Narcolepsy anatomy Philip 24/04/2019 Narcolepsy: common sleeping disorder marked by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. Neural anatomy analysis: 1. Causes: Selective loss of neurons productivity of orexin/hypocretin in the lateral hypothalamus. (Burgess & Scammell 2012) 2. Anatomical structure 1) Brain nuclei of the LHA (lateral thalamic area), contains dorsal region of the hypothalamus and perifornical area, which set up a link between the NS maintains homeostasis and the one regulates appetitive related behaviour. (Hurley & Johnson 2014). 2) 1> Orexins are neuropeptides exclusively made in hypothalamus. The original cells of orexins are found specifically in lateral hypothalamus (LH) (Smith et al 2009). 2> Orexin neurons in LH projects broadly to the brain, the brain stem and spinal cord. (Burgess & Scammell 2012). 3> Other than orexins mainly regulate sleepiness/wakefulness, Orexin-A injections to lateral ventricles also regulates food intake base on different receptors. (Inutsuka & Yamanaka 2013). References: 1. Burgess, C R & Scammell, T E 2012, ‘Narcolepsy: neural mechanisms of sleepiness and cataplexy’, PubMed, vol. 32, no. 36, pp. 12305 – 12311, viewed 24 April 2019, <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3449314/>. 2. Hurtley S W & Johnson, A K 2014, ‘The role of the lateral hypothalamus and orexin in ingestive behaviour: a model for the translation of past experience and sensed deficits into motivated behaviours’, Frontier, viewed 24 April 2019, < https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnsys.2014.00216/full> 3. Smith, R J Aston-Jones, G Sartor, G C Moorman, D E Massi, L Tahsili-Fahadan, P & Richardson, K A 2009, ‘Lateral hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons: A role in rewardseeking and addiction’, PubMed, viewed 24 April 2019, < https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2819557/> 4. Yamanaka, A & Inutsuka, A 2013, ‘The physiological role of orexin/hypocretin neurons in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness and neuroendocrine functions’, PubMed, viewed 24 April 2019, <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3589707/>.