1. Te Germanic language family. General characteristics. Classification of G.lang. & ancient G. tribes. I- Old G. Lang. : 1. East G. L. ( Vindili) : Gothic(4c.AD) Vandalic Burgundian 2. North G. L. (Hilleviones) Old Norse or Old Scandinavian (2-3c. AD) Futhark Old Icelandic (12c.AD) Old Norwegian (13c.AD) Old Danish(13c.AD) Old Swedish (13c.AD) 3. West G.( Ingvaeones, Istaevones, Herminones): Anglian Frisian Langobardian Jutish Saxon Franconian High German: -Alemanic -Thüringian -Swabian -Bavarian OE (7c. AD) Old Saxon (9c. AD) OHG (8c. AD) Old Dutch (12c. AD) II- Modern Lang. 1.West Germ. English German Dutch Flamish Frisian Yiddish Afrikaans 2. North G. L. Icelandic Norwegian Danish Swedish Faroese 3. East G.L. - extinct Characteristics 1. All the G.L. of past & present have common linguistic features, some of these features are shared by other groups in the IE family, others are specifically Germanic. 2. The Germanic group of lang. acquired their specific distinctive features after the separation of the ancient Germanic tribes from other IE tribes and prior to their expansion and disintegration that is during the period of the Proto Germanic language ( unattested). The aim is to provide the general idea of what the PGLang was like, to point out its linguistic ftatures. Theese PGfeatures, inherited by the descendant l-ges, represent the common features of the Germanic group. 3. Other common features developed later in the course of individual history of separate Germanic l-ges as a result of similar tendencies from PG causes. On the other hand many Germanic features have been disguised, transformed and even lost in later history. Germanic languages possess several unique features, such as the following: 1. A large class of verbs that use a dental suffix (/d/ or /t/) instead of vowel alternation (IndoEuropean ablaut) to indicate past tense; these are called the Germanic weak verbs; the remaining verbs with vowel ablaut are the Germanic strong verbs 2. The shifting of stress accent onto the root of the stem and later to the first syllable of the word 3. Another characteristic of Germanic languages is the verb second or V2 word order. This feature is shared by all modern Germanic languages except modern English 4. Strict differentiation of short and long vowels 5. Tendency for assimilation and reduction 6. A great number of fricatives, small number of plosives 7. No palatal consonants at all. 1. Eng. as a world language. English is a West Germanic language that developed in England during the Anglo-Saxon era, in the fifth century AD when Germanic tribes began to move from their homes in Northern Germany and Jutland in order to settle in what was then still a Celtic country — Britannia. Historically, English originated from several dialects, now collectively termed Old English, which were brought to the island of Great Britain by AngloSaxon settlers beginning in the 5th century. English was further influenced by the Old Norse language of Viking invaders. At the time of the Norman conquest(1066), Old English developed into Middle English. As a result of influence of the British Empire during the 18th, 19th, and early 20th centuries, and of the United States since the mid 20th century, Eng. has become the lingua franca in many parts of the world. Approximately 375 million people speak English as their first language.English today is probably the third largest language by number of native speakers, after Mandarin Chinese and Spanish. The countries with the highest populations of native English speakers are, in descending order: United States (215 million), United Kingdom (61 million), Canada (18.2 million),Australia (15.5 million), Nigeria (4 million),Ireland (3.8 million), South Africa (3.7 million), and New Zealand (3.6 million) 2006. Eng. is the dominant language or in some instances even the required international language of communications, science, business, aviation, entertainment, radio and diplomacy. English is the language most often studied as a foreign language in the European Union (by 89% of schoolchildren). Books, magazines, and newspapers written in English are available in many countries around the world. English is also the most commonly used language in the sciences. In 1997, the Science Citation Index reported that 95% of its articles were written in English, even though only half of them came from authors in English-speaking countries. 2. Word stress in PG & its morphological consequences. I.1.Proto-Indo-European (PIE) – musical accent (музичний наголос) Proto-Germanic – stress accent (силовий наголос) Example from Classical Greek: mētēr “mother” (Nominative case) mētéros “of a mother” (Genitive case) I.2.Weakening and loss of unstressed syllables: For example: PIE *bheronom “to bear” > PG *beranan > OE beran > ME beren > bere > PDE bear In PIE there were two ways of word accentuation: 1. musical pitch(tone) 2. force(dynamic) stress The position of stress was free & moveable. It could fall on any syllable of a word: on a root morpheme, on an affix, or even on the ending. It could be shifted both in form-building & word –building. In PG force stress became the only type of stress used. In early PG the stress was still moveable, but in late PG the position of stress was fixed on the first syllable (either root or prefix). The verbal prefixes were unstressed, the nominal & adjectival prefixes were stressed. Consequences: the vowels of non-initial syllables became unstressed & therefore they were weakened & could be lost. The 1st syllable of a word was given a special prominence. 3. The PG phonology. The consonants. Early PG (15/5c. BC - 1/4c. AD)---- separation of PG from the west IE (centum branch) to its stabilization as a separate system. Features: the existence of the fixed & moveable stress types there didn’t exist any difference between stressed & unstressed syllables. Late PG (4/7c. – 11/16c. AD)---- from stabilization of PG to its dispersal into separate groups of G.dialects . Features: the dynamic stress was fixed on the first root syllable the opposition between stressed & unstressed syllables. Common features in PG: -a great number of fricatives, small number of plosives; - no palatal consonants at all, as in other Centum languages. Such a quantity of fricatives appeared in PG as a result of sound shifting described as Grimm’s Law and Verner’s Law. B, d, g, gw were positional variants of v, ð, h, hw initially, after nasals and when doubled J (non-syllabic i) – “i” in the final position and before consonants Nom. Sg. harjis – Akk. Sg. hari w (non-syllabic u) “u” after short vowel, in final position and before “s”: Gen. Sg. trivis – Nom.Sg. triu syllabic sonorants “m”, “n”, “r”, “l” lost their syllabic function and became non-syllabic because there developed “u” before them “um”, “un”, “ur”, “ul” . Syllabic sonorants “i” and “u” became vowels. 4.Grimm’s Law. (1822 was first published in “Deutch Grammar”) I IE voiceless plosives >Germanic voiceless act fricatives L pater > E father p > f R три > E three t > Ө R кепка > E hat k > h L quod > Gt ha w w k > h I IE voiced plosives > G. voiceless plosives I act b > p R болото> E pool d > t R два > E two g > k R иго > E yoke gw > kw Gr gune > OE cwene I II act IE voiced aspirated plosives > G. voiced plosives bh > b dh > d gh > g gwh > gw Skr bhratar > E brother Skr madhu > OE medu Skr *gh > Gt gast, L hostis IE seŋgwh > Gt siggwan Exepcions: 1. The shifting didn’t take place after fricatives(f, Ө,h) & s: L stare – Gt standan 2. The second of the consonants didn’t undergo shifting: L octo Gt ahtau 1k>h 12 12 2t= t 5. Voicing of fricatives in PG (Vern’s L.) 1877 V.L. explains some correspondences of consonants which seemed to contradict G.L and were regarded as exceptions for a long time. According to V.L., all the early Proto Germanic voiceless fricatives f , Ө, h which arose under G.L. and also s inherited from PIE, became voiced between vowels, if the preceding vowel was unstressed. In the absence of these conditions, they remain voiceless. The voicing occurred in early PG at the time when the stress was not yet fixed on the root morpheme. The process of voicing can be shown as a step in a succession of consonant changes in pre-historical reconstructed forms. PIE > early PG > late PG > Gothic > OE pater > faӨar > faðar > faðar > fadar > fæder IE > PG p > f > v > b t > Ө > ð > d k > h > j > g G.L V.L: (voicening) V.L.:(hardening) Changes by V.L. appear regularly in the strong conjugation of verbs of the 2, 3, 5 Classes: 2 Class. OE: ceosan – ceas – curon – coren 3 Class weorðan – wearþ – wurdon – worden 5 Class: cweðan – cwæþ – cwædon – cweden wesan – wæs – wæron – weron. One more consonant(voiceless fricative) is affected by V.L. If the preceding vowel is unstressed, “s” in Germanic l-ges becomes voiced and changes into “z”, and “z” changer into “r”. s > z > r This change is called Rhotacism and took place in North and West Germanic l-ges except Gothic. Goth: hausjan OE: hieran Goth: kiusan – kaus – kusum – kusans OE: ceosan – ceas – curon – coren The consonant “s” became “r” in past plural form and in past participle because in early PG they had a stressed suffix, while the infinitive and past singular had always stresses on the root. 6. The West Germanic lengthening of consonants. Every consonant except “r” is lengthened if it is preceded by a short vowel and followed by the sonorant “j”(i) or by the sonorants “w”, ”l”, ‘r’, “n”, “m”. Before “j” the process of lengthening was the strongest, before “m”- the weakest . There appeared long consonants as a result of the doubling and an opposition based on the quantity between short and long consonants. If voiced fricatives were doubled, they became voiced plosives: a long “f” later develops into long “b”, denoted by “bb”, “ʒ”- “cʒ”, “ð” – “dd”… The essence of this process appears to be assimilation. The consonant is assimilated to the preceding sound after producing palatal mutation (i-umlaut) in the root. The lengthening might have been connected with changes in division of words into syllables: Goth.: b|idjan> b|idjan>biddan Consonants were not lengthened after a long vowel OIcel sitja>OE sittan>OHG sizzen Goth.: bidjan>OE biddan>OHG bitten Goth.: saljan>OE sellan But: Goth. domjan>OE deman (because after a long vowel) 7.The second consonant-shifting. I ACT. PG p, t, k > OHG ff, zz, hh (in the middle of the word, or at the end of the word after vowels) > f, z, h E.g.: p > ff, f: Goth. skip, OE. scip, PDE ship, OHG. scif; Goth slepan, PDE sleep, OHG slafan, ModG schlafen. f > zz, z: Goth. wato, PDE water, OHG wazzar, ModG Wasser; k > hh, h: Goth brikan, PDE break, OHG brehhan, ModG brechen II ACT. p, t, k > OHG pf, tz, kh (at the beginning of the word, in the middle after l, r, m. n) p > pf: OS appul, PDE apple, OHG aphul, ModG Apfel; t > tz: Goth taihun, OHG zehan, ModG Zehn; Goth tuggo, PDE tongue, OHG zunga, ModG Zunge; k > kh: Goth. drigkan, PDE drink, South G trinchan. III ACT b, d, g > OHG p, t, k (Alammanic, Bavarian) b > p: Goth. bairan, PDE bear, South G peran, ModG gebären; d > t: Goth dags, OE dæg, PDE day, OHG tac, ModG Tag; g > k: Goth. gasts, PDE guest, South G kast, Mod G Gast. NB: In all the West Germanic languages almost any consonant could be geminated (doubled) before or following j, and before other consonant as well. Thus in addition to the simple consonants we also have to reckon with the doubles pp, tt, kk. This distinction is important, as the geminates were affected quite differently by the consonant shift the singles were. 8. The ablaut in the Indo –European l-ges & Germanic l-ges. Ablaut is an independent vowel intergange unconnected with any phonetic condition; different vowels appear in the same environment,surrounded by the same sound. The rise of ablaut is partly connected with the movement of z stress: In PIE the accent was free, in Germanic it was retracted to the initial syllable. Vowel graduation did not reflect any phonetic changes but was used as a special independent device to differentiate between words & grammatical forms built from the same root. The principal gradation series used in the IE l-ges was e/o/zero. In Germanic l-ges it was i/a/zero. Each members of such a series is called a grade (stupin). There are 2 types of ablaut: 1. quantitative (altenation of short & long vowels). IE e>zero, o>zero, short e> long e, short o> long o. Gr. pater- patros(gen.) Lat. sedo – sedi Germ. e>zero, a > zero, short e > long e, short a > long o OE ber – beron 2. qualitative ( the vowels differ in quality- change of front vowels into back) IE e>o везу-возити; нести-ноша. Germ. i/e > a, i>u Got. drigkan- dragk OE þencan- þank Merowingi – Nibelungi 3. qualitative – qualitative IE e> o> zero. Рус. беру- сбор-брать Germ. i/e > a, a >long o OHG beran – barn- giburt OE faran – for – foron – faren There are 5 classes of ablaut: I: i: - ia – i – i II: iu – au –u – u III: i – a – u – u IV: i – a – ē – u V: i - a – ē – i. Ablaut is used in strong verbs in Gothic l-ges. I class: reisan “вставати” – rais – risum – risans II class: kiusan “вибирати” – kaus – kusum – kusans III class: bindan “зв”язувати”– band – bundum – bundans IV class: stilan “красти” - stal – stēlum – stulans V class: giban “давати” – gaf – gēbum – gibans The vowels played an important part in the grammar of Proto-Indo-European, because of the way they alternated in related forms (as in Modern English sing, sang, sung, and this system descended to ProtoGermanic. There were several series of vowels that alternated in this way. Each member of such a series is called a grade (ступінь), and the whole phenomenon is known as gradation or ablaut. One such series in PIE, for example was ĕ, ŏ and zero. This series was used in some of the strong verbs: the e-grade appeared in the present tense, the o-grade in the past singular, and the zero-grade in the past plural and the past participle (in which the accent was originally on the ending). This is the series that was used in sing, sang, sung, though it was blurred by the vowel changes, which took place in Proto-Germanic. PIE ŏ regularly changed to PG ă, as it has been shown before. 9.The vowels. 1. The basic vowel symbols are a, e, i, o, u. They could be both short and long. The set of vowels in Proto-Germanic can be represented in the following way: back vowels: ā, ō, ū; front vowels: ī, ē. Note: According to Zhluktenko, originally there were only four long vowels in PG : æ, ī, ū, ō. Later in West Germanic languages æ > ā. Apart from ē, that developed from PIE ē through æ, in Old Germanic languages there appeared one more ē that resulted from diphthong ai in unstressed syllable (Goth. haihait). In tracing vowel changes in Old Germanic languages we have to distinguish between stressed and unstressed syllables, since these give different results. There was a strict difference between short and long vowels. There were 8 monophthongs and 3 diphthongs in PG. PG Vowels Front Back Short i, e a, u Long i, e o, u Diphthongs: /ai/, /eu/, /au/. IE short /a/ and /o/ merged in PG short /a/. IE short /i/, /e/, /u/ could correspond to PG /e/, /i/, /o/. IE long vowels were unchanged. /i/>/i/, /u/>/u/. IE long /a/ and /o/ merged in PG long /o/. In Early PG there were 4 long vowels: /i/, /u/, /o/ /e/. Then appeared /a/. High підняття i Front u e Mid a Low o Back 10. Umlaut – is a case of regressive assimilation, when the vowel is changed under the influence of the following vowel. 1) i-umlaut (Front Mutation) 2) u-umlaut (Back Mutation) I-Umlaut /a/, /o/, /u/ change into /e/, if the following vowel is /i/, /i/ or /j/. Later i, i and j disappeared or changed to e. (dailjan – delan) I-Umlaut in OE took place in prewritten period on the territory of the British Isles. *a> æ> e *a> æ *o> e *o> oe> e *u> y: *u> y I-Umlaut in OHG In OHG Mutation took place starting from the 8th century. a> a(e) a>æ o> ö o> oe u> ü U-Umlaut (Back Mutation) OE: 7-8 centuries The short frot vowels æ, e, I were diphthongized when the back vowels u, o, a were present in the following syllable. i> io OE sifon> siofon e> eo OE efor> eofor æ> ea OE saro> searu This process differs from I-Umlaut in 3 respects: it effected almost exclusively short vowels it effected only front vowels its results are less unifor m Palatal mutation before ‘h’ e> eo> ie> i OE cneht> cneoht> cnieht> cniht 11. Inflectional system of PG. Simplification of the inflectional system It is often asserted that Germanic languages have a highly reduced system of inflections as compared with Greek, Latin, or Sanskrit. Although this is true to some extent, it is probably due more to the late time of attestation of Germanic than to any inherent "simplicity" of the Germanic languages. It is in fact debatable whether Germanic inflections are reduced at all. Other Indo-European languages attested much earlier than the Germanic languages, such as Hittite, also have a reduced inventory of noun cases. Germanic and Hittite might have lost them, or maybe they never shared in their acquisition. Inflections were certainly the principal formbuilding means used: - they were found in all parts of speech that could change their forms - they were usually used alone, but