payback period
 Payback period is the time taken to break even or payback the initial investment.
 The project with shortest payback period will be chosen on the basis that an organization will wish
to minimize the time that the project is „in debt‟.
10. List out the advantages and the disadvantages of payback period.
 The advantage of the payback period is that it is simple to calculate and is not particul
sensitive to small forecasting errors.
 The disadvantage of payback period is that it ignores the overall profitability of the
11. Define − Return On Investment
The Return On Investment also known as Accounting Rate of Return [ARR]. It provides
the way of comparing the net profitability to the investment required.
ROI can be calculated using the following formula,
[M – 12]
[N – 12]
12. State the significance of cost benefit analysis.
The significance of cost benefit analysis are
Takes a community wide perspective
1) Allows the consideration of a range of policy option.
2) Determine which policy maximizes net benefits to the community.
3) Allows benefits and costs to be compared over time.
4) Can show the cost and benefits occurring to different groups within community.
[N – 12]
13. How Net Present Value is calculated for a project?
The calculation of net present value is a project evaluation technique that takes into
account the profitability of a project and the timing of the cash flows that are produced.
The NPV for a project is obtained by discounting each cash flow and summing the discounted value.
14. Define − IRR
[N – 11, M - 12]
The Internal Rate of Return [IRR] attempts to provide a profitability measure as a percentage return
that is directly comparable with interest rates.
The IRR is calculated as that percentage discount rate that would produce an NPV of zero. It is most
easily calculated using a spreadsheet or other computer program that provides functions for calculating the IR.
15. List out the project portfolio management models.
Objectives, Functions, Performance, constraints, scope, cost or benefits.
[M – 12]
16. Write the significance of Project Risk Matrix. Give an example.
 Project risk matrix utilizing the checklist of possible risks and classifying risks according to the relative
importance and likelihood. Importance and likelihood need to be separately assessed.
 Importance and likelihood are classified as high [H], medium [M], low[L] or exceedingly unlikely[-].
Client rejects proposed look and feel of site
Competitors undercut prices
Warehouse unable to deal with increased demand
Online payment has security problems
Maintenance costs higher than estimated
Response times deter purchases
17. Define − Blueprint
A blueprint is a reproduction of a technical drawing, documenting
an engineering design, using a contact print process on light-sensitive sheets.
an architecture or
18. Define − Dependency Diagram
Dependencies are one form of constraints for any project. Dependencies are any relationship connections
between activities in a project that may impact their scheduling.
PART – B (16 Marks)
1. Explain in detail, the Internal Rate of Return(IRR) method for measuring the profitability of a project.
Also mention its advantages over the NPV method. (8)
[M – 12, N - 12]
2. Explain in detail, the various issues to be addressed in evaluating the risks before deciding to take up a
[M – 12]
project. (8)
3. Explain in detail, how a project can be evaluated against strategic, technical and economic criteria. (8)
[N – 11]
4. Evaluate the risk involved in a project and suggest appropriate strategies for minimizing the potential
[N – 11]
[N – 12]
5. Explain in detail, how risks are handled in a project. Give examples. (16)
6. Explain in detail, the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) method for measuring the profitability of a project.
Also mention its advantages over the NPV method.
[M - 12]
7. Explain in detail, how cost-benefit evaluation techniques can be used to choose the best among
competing project proposals. (16)
8. How does the present value of future cash flow found? (8)
[N – 11, M - 12]
[N - 11]
PART – A (2 Marks)
1. Define – Activity Planning
A detailed plan for the project, however, must also include a schedule indicating the start and
completion times for each activity.
2. List out the objectives of activity planning.
 Feasibility assessment
 Resource allocation
 Detailed costing
 Motivation
 Co-ordination.
3. What are the three approaches that are used to identify the activities or tasks of a
 Activity-based approach- constraints stemming from the relationships between projects
 Product-based approach- instructor becomes an active member of the project team
 Hybrid approach- Decision support system for software project management
4. Define – Product Flow Diagram
Product flow diagram deals with product design stages.