could also occur in combinations with other means In PG there are 5 parts of speech which can be declined – noun, adjective, pronoun, numeral, verb. Noun had such categories: - gender (masc, fem, neut) - number (singular, plural) - case (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative, instrumental) - declension (strong, weak, minor, root) Verb had such categories: - voice (active, passive) - mood: indicative (denotes a statement), imperative (commands, was used only in present of active voice), subjunctive (2 functions – grammatical & semantic) - tense (present, preterite) - number (singular, plural, dual) - person (1, 2, 3) Adjective - declension (weak, strong) - degrees of comparison (positive, comparative, superlative) Pronoun - number (sg, pl, dual) - person (only personal pronouns) - case (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental) - gender (only in demonstrative pronouns) Numerals from 1 to 4 had case. 12. Categories of verb in Old Germ.l. Verb had such categories: - voice (active, passive) - mood: indicative (denotes a statement), imperative (commands, was used only in present of active voice), subjunctive (2 functions – grammatical & semantic) - tense (present, preterite) - number (singular, plural, dual) - person (1, 2, 3) There are two voices in Germanic, active and passive. When the verbs is in the active voice, the subject of the sentence is in some sense the agent of the action, or the doer of the action. On the other hand, when the verb is inflected for passive, the subject of the verb is seen as the patient, or undergoer of the action. For example, the Gothic verb bairan “to carry”. When it is inflected actively, as in bairiþ “(he) carries”, the subject is seen as carrying something. When it is inflected passively, as in bairada “(he) is carried”. Note that in Present-day English the passive is build up according to the formula ‘be (auxiliary verb)+ past participle. In GL it is periphrastic. The category of mood is represented by the indicative denoting a statement; the imperative – command, and the subjunctive – a wish or an irreal statement. The older Germanic languages really have only two tenses, namely present and preterite (or past). The present is commonly used to render a future meaning, and the preterite is also used to express past participle, as in Modern English “I had run”. Number in the Germanic verb is governed by the subject. Thus, when the subject is singular, the verb is inflected for the singular; when the subject is in the plural, the verb is also. In the first and second persons, there is also a dual inflection of the verb, which is used when the subject is understood to consist of two people. Person, too, is a verbal category governed by the subject. Thus we find in the Germanic verb the categories of first, second, and third persons, equivalent to Present-day English forms appearing with ‘I’, ‘you’, and ‘he’, ‘she’, or ‘it’. 13. Strong verbs n Gothic. Strong verbs form their preterite by ablaut (nima ‘I take’, nam ‘I took’) or simply by reduplication (háita, ‘I call’, haíháit ‘I called’), or else by ablaut and reduplication combined (tēka ‘I touch, taítōk ‘I touched’). The strong verbs are subdivided into two classes: non-reduplicated and reduplicated verbs. The non-reduplicated verbs are divided into six classes according to the first six ablaut classes given in the previous lecture. The reduplicated verbs, which form their preterite by ablaut and reduplication combined belong to the seventh class. A. Non-reduplicated strong verbs in Gothic. Class 1. Ablaut grades i: - ai – i – i Infinitive Gothic OE OHG beidan “await” Bīdan Bītan Pret. Single báiþ bād beit Pret. Plural bidum bidon bitun Past Participle bidans biden gibitan To this class belong: beitan “to bite”, dreiban “to drive’, greipan “to seize”, weihan “to fight”, bi-leiban “to remain”; ga-smeitan “ to smear”, steigan “to ascend’ etc. Class II. Ablaut grades iu – au – u – u Infinitive Gothic OE OHG -biudan “to bid” Bēodan Biotan Pret. Single Pret. Plural -báuþ bead bōt -budum budon butun Past Participle -budans boden gibotan Here belong: biugan “to bend”; driugan “to serve as a soldier”; giutan “to pour”; kiusan “to test’, liusan “to lose” etc. Class III. Ablaut grades i – a – u – u Infinitive Gothic OE OHG hilpan “to help” Helpan Helfan Pret. Single Pret. Plural halp healp half hulpum hulpon hulfun Past Participle hulpans Holpen giholfan To this class belong all strong verbs having a medial nasal or liquid + a consonant, and a few others in which the vowel is followed by two consonants other than nasal or liquid + consonant. For example, baírgan “to keep”, bliggwan “to beat”, brinnan “to butrn”; hwaírban “to walk”, swiltan “to die” etc. Class IV. Ablaut grades i – a – ē - u Infinitive Gothic Pret. Single Pret. Plural niman “to nam nēmum beran to bær bæron Past Participle Numans take” OE boren OHG “bear” Beran bārun bar giboran To this class belong strong verbs whose stems end in a single nasal or liquid, and a few others. For example, brikan “to break”, qiman “to come” stilan “to steal”, ga-timan “to suit” etc. Class V. Ablaut grades i– a – ē - i Infinitive Gothic OE OHG mitan measure” Metan Mezzan “to Pret. Single Pret. Plural mat mētum mæt maz mæton māzzun Past Participle mitans Meten gimezzan To this class belong strong verbs having i (aí) in the infinitive, and whose stems end in a single consonant other than a liquid or a nasal: bidjan “to pray”, itan “to eat”, ligan “to lie down” etc. Class VI. Ablaut grades a – ō – ō - a Infinitive faran Gothic “to Pret. Single Pret. Plural fōr fōrum fōr fuor fōron fuorun Past Participle farans go” OE OHG Faran Faran færen gifaran To this class belong: alan “to grow”, ga-daban “to beseem”, skaban “to shave”, standan “to stand”, malan “to grind”. 1. Reduplicated Strong verbs in Gothic. The perfect was formed in the parent language partly with and partly without reduplication. The reason for this is unknown. Compare Sanskrit va-várta “I have turned”, Gothic warþ, warst, warþ; pl. va-vrtimá + Gothic waúrþum; Gothic wáit “I know’, lit. “I have seen”. The reduplicated syllable originally contained the vowel e. In Gothic the vowel in the reduplicated syllable would regularly be i, except in verbs beginning with r, h, hw, where the aí is quite regular. In the singular the accent was on the stem and in the dual and plural originally on the ending with corresponding change of ablaut. The reduplicated verbs in Gothic are divided into two classes: a) verbs that retain the same vowel stem through all tenses, and form their preterite simply by reduplication, as haítan “to call”; haíháit, haíháitum, háitans; (b) verbs which form their preterite by reduplication and ablaut combined. These verbs have the same stem-vowel in the preterite singular and plural, and the stem-vowel of the past poarticiple is the same as that of the present tense. Division (a) Class VII. Infinitive Gothic falþan “to fold” haldan “to hold” Division (b) Class VII Infinitive Gothic grētan “to weep” lētan “to let” Pret. Singular faífalþ haíhald Pret. Singular gaígrōt lailōt Past Participle falþans haldans Past Participle grētans lētans 14. Weak verbs in Old Germ.l. In Gothic they are divided into four classes according to the infinitives end in –jan, pret. –ida. (-ta); -ōn, pret. –ōda; -an, pret. –áida; -nan, pret. –nōda.The weak preterite is a special Germanic formation, and many points connected with its origin are still uncertain 1. First Weak Conjugation. In Gothic the verbs of this conjugation are sub-divided into two classes: - (1) verbs with a short stem syllable, as nasjan “to save”, or with a long open syllable, as stōjan “to judge”; (2) verbs with a long closed syllable, as sōkjan “to seek”; and polysyllabic verbs. Germanic suffix –j- in different Germanic languages reflected as –ia-, -ij-, -i-. Sub-class (1) Gothic OE OHG Sub-class (2) Gothic OE OHG Infinitive nasjan rescue’ Nerian Nerian “to Sōkjan Sēcan Suohen Preterite nasida PP nasiþs nerede nerita nered (gi)nerit sōkida sōhte suohta sōkiþs sōht (gi)suohit 2. Second Weak Conjugation. PG forms corresponding to the Gothic and OHG were *salbō-mi, *salbō-zi, *salbō-đi, Plural *salbō-miz, salbō-đi, with stem-forming suffix being –o-. Infinitive Preterite PP Gothic salbōn “to salbōda salbōþs anoint’ OE Endian endode endod OHG Machôn machôta gimachot 3. Third Weak Conjugation. It had a stem-forming suffix –ai- that apears only in Gothic (Preterite and Past participle), in Present the alternation of vowels proves to be a – ai. In other Germanic languages the suffix fell out or appeared as –e-. Gothic OE OHG Infinitive haban “to have” Habban Haben Preterite habaida hæfde habêta PP habaiþs hæfd gihabêt Fourth Weak Conjugation This class of verbs is characteristic of the Gothic language only. They belong to the so-call inchoative class of verbs, that is denoting the beginning of the action. 15. Preterite-present verbs These are the verbs inflected in the present like the preterite of strong verbs and in the past like the preterite of weak verbs. The following verbs, most of which are defective, belong to this class: cann – he knows dear – he dares sceal – he shall mot – he must mæj – he may ah – he possesses þearh – he needs ann – he grants Ablaut-series: Gothic witan “to know”. INF wita n OE witan PRESENT 1st 2nd Sing. Sng. Pl. wáit I wáis w know t itum 1 & wāt 3 Sng. w wāt iton PAST Pret.S S ubj. ng w Subj. Pret. .Part. wissē Wissa djáu itjau Pres wita nds wisse wisso n Pl. Compare PDE wit “розум, ум”; witty “розумний, дотепний”, and Russian ведать. (Grimm’s Law). Ablaut series: Gothic kunnan “to know”, OE cunnan > PDE can. INF Got hic kun nan OE cunnan PRESENT 1st 2nd Sing. Sng. kann kan I t um know 1-3 can(n) Sng can on (n) Pl. PAST Pret.S S ubj. ng kunn Subj. Pret. kunþē Kunþ djáu a Pres .Part. Kun nands cūðe cūðon cunn Pl. Ablaut series: Gothic *skulan “to be obliged to”, OE sculan “to be obliged” > PDE shall. INF Got hic lan an PRESENT 1st 2nd Sing. Sng. *scu skal kan ‘I t um OE owe’ Scul 1-3 sceal Sng sce on al Pl. PAST Pret. S ubj. Sng kunn Subj. Pret. Part. kunþē Kun þa Pres. djáu kunna nds scol scul de scol don Pl. Preterite-presents also include: (V-ablaut series) (VI-ablaut series) A. Gothic Magan *gamōtan Áihan OE magan “to have power” > PDE may, might mōt(an) “to be allowed to”, “to be able to” > PDE must āgan “own, possess, have” > PDE owe; PP āgen > “own, to own”, Pret. Sing. āhte > ought Anomalous verb *wiljan “to wish, desire” in Gothic. Present Singular 1. wiljáu 2. wileis 3. wili Dual wileits Preterite Indicative Sing 1. wilda Plural 1. 2. 3. wileima wileiþ wileina Subjunctive (optative) Wildēdjáu These verbs are very important for later periods. From these verbs we get the present day core modal verbs. There is an important difference: in OE pr-pr verbs were morphologically defined; in PrDE modal verbs are syntactically defined. There were 12 pr-pr verbs in OE, in Gothic – 14. They are subdivided into classes in analogy to the strong verbs. The basic forms of pr-pr verbs: - Infinitive; - Pres.Sg - Past tense - Participle II Some forms of separate pr-pr verbs are not attested – must has no Past Tense because it already was inherited in Past. And 2 verbs do not follow any of these classes: Majan – mæj – majon – meahte/mihte – no P II - may Jeneah – jenujon – jenohte – no Inf – no P II - enough 16. Infinitive, Participle When the verb is inflected for the categories so far discussed, it is said to be a finite form of the verb. But alongside these forms there also three non-finite forms of most verbs. The first is the infinitive proper, which is essentially a noun formed from the present tense verbal stem; consider PDE “to run”. The second is the present participle, which is an adjective formed from the present stem, analogous to forms like PDE ‘running’. The third is the preterite participle, an adjective sometimes but not always based on the preterite stem of the verb, and etymologically identical with forms like ‘driven’ in ‘I have driven’ or ‘a driven man’. INFINITIVE is not only an indefinite form f a verb. Originally infinitives were verbal agent nouns. (Nomina Agentis) – віддієслівні іменники. Infinitive as a frm of verbs appeared in IE languages after disintegration of the IE unity. Germ. inf. derives from the noun with the suffix –no-. in old Germ. lang-es analogical forms could be declined. They later developed into verbal form, and prepositions (OE to , OHG zi, zu, OIsl. At) – into a particle that goes with the verb. Germ. inf. didn’t have categories of the mood and tense. Nly later appeared analytical forms of the inf. Participles are verbal agent adjectives. It can be declined by case, and in Latin, Russian by tense and mood.We distinguish ParticipleI (active) and Part.II (passive). Participle I is formed from strong and weak verbs by adding suffix –nd-. Participle II: strong verb + n weak verb + þ/d/t. In England Participle I is –ing form. 17. Nominals, their categories. Noun had such categories: - gender (masc, fem, neut) - number (singular, plural) - case (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative, instrumental) - declension (strong, weak, minor, root) Adjective - declension (weak, strong) - degrees of comparison (positive, comparative, superlative) Pronoun - number (sg, pl, dual) - person (only personal pronouns) - case (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental) - gender (only in demonstrative pronouns) Numerals from 1 to 4 had case. 18. Categories of noun. The noun in Old German had such categories: - gender (masc, fem, neut) This distinction was not a grammatical category, it was merely a classifying feature. The gender a) regulates the forms of adj and rticles accompanying nouns b) to a certain extent regulates which specific forms of the case and number endings appear on the nouns. - number (singular, plural) Like in ME all the German lang-es distinguish SG and Pl. - case: Nominative can be defined as the case of the active agent Accusative is the use of the direct object, and also the case required by a preposition Similarly, a number of prepositions regularly require Genitive. It was primarily the case of nouns and pronouns serving as attribute to their nouns. The Dative was the chief case used with the prepositions or as an indirect personal object. Rare even in the eldest attested stages was used Vocative or the case of address: the only Germ. Lang showing this case is Goth. Instrumental (no in Gothic) is used to dentify the instrument of an action. !!! The Dative Sg: 1) ending –ai as in maujai (to the girl) 2) ending –au as in magau (to the boy) - declension (strong, weak, minor, root) 19. Noun structure in PG. The original reconstructed structure of noun in PG as in other Indo-European languages included three components: root, stem-forming suffix and inflection. The root rendered lexical meaning; stem-forming suffix was placed between root and inflection. Its original function might have been to classify nouns according to various lexical groups. Inflections served as means of connection in sentences together with prepositions. Neither of Indo-European languages preserved words with an ideal three-component structure. Normally stem-forming suffixes coalesced with inflection or root. Though in Gothic one can trace stem-forming suffixes by comparing forms of other stems. For example, Dative and Accusative Plural of nouns with vowel-stems: Masculine in –a- Masculine in Feminine in –ō- Masculine in –u- gast-i-m gast-i-ns gib-ō-m gib-ō-s sunum sununs –iDative wulf-a-m Accusative wulf-ams In Gothic, as in the oldest periods of the other Germanic languages, nouns are divided into two great classes, according as the stem originally ended in a vowel or consonant. Nouns, whose stems originally ended in a vowel, belong to the vocalic or so-called Strong Declension. Those, whose stems end in –n, belong to the Weak Declension. 