5. List out the categories of WBS .
 Project- engineering resources has been developed by TASK
 Deliverables- term for the quantifiable goods or services
 Components- designing the floor plane
 Work-packages- Models for the description of software artifacts
 Tasks- Creation and distribution of organizing software
6. List out the main stages in a project schedule.
 Identifying activities
 Risk Analysis
 Resource Allocation
 Schedule
7. What are the types of network planning models?
 Precedence Network
[N - 12]
8. Define − Forward Pass Rule
[N – 12, M -12]
The forward pass is carried out to calculate the earliest dates on which each activity may be started
and completed.
Significance- calculation method used in Critical Path Method
9. Define − Backward Pass Rule
[N - 12]
The second stage in the analysis of a critical path network is to carry out a backward pass
to calculate the latest date at which each activity may be started and finished without delaying the end date of
the project. The calculating the latest dates, we assume that the latest finish date for the project is the same
as the earliest finish date- that is we wish to complete the project as early as possible.
[M - 12]
10. Differentiate Free Floats from Interfering Floats. How are they calculated?
Free float is free from fixed .Interfering floats have fixed contract time.
[N - 12 ]
11. Define – Activity-on-arrow Network
Activity-on-arrow Network represent activities by links[arrows] and ime the nodes represent event of
activities starting or finishing.
12. Define – Dangle
Dangle is an activity or network which has either no predecessors or no successors.
It is referred to as an isolated activity.
[M - 12]
13. Define – Brainstorming
Brainstorming is a group or individual creativity technique by which efforts are made to find a
conclusion for a specific problem by gathering a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by its member[s].
14. Define − Knowledge Management
Knowledge Management deals with knowledge exploration techniques that are to be needed in
working environment.
15. List out the factors that are used to identify the risk.
 Risk Identification- Organizations and project teams
 Risk Analysis- Includes a download demo and other decision analysis tools
 Risk Planning- assessment is an important part
 Risk Monitoring- identify Development Environment Risks.
16. Define – Risk Management
 Contingency
 Deciding on the risk action
 Creating and maintaining the risk register.
[M – 11, N - 12]
17. List out the advantages of PERT.
 Flexibility
 Easy to implement
 Reusability
PART – B (16 Marks)
1. Explain in detail, the different approaches for identifying, and monitoring and control activities with a neat
diagram. (16)
2. Explain in detail, the different network planning models. Write examples for precedence construction. (16)
[M-11, N - 12]
3. Explain in detail, the forward pass and backward pass with examples. (8)
4. Explain in detail, the critical path method that can be can be identified in precedence networks.
5. Explain in detail, the steps involved in risk planning. (8)
[M – 12, N – 12]
6. Explain in detail, the methodology that is used to evaluate the risk in a project. (8)
[N – 12]
7. List out the top ten software project risks and explain the strategies for reducing each of the risks.
8. How is the effect of risk on project schedule evaluated using PERT? (16)
[M – 12, N -11]
[M - 12]
PART – A (2 Marks)
1. Define – Project Control
Project control uses the information supplied by the monitoring techniques in order to bring project
actual results in line with stated project performance standards.
2. Define – Checkpoints
Check points are used to measure the project evaluation time.
3. Define – Review points
Review points are used to measure effectiveness of the project.
4. Write a note on project steering committee.
Project steering committee is used to keep track of projects on scheduled date and time.
5. List out the different categories of reporting
 RAG [Red, Amber, Green]
 Activity Assessment Sheet
 Time Sheet
6. Define – Gantt chart
Gantt chart is the simplest and oldest technique for tracking project progress. It is an activity bar chart
indicating scheduled activity dates and durations , frequently augmented with activity floats.
7. Define – Slip chart
Slip chart provides a more sticking visual indication of those activities that are not progressing to
schedule – the more slip line bends , the greater the variation plan.
8. Define – Ball Chart
Ball Chart is used to indicate whether the expected target is met or not.
9. Define – Timeline Chart
It is a method of recording and displaying the way in which targets have changed throughout the
duration of the project.