20. Strong declension of noun. A. The Vocalic or Strong Declension. a-declension, masculine and neuter nouns Nominative Accusative/Vocative Genetive Dative Singular dags “day” Dag Dagis Daga Plural dagōs dagans dagē dagam PG forms of dags were: Sing nom. *đagaz, acc. *đagan, voc *đag(e), gen. *đagesa, dat. *đagai< PIE *dhoghōĩ. Like dags are declined a great many Gothic masculine nouns: akrs “field”, bagms “tree”, fisks “fish”, hunds “dog”, himins “heaven etc. Compare also OE Masculine like stan “stone”, scip “ship” etc. Masculine Singular Plural OE Nominative Genetive Dative Accusative Stān Stānes Stāne Stān stānas stāna stānum stānas The ō-declension include feminine nouns only and correspond to IE ā-declension Singular Nom.Acc. giba ‘gift’ Gen. gibōs Dat. Gibái Plural gibōs gibō gibōm Like giba are declined a very large number of feminine nouns, as bida “request”, bōka “book”, kara “care’, fēra “country”, mōta “custom-house”, rūna “mystery”, háirda etc. The i-declension contains only masculine and feminine nouns and correspond to the Latin and Greek ideclension. Singular Nom. gasts “guest” Acc. gast Gen. gastis Dat. gasta Voc. Gast Plural gasteis gastins gastē gastim - Like gasts are declined arms, “arm”, balgs “wine-skin”, barms “bosom”, gards “house”, saggws “song”, sáiws “sea” etc. 21. Weak declension of nouns. B. Weak Declension (n-stems). In the parent language the nom. Sing ended partly in –ēn, -ōn, and partly in –ē, -ō. The reason for this difference is unknown. Here belong masculines, feminines and neuters. Singular Nom. hana “cock” Acc. Hanan Gen. hanins Dat. hanin Plural hanans hanans hananē hanam Like hana are declined a great number of masculines: aha “mind”, ahma “spirit”, atta “father’, brunna “well”, blōma “flower”, falga “cross”, gajuka “companion”, garda “fold’, guma “man”, nuta “fisherman” etc. 22. Adjectives: strong and weak declension. In the parent PIE language nouns and adjectives were declined alike without any distinction in endings, as in Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit. In PG adjectives were divided into two groups: strong and weak. The so-called weak declension of adjectives is a special Germanic formation by means of the suffixes – en-, -on-, which were originally used to form nomina agentis, and attributive nouns as Lat. ēdo “glutton”, Goth. staua “judge’, wardja “guard”. Already in PG the weak declension became the rule when the adjective followed the definite article, as in ahma sa weiha “ghost the holy one”, OE Wulfmær se geonga “Wulfmær the Young”, OHG Ludowīg ther snello Ludwig the Brave”. At a later period but still in PG, the two kinds of adjectives – strong and weak – became differentiated in use. When the one and when the other form was used in Gothic is a question of syntax. In Gothic the adjectives are declined as strong or weak. They have three genders and the same cases as nouns. They also have degrees of comparison. The PIE parent language had several suffixes by means of which the comparative degree was formed. But in the individual branches of the parent language one of the suffixes became more productive than the rest. The only PIE comparative suffix which remained productive in the Germanic languages is –is-, which became –iz- (=Goth. –iz-, OHG –ir-, OE –r-) in PG by Verner’s law. Beside the suffix –iz- there was also in PG a suffix –ōz- (Goth. –ōz-, OHG –ōr-, OE –r-). This suffix is a special Germanic new formation, and arose from the comparative of adverbs whose positive degree originally ended in –ō-. And then at a later period it became extended to adjectives. In Gothic the –ja- stems, I-stems, and –u- stems take the suffix –iz-, a-stems sometimes take the one, sometimes the other. Positive manags “great juggs “young” swinþs “strong” alþeis “old” hardus “hard” Comparative managiza jūhiza swinþōza alþiza hardiza 23. Pronoun, morphological categories. Categories. Number: singular, plural, dual. Cases: Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative. Gender: masculine, feminine, neuter. PG pronouns fell roughly under the same main classes as modern pronoun: Personal(особові) Demonstrative(вказівні) Reflexive(зворотні) Interrogative(питальні) Possessive(присвійні) Indefinite(неозначені) Personal pronouns PG personal pronouns had 3 persons, 3 numbers in the first and second persons and 3 genders in the third person. First person Sing. Dual Plural Nom ik wit weisa Gen meina *ugkara unsara Dat mis ugkis uns, unsis Acc mik ugkis uns, unsis Reflexive pronouns The reflexive pronoun originally referred to the chief person of the sentence irrespectively as to whether the subject was the first, second or third person singular and plural. Gen seina(себе) Dat sis(собі) Acc sik(себе) Demonstrative The simple demonstrative sa, þata, sō was used both as demonstrative pronoun this, that, and as definite article, the. SINGULAR Masculi Neuter Nom. sa Acc. þata þata þis þamma ne PLURAL Masculi Neuter sō þō þái þans þō þō Þōs Þōs þizōs þamma þizē þáim þizē þáim þizō þáim Feminin e ne Feminin e þana Gen. þis Dat. þamma 24. The vocabulary of PG The sources of information about the oldest vocabulary of Germ. Lang-es were: runic inscriptions, toponymy, texts of literary monuments and modern vocabulary of Germ. Languages, which are examined with the help of the comparative-historical method. The vocabulary can be divided into 3 layers: 1. Common IE words 2. Common Germanic words 3. Words of separate Germ. Lang-es Common IE vocabulary includes terms of relationship, numerals and names of some plants and animals. The vocabulary of unknown origin forms 30% of the vocabulary of PG. the oldest borrowings were from Celtic and Latin. We also distinguish prattle words borrowed from childish lang., so called traveling words borrowed from unknown lang. and attested in many Germ. lang-es, folk words used in everyday speech and having special semantic meanings. According to lexical meanings of the words (semantic field) we distinguish a) natural phenomena; b) industrial terms; c) cultural terms, etc. According to stylistics we distinguish neutral, common used and stylistically coloured (poetic, official, bookish and professional vocabulary) vocabulary. Common used words are the names of things which surround us. They are used in everyday speech and are stylistically neutral: OHG ackar (поле), leban (жити), OE bringan (приносити), wind (вітер). Poetic terms were used in PG epos and included metaphors, epithets, similes and synonims: hilde-leoma (світоч бою – меч). In “Beowulf” there were used 37 nouns which denote the worrier. Bookish lang. appeared in Late CG and is connected with the development of science and culture. A lot of such words were borrowed from Latin and Greek: L credo> OE creda; L regula> OE regol. 25. The IE legacy, isogloss. Words which have common IE root have certain lexical meaning. They reflect surrounding world, natural phenomena, things necessary for people for living. We distinguish such semantic groups of words: Natural phenomena: heavenly bodies, atmospheric phenomena, relief, seasons: – сонце – Goth. sunno, sauil – L sol – OIsl. sol – OE sunna – OSlav сльньце – OHG sunna – Гора, погорб – OE hyll – L collis – Lithuanian kalnas – Lettish kalns Names of wild animals Вовк – Goth wolfs – OE wulf – OHG wolf – L lupus – OSlav влькь Names of plants – береза – OSlav брьза – OE beorc – OHG birihha Names of birds Parts of body – ніс – OSlav нось – Lithuanian nasus – OE nosu – OHG nasa – OIsl. nos Relatives – син – OSlav. Синь – Goth sunus – OIsl. sonr – OE, OHG sunu The isogloss: narrow meaning: the line on the map showing the spread of this or that ling. phenomenon; broad sense: a lexical or morphological unit common for certain group of lang-es and which is not encountered (не зустрічається) in the other lang.-es (я маю – в мене є; мешкати – проживати). 26. Common Germ. stock. The common vocabulary. In the traditional view the Indo-Europeans before their dispersal (7000/4000 BC) were a nomadic or semi-nomadic pastoral people. They had cattle and sheep, for there are common words for both of these, e.g. English ox is Welsh ych, Sanskrit uksan-, and Tocharian okso. Cattle were obviously highly prized. OE feoh, Sanskrit pacu- and Latin pecu, meant both “cattle” and “wealth”, the Latin word for “money, wealth” was pecunia, and cattle figure prominently in the early writings of Indo-European peoples. They also had domestic animals, including the dog, and possibly the pig, the goat, and the goose, but there no common word for the ass, nor for the camel – English word goes back, via Latin and Greek, to a loan from a Semitic language. The Indo-Europeans certainly had horses, for which a rich vocabulary has survived, and they also had vehicles of some kind, for these are the words for wheel, axle «ось», nave “маточина (колеса)” and yoke “ярмо, хомут”. They had cheese and butter, but no common word for milk has survived, which shows how “chancy” the evidence is. No large common vocabulary has survived for agriculture, such a vocabulary is found in the European languages, but this may obviously date from after dispersal. There are, however, common words for grain, and Greek and Sanskrit have cognate words for plough and for furrow “борозна”, so there is some support to the view that the Proto-Indo-Europeans were agriculturalists. РОЖЬ, нем. ROGGEN < PG * ruggn-/*rugis- (с обычным удвоением g перед n )< PIE *rughio- in Germanic, Baltic and Slavonic languages, PDE rye. There is, however, no common word for beer (which an agriculturalist’s product, while there is a word for mead. On the other hand, there is no common vocabulary for hunting or fishing. There are a number of common words for tools and weapons, including arrows, and there is no evidence to suggest that at one time the tools and weapons were made of stone: the Latin verb secāre ‘to cut’ is related to saxum ‘a stone, rock’, and the latter is identical with OE seax, which meant ‘knife’. At one time, it seems, a stone could be a cutting instrument. The PIE people knew metal, however, for there two common words for copper and bronze, one of which survives as PDE ore, Latin aes, Sanskrit ayas, and there also words for gold and silver. There is no common terminology for the techniques of metallurgy. The vocabulary shows a familiarity with pottery and also with weaving. They knew both rain and snow, but their summer seems to have been hot, which suggests a continental climate. The wild animals they knew include wolves, bears, otters, mice, hares, and beavers, but apparently not lions, tigers, elephants, or camels, so presumably they lived in a cool temperate zone. There has been some argument about the common Indo-European words for the beech tree, the eel, and the salmon. The beech does not grow in North-East Europe or anywhere east of Caspian, so it has been argued that the home of the IndoEuropeans must have been farther West. The eel and the salmon are not found in the rivers that flow into the Black sea, so it has been argued that this region too must be ruled out. There are, however, two weaknesses in this argument. The first is that the climate has changed since the times of he PIE: around 4000 BC, the climate of southern Russia was wetter and warmer than it is today, and there were many more trees, especially along the banks of streams and rivers; these trees almost certainly included beech. The second weakness is that we cannot be absolutely certain that these words originally referred to the species in question. E.g., it is possible thet the word for ‘salmon’ (German Lachs, Swedish lax, Russian lososi ‘salmon’, Tocharian laks ‘fish’) did not originally refer to the true salmon, but to a species of Salmo found North of the Black sea. The view of the IE family is supported by the Indo-European names of Gods. There are a few common to the European and Asiatic languages, and they seem to be personifications of natural forces. Prominent among them, is a Sky God: he Greek Zeus, the Sanskrit Dyaus, the OE Tīw (Tuesday). He was a Father God, as we can see it from his Latin name, Jupiter, which means ‘Sky Father’. 27. Borrowings, substratum, superstatum. The oldest borrowings from Celtic lang. were borrowings of law, social and military terms: – Goth lekeis – лікар, цілитель – OE lead – свинець – OIsl. leđr – шкіра The oldest borrowings from Latin took place in the I century A.D. These were : – Military terms: L campus> OE camp, OHG champf – поле. – Roads, buildings L milia> OE mil, OHG mila – миля, тисяча кроків. – Food and drinks L vinum> Germ. *wina> Goth wein, OHG win (>G Wein), OE win (>E wine) – вино. – Plants and animals L piper> OHG pfeffar (G. Pfeffer), OE pipor (>E pepper) – перець. – Clothes and shoes L saccus> OHG sac (>G. sack), OE sacca (>E sack) – мішок. – Trade (торгівля) L moneta> OHG monizza (>G. Münze), OE mynet (>E mint) – монета. – Household goods L discus> OHG tisks (>G. Tisch), E dish – диск, плоске блюдо. Slavic borrowings: Slav. * osenь> Germ. asani (час жнив) Slav. *vorgь> Germ *warga (ворог) Slav. pluь> Germ ploga (плуг) The underlaid lang. is known as a substratum, the proposed explanation for sound change is therefore known as the substratum theory. Celtic lang. is a substratum for Engl. 449 year – Anglo-Saxons settled on the British Isles where the Celts were. Superstratum – the superior influence in lang. It imposed on the other lang. (e. g. French). Bolgarian=Turkic+Slavic. 28. Simple and composite sentences. Syntax of OGL isn’t fully explored. But it is considered that the structure of a simple sentence in OGL is the same as in the ModernGL. There were a couple of differences due to the morphological peculiarities of the Old L-ges. Simple: The predicate was the obligatory feature of a sentence. The verb was absent only in a case when the same verb was used in the preceding sentence. The verb always took the 2nd place. It took the 1st place only if a sentence does not have a subject. Usually a sentence had both a subject and a predicate, but there were numerous cases of a sentence having only one or the other. - sometimes the pronoun subject was eliminated; - the subject wasn’t present if the predicate was presented as an impersonal verb, expressing natural phenomena or physical or emotional feeling (ringjan “to rain”, huggrjan “to be hungry”) The attribute and the object didn’t have a fixed position, could precede or follow the subject A simple sentence could be complicated by participle or infinitive constructions: - absolute dative: Innagaggandin imam in Kafarnaum duatiddja imam hundafaps (до нього, що ввійшов у Капернаум, підійшов сотник) - absolute accusative: Usgaggandan pan ina in daur, gasahw ina anpara (Його, що виходив з воріт, побачила інша) - absolute nominative : Jah waurthans dags gatils, pan Herodis mela gabaurthais seinaizos nahtamat waurhta (І коли настав зручний день, тоді Ірод влаштував бенкет з нагоди свого дня народження) Compound: 29. Comparative method. Two languages are said to be genetically related if they are divergent continuations of the same earlier language. The common or hypothesised language that serves as a common ancestor is called a proto-language, or sometimes, a parent language. In this case the divergent continuations are frequently referred to as daughter languages. A parent language and its daughters constitute a language family. Sometimes the proto-language is an actually attested language with surviving texts. A case in point is the family of Romance languages, including French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Rumanian, and others, whose common ancestor appears to be a variant of Latin. Yet English and German can be traced back only so far, and then we run out of texts. In such situations the job of a linguist is to come up with a reconstruction of the parent language, a hypothesis about the specific form of the proto-language that could have changed into the documented daughter languages. In the classical procedure and the first prerequisite of reconstruction is that one have languages with a large number of words similar in sound and meaning. Such words are referred to as cognates, and the first thing to do is to set up lists of cognate words. Let us take, for example, the following words: OE fæder þrīe OHG fater drî ON faðir þrír Goth. fadar þreis ModE father three First we look at the first sounds of each word in all the languages, and find out the first correspondence. Now we can determine the sound in the proto-language that could most easily resulted in the actually found sounds is *f-. Notice, that asterisk before the f implies reconstruction. This means that what follows is a reconstruction, and not an actually documented sound. A slightly more complex situation is presented by the words for ‘three’. Instead of unanimity, we find that Old High German has d, where other languages have þ, representing the sound found in Modern English bath. Other things being equal, in case like this, the linguist is inclined to let the majority rule. It is simpler to assume that one language made a change from þ to d than that three made a change from d to þ. Thus we reconstruct for Proto-Germanic the sound *þ. 30. The Indo-Europeans. It is assumed that the Indo-European family of languages, with its numerous branches and its millions of speakers, has developed out of some single language, which must have been spoken thousands of years ago by some comparatively small body of people in a relatively restricted geographical area. This original language is called Proto-Indo-European (PIE). The people, who spoke it or who spoke languages evolved from it, are called Indo-Europeans. People of very different races and cultures can come to be native speakers of Indo-European languages: such speakers today include Indians, Afghans, Iranians, Greeks, Irishmen, Ukrainians, Mexicans, Brazilians, and Norwegians. The traditional view has been that the Indo-Europeans were a nomadic or semi-nomadic people, who invaded neighboring agricultural or urban areas, and imposed their languages on them. It is believed that the initial expansion of the Indo-Europeans was simply the pushing out of the frontiers of an agricultural people, who over centuries introduced agriculture into the more thinly populated country round their periphery, inhabited by hunters or food-gatherers. This mass migration began in about 7000 BC or according to the traditional point of view it dates back to 4000BC or later. The home of Indo-Europeans. There several opinions regarding where from the dispersal began. 