10. List the popular visual tools that are used for monitoring and tracking the project progress. [M – 11, N - 12]
 Ball chart
 Gannt chart
 Timeline chart
11. What are the methods for assigning earned value in earned value analysis.
 0/100 technique
 50/50 technique
 Milestone technique
[N - 11]
12. Define – Earned value analysis
 is a measure of progress
 enables us to assess the “percent of completeness” of a project using quantitative analysis rather
than rely on a gut feeling
 “Provides accurate and reliable readings of performance from as early as 15 percent into the
 A technique used to help determine and manage project progress and the magnitude of any
variations from the planned values concerning cost, schedule, and performance.
13. Define - BCWS
It is the budgeted cost of work that has actually been performed in carrying out a scheduled task
during a specific time period. NASA's definition of the BCWS is the sum of the budgets for completed work
packages and completed portions of open work packages, plus the applicable portion of the budgets for level
of effort and apportioned effort.
14. Define – BCWP
BCWP is the sum of the budgets for completed work packages and completed portions of open work
packages, plus the applicable portion of the budgets for level of effort and apportioned effort.
15. Define – Milestone technique
A milestone is a significant event in a project , usually associated with a major work product or
deliverable. Stages or phases are not milestones but are collections of related product activities.
16. Define – ACWP
ACWP is used to represent Actual Cost for Work Performed.
17. Define – Cost variance
The cost variance is measured in cost terms as EV-PV and indicates the degree to which the value of
completed work differs from that planned.
18. Define – CPI
CPI stands for Cost Performance Index. It is the ratio between BCWP and BCWS.
19. Define - EAC
In finance the equivalent annual cost [EAC] is the cost per year of owning and operating an asset over
its entire lifespan.EAC is often used as a decision making tool in capital budgeting when comparing investment
projects of unequal lifespans.
20. Define- COTS
In the United States, Commercial Off-The-Shelf [COTS] is a Federal Acquisition Regulation [FAR]
term for goods available in the commercial marketplace that can be bought and used under government
contract. For example consumer goods and construction materials may qualify but bulk cargo does not.
21. Define - EVM
Earned value project/performance management [EVPM] is a project management technique for
measuring project performance and progress in an objective manner.
22. Define Hazard analysis.
A hazard analysis is a process used to assess risk. The results of a hazard analysis are the
identification of unacceptable risks and the selection of means of controlling or eliminating them. The term is
used in several engineering specialties, including avionics, chemical process safety, safety engineering and
food safety.
23. Define – Cost monitoring
Used to compare expected cost of development system and operation with its benefits.
24. Define – CCA
CCA stands for construction Association. Used to help project managers in developing the project .
25. List out the contents of typical terms of contract.
 Areas
 Advantages
 Market Share
 To find new partners
 To distribute goods and services.
26. What are the stages of contract placement?
 Fixed price contracts.
 Time and materials contracts.
 Fixed price per delivered unit contracts.
PART – B (16 Marks)
1. Explain in detail, the usage of check points in monitoring. (16)
[N – 12, M - 12]
2. Write any two advantages of function point analysis. (16)
[N - 11]
3. Explain in detail, the bespoke system.
[N – 11, M - 12]
4. Explain in detail, the roles and responsibilities of configuration librarian. (16)
[M - 12]
5. Explain in detail, the various ways of visualizing the progress of a project. (8)
[N - 12]
6. Explain in detail, the change control process applicable for an operational system. (8)
[N - 12]
7. Explain in detail, the controlling changes to project requirement. (8)
[N – 12, M - 11]
8. Explain the various types of contracts with examples. (16)
[N - 12]
PART – A (2 Marks)
1. Differentiate project process with product process.
Project Process
Product Process
Used to describe and organize the Specifies and create the project
work of the project
Defined by PMI PMBOK
Defined by the lifecycle used
Defined by the American society of
Quality [ASQ]
Certified software Quality
2. Write the six classes of product domain.
 Customer
 Business
 Industrial
 Real-time
 Really-timely,
 Scientific
3. List out the three individual personality models.
 The Myers Briggs Type Indicator
 Fundamental Interpersonal Relations orientation – Behavior[FIRO-B] model,
 The kersey Temperament sorter.