1) Scandinavia, and the adjacent parts of Northern Germany, and it was often linked with a belief that the Germanic peoples were the ‘original’ Indo-Europeans; b) steppes of Ukraine, north of the Black sea; c) eastern Anatolia, to the South of the Caucasus range, and west of the Caspian sea. Let us assume that it was the Ukrainian steppes or South Russian steppes, where about 5th millennium BC, lived people, who formed a loosely linked group of communities with common gods and similar social organization. After 4000 BC, when the language had developed into a number of dialects, they began to expand in various directions, different groups ending up in Iran, India, the Mediterranean area, and most part of Europe. In the course of their expansion, the Indo-Europeans overran countries which had reached a higher level of civilization than they had themselves, the Aryas, for example, conquered the civilizations of Northern India, and the Persians those of Mesopotamia. Primitive nomadic peoples have overrun more advanced urban civilizations, and there is no need to postulate some special intellectual or physical prowess in the IndoEuropeans. There is one technical factor, which played a role in the expansion of Indo-Europeans. This was the use of horse-drawn vehicles, which was characteristic of Indo-European society. The horse was a later introduction into the river valleys of the great early urban civilizations, in which the normal draught animal was the ass, and when the horse came to them, it came from the North. It is possible that Indo-Europeans were ahead of time, and it was their use of wheeled vehicles, especially the fast horse-drawn chariot, that enabled them to overrun such a large part of the Eurasian continent. The family tree of the Indo-European languages. PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN Western branch Eastern branch Western branch West European Сeltic-Italic Celtic Italic Germanic Tocharian Hellenic Anatolian Eastern branch Baltic-Slavonic Baltic Arian Slavonic Albanian Armenian Iranian Indian The first division into an Eastern Group and a Western Group is important. The groups are marked by a number of differences in phonology, grammar, and vocabulary, which suggests that there was an early division of the Indo-Europeans into two main areas, perhaps representing migrations in different directions. One of the distinctive differences in phonology between the two groups is the treatment of the PIE palatal k, which appears as a velar [k] in the western languages, but as some kind of palatal fricative, [s] or [ ] in the Eastern languages. Thus the word for hundred is Greek he-katon, Latin centum, Tocharian känt, Old Irish cet, and Welsh cant (the c in each case representing [k]), but in Sanskrit it is satam, in Old Slavonic seto (modern Ukrainian cто). For this reason, the two groups are often referred to as the Kentum languages and the Satem languages. On the whole, the Kentum languages are in the West and the Satem languages in the East, but an apparent anomaly is Tocharian, right across in western China, which is a Kentum language. The division into Kentum and Satem languages took place around 1500 BC. 31. Tree of IE lang. PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN Western branch Eastern branch Western branch West European Сeltic-Italic Celtic Italic Germanic Tocharian Hellenic Anatolian Eastern branch Baltic-Slavonic Baltic Slavonic Arian Albanian Armenian Iranian Indian The first division into an Eastern Group and a Western Group is important. The groups are marked by a number of differences in phonology, grammar, and vocabulary, which suggests that there was an early division of the Indo-Europeans into two main areas, perhaps representing migrations in different directions. One of the distinctive differences in phonology between the two groups is the treatment of the PIE palatal k, which appears as a velar [k] in the western languages, but as some kind of palatal fricative, [s] or [ ] in the Eastern languages. Thus the word for hundred is Greek he-katon, Latin centum, Tocharian känt, Old Irish cet, and Welsh cant (the c in each case representing [k]), but in Sanskrit it is satam, in Old Slavonic seto (modern Ukrainian cто). For this reason, the two groups are often referred to as the Kentum languages and the Satem languages. On the whole, the Kentum languages are in the West and the Satem languages in the East, but an apparent anomaly is Tocharian, right across in western China, which is a Kentum language. The division into Kentum and Satem languages took place around 1500 BC. A parent language – a language from which a later language is derived: Latin is the parent language of Italian and French. A daughter language. In historical linguistics, a daughter language is a language descended from another language through a process of genetic descent. Examples: * English is a daughter language of Proto-Germanic, which is a daughter language of Proto-Indo-European. * Italian is a daughter language of (Vulgar) Latin, which is a daughter language of Proto-Indo-European. * Hindi is a daughter language of Sanskrit (/Prakrit), which is a daughter language of Proto-Indo-European. * Arabic is a daughter language of Proto-Semitic, which is a daughter language of Proto-Afro-Asiatic. Dialect – a form of a language spoken in a particular geographical area or by members of a particular social class or occupational group, distinguished by its vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation b) a form of a language that is considered inferior. Genetically related languages – are the divergent continuation of the same earlier language. In linguistics, genetic relationship is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family. Two languages are considered to be genetically related if one is descended from the other or if both are descended from a common ancestor. For example, Italian is descended from Latin. Italian and Latin are therefore said to be genetically related. Spanish is also descended from Latin. Therefore, Spanish and Italian are genetically related. Metaphorically, we can refer to the relation defined by a parent-child pattern of language transmission as genetic relationship of languages. The source language can be called the "ancestor language" or the "mother language", and the later languages deriving from it are called the "descendant languages" or the "daughter languages". Daughter languages are descended from the mother language. They are genetically related. Genetically related languages have a common parent language: proto-language � systematic comparison shows if languages are descended from common parent � changes not only observed in documented history but also in language prehistory. Closely related lang-es – are genetically related lang-es possessing a lot of features in common, such as English and Frisian or Danish and Swedish. 32. The home of Indo-Europeans. There several opinions regarding where from the dispersal began. 1) Scandinavia, and the adjacent parts of Northern Germany, and it was often linked with a belief that the Germanic peoples were the ‘original’ IndoEuropeans; b) steppes of Ukraine, north of the Black sea; c) eastern Anatolia, to the South of the Caucasus range, and west of the Caspian sea. Let us assume that it was the Ukrainian steppes or South Russian steppes, where about 5th millennium BC, lived people, who formed a loosely linked group of communities with common gods and similar social organization. After 4000 BC, when the language had developed into a number of dialects, they began to expand in various directions, different groups ending up in Iran, India, the Mediterranean area, and most part of Europe. In the course of their expansion, the Indo-Europeans overran countries which had reached a higher level of civilization than they had themselves, the Aryas, for example, conquered the civilizations of Northern India, and the Persians those of Mesopotamia. Primitive nomadic peoples have overrun more advanced urban civilizations, and there is no need to postulate some special intellectual or physical prowess in the IndoEuropeans. There is one technical factor, which played a role in the expansion of Indo-Europeans. This was the use of horse-drawn vehicles, which was characteristic of Indo-European society. The horse was a later introduction into the river valleys of the great early urban civilizations, in which the normal draught animal was the ass, and when the horse came to them, it came from the North. It is possible that Indo-Europeans were ahead of time, and it was their use of wheeled vehicles, especially the fast horse-drawn chariot, that enabled them to overrun such a large part of the Eurasian continent. 