4. Define - Milestone
A milestone is a significant event in a project, usually associated with a major work product or
deliverable. Stages or phases are not milestones but are collections of related product activities.
5. List out the Leader‟s style.
 Telling
 Selling
 Participating
 Delegating
6. List out the five process of Project Management Institute [PMI].
 Initiating
 Planning
 Executing
 Controlling
 Closing
7. Define – Mission Statement
Statement containing the mission of the project that is to be satisfied by project manager.
8. Define – Corporate culture
Corporate culture contains good communication, coordination and team work.
9. Define − Organizational behavior
Organizational behavior deals with organization structure, core planning and its objectives.
10. Define – Taylor‟s View
Taylor the father of scientific management had three basic objectives to work out the most
productive way of doing tasks. They are
 To select the best person for the job.
To instruct such people in the best methods.
To give incentives in the form of higher wages to the best workers.
„Taylorism‟ is often represented as a crude and mechanism, as he emphasis on the exclusively financial basis
of staff motivation.
11. Define – Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.
 Self Actualization
 Self Esteem/ Recognition /Achievement
 Belongingness
 Safety/ Security
 Physiology
[M – 12, N - 11]
12. State Herzberg‟s two-factor theory
Maslow's need approach has been considerably modified by Frederick Herzberg. His research
purports to find a two-factor theory of motivation. In one group of needs are such things as company policy and
administration, supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relations, salary, status, and job security. These
were found by Herzberg and his associates to be only dissatisfies and not motivators. Their existence does not
motivate in the sense of yielding satisfaction; their lack of existence would, however, result in dissatisfaction.
Herzberg called them maintenance, hygiene or job context factors.
13. List out the methods for improving motivation.
 Set specific tasks
 provide feedback
 Consider job design.
14. List out the stages of team formation model.
[N – 12, M -12]
 Forming- The members of the groups get to know each other and try to set up some ground rules
about behavior
 Storming- one nice packaging, all for publishing need
 Norming- Asset Management is a powerful and complete asset management solution
 Performing- Optimize project delivery across the software
15. Write the five basic stages of development.
 Defining the product
 Documenting plan
 Estimating cost
 Estimating effort.
16. What are the advantages of functional team format?
 Complete the project on time
 Complete the project within budget.
 Meet requirements.
 Meet expectations
17. List out the categories of decisions.
 Planning
 Control
 Maintenance
18. List out the mental obstacles of good decision-making.
 Complete the project on time
 Complete the project within budget.
 Meet requirements.
 Meet expectations
19. Define – Egoless programming
[M – 12, N - 11]
Egoless Programming is a general term applying to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes,
and similar forces. Managers, as a part of motivating their staff, do all such things which they hope will satisfy
these drives and desires and induce the subordinates to act in a desired manner.
20. Define – Stress
[N - 12]
 Projects are about overcoming obstacles and achieving objectives. Almost by definition both the
project manager and team members will be under pressure. Once a project gets rolling, you should
expect members to be putting in atleast 60 hours a week.. the project must except to put in as many
hours as possible.
 Stress can be caused by role ambiguity and role conflict.
21. Define – Health
Health is wealth that is to be maintained.
22. Define – Safety
The primary goal of safety engineering is to manage risk, eliminating or reducing it to acceptable
levels. Risk is the combination of the probability of a failure event, and the severity resulting from the failure.
23. What are the risk factors of health and safety?
 Stress
 Timeliness
 Angry
 Disinterest
PART B – (16 Marks)
1. Explain in detail, the organizational behavior with examples. (16)
[N - 12]
2. List out the steps involved in selecting the right person for the job. (16)
[N - 12]
3. Explain in detail, the procedure for selecting a new staff and how he / she can be introduced
into a project. (16)
4. Write a note on Oldham-Hackman Job characteristics model. (8)
[N – 11, M - 12]
[M - 12]
5. Explain in detail, the Recruitment process. (8)
6. List out the characteristics that are needed to improve the group performance. (16)
7. Explain in detail, the leadership styles. (16)
[N – 11, N - 12]
[N - 11]