33. Kentum and Satem lang-es. The first division into an Eastern Group and a Western Group is important. The groups are marked by a number of differences in phonology, grammar, and vocabulary, which suggests that there was an early division of the Indo-Europeans into two main areas, perhaps representing migrations in different directions. One of the distinctive differences in phonology between the two groups is the treatment of the PIE palatal k, which appears as a velar [k] in the western languages, but as some kind of palatal fricative, [s] or [ ] in the Eastern languages. Thus the word for hundred is Greek he-katon, Latin centum, Tocharian känt, Old Irish cet, and Welsh cant (the c in each case representing [k]), but in Sanskrit it is satam, in Old Slavonic seto (modern Ukrainian cто). For this reason, the two groups are often referred to as the Kentum languages and the Satem languages. On the whole, the Kentum languages are in the West and the Satem languages in the East, but an apparent anomaly is Tocharian, right across in western China, which is a Kentum language. The division into Kentum and Satem languages took place around 1500 BC. 34. PG: concept, division. The branch of Indo-European that English belongs to is called Germanic. Germanic languages are descended from one parent language, a dialect of Indo-European, called Proto-Germanic (PG). Round about the beginning of the Christian era, the speakers of Proto-Germanic still formed a relatively homogeneous cultural and linguistic group, living in the north of Europe. There are no records of the language of this period, but we know something about the people who spoke it, because they were described by Roman authors, who called them the Germani, which for convenience are translated as ‘Germans’. One of the best-known of these descriptions is that written by Tacitus in AD 98, called Germania. The branches of Germanic As a result of this expansion of the Germanic-speaking peoples, differences of dialect within ProtoGermanic became more marked, and we can distinguish three main branches or groups of dialects, namely North Germanic, East Germanic, and West Germanic. Proto-Germanic West Germanic North Germanic East Germanic To North Germanic belong the modern Scandinavian languages – Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Icelandic, Faroese and Gutnish (the language of the island of Gotland). The earliest recorded form of North Germanic (Old Norse) is found in runic inscriptions from about AD 300; and it is not until the Viking Age, from about AD 800 onwards, that it begins to break up into the dialects, which have developed into the modern Scandinavian languages. Here is the family tree for the North Germanic languages: North Germanic (Old Norse) West Scandinavian Icelandic Norwegian East Scandinavian Faroese Danish Swedish Gutnish The East Germanic dialects were spoken by the tribes that expanded East of the Oder around the shores of the Baltic. They included the Goths, and Gothic is the only East Germanic language of which we have any record. Round AD 200 the Goths migrated south-eastwards, and settled in the plains north of the Black Sea, where they divided into two branches, the Ostgoths east of the Dieper and the Visigoths west of it. The main record of Gothic is the fragmentary remains of a translation of the Bible into Visigothic, made by the Bishop Wulfila or Ulfilas in the middle of the forth century. The Goths were later overrun by the Huns, but a form of Gothic was being spoken in the Crimea as late as the 17th century. It has since died out, however, and no East Germanic language has survived into our own times. Here is the family tree for the East Germanic languages: East Germanic Burgundian Vandal Gothic Visigothic Ostrogothic To West Germanic belong the High German dialects of southern Germany, the Low German dialects of northern Germany (which in their earliest recorded form are called Old Saxon), Dutch, Frisian, and English. The language most closely related to English is Frisian, which was once spoken along the coast of North sea, from Northern Holland to central Denmark, but which is now heard only in a few coastal regions and on some of the Dutch islands. Before the migration of the Anglo-Saxons to England, they must have been near neighbours of the Frisians. Here is a family tree for the West Germanic languages: West Germanic Old High German Old Saxon High Low German Old Low Franconian Dutch Old English Old Frisian German English Frisian 35. Old North Germ. lang-es. Old Germ. lang-es (400 A.D./ 900 A.D.) It took approximately 5 centuries for the Old Germ. lang-es (dialects) to form the features of individuality to be definitely distinguished from one another, with the East Germ. lang-es having died away by the time the North Germ. lang-es manifested features of differentiation. West Germ. East Germ. North Germ. OE 5th c Old Norwegian 8th c Gothic 3d-4th c Old Frisian 5th c Old Faroese 9th c th Old Low Franconian 7 c Old Icelandic 9th c OHG 8th c Old Swedish 8th c Old Saxon 9th c Old Danish 9th c The development of the Germ. group was not confined to successive splits. It involved both linguistic divergence and convergence. As a result of the expansion of the Germanic-speaking peoples, differences of dialect within ProtoGermanic became more marked, and we can distinguish three main branches or groups of dialects, namely North Germanic, East Germanic, and West Germanic. Proto-Germanic West Germanic North Germanic East Germanic To North Germanic belong the modern Scandinavian languages – Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Icelandic, Faroese and Gutnish (the language of the island of Gotland). The earliest recorded form of North Germanic (Old Norse) is found in runic inscriptions from about AD 300; and it is not until the Viking Age, from about AD 800 onwards, that it begins to break up into the dialects, which have developed into the modern Scandinavian languages. Here is the family tree for the North Germanic languages: North Germanic (Old Norse) West Scandinavian East Scandinavian Icelandic Norwegian Faroese Danish Swedish Gutnish Old North Germ. lang-es anf their written records (Hilleviones): 1) Old Norse or Old Scandinavian (2nd – 3rd c A.D.) – Futhark, runic inscriptions 2) Old Icelandic (12th c A.D.) 3) Old Norwegian (13th c A.D.) 4) Old Danish (13th c A.D.) 5) Old Swedish (13th c A.D.) 36. Old West Germ. lang-es. Old Germ. lang-es (400 A.D./ 900 A.D.) It took approximately 5 centuries for the Old Germ. lang-es (dialects) to form the features of individuality to be definitely distinguished from one another, with the East Germ. lang-es having died away by the time the North Germ. lang-es manifested features of differentiation. West Germ. East Germ. North Germ. OE 5th c Old Norwegian 8th c Gothic 3d-4th c Old Frisian 5th c Old Faroese 9th c th Old Low Franconian 7 c Old Icelandic 9th c OHG 8th c Old Swedish 8th c th Old Saxon 9 c Old Danish 9th c The development of the Germ. group was not confined to successive splits. It involved both linguistic divergence and convergence. As a result of the expansion of the Germanic-speaking peoples, differences of dialect within ProtoGermanic became more marked, and we can distinguish three main branches or groups of dialects, namely North Germanic, East Germanic, and West Germanic. Proto-Germanic West Germanic North Germanic East Germanic To West Germanic belong the High German dialects of southern Germany, the Low German dialects of northern Germany (which in their earliest recorded form are called Old Saxon), Dutch, Frisian, and English. The language most closely related to English is Frisian, which was once spoken along the coast of North sea, from Northern Holland to central Denmark, but which is now heard only in a few coastal regions and on some of the Dutch islands. Before the migration of the Anglo-Saxons to England, they must have been near neighbours of the Frisians. Here is a family tree for the West Germanic languages: West Germanic Old High German Old Saxon High German Low German Old Low Franconian Dutch Old English English West Germ. lang-es and their written records: 1) Anglian 2) Frisian 3) Langobardian 4) Jutish 5) Saxon 6) Franconian 7) High German Alemanic Thüringian Swabian Bawarian 8) OE (7th c A.D.) 9) Old Saxon (9th c A.D.) 10) OHG (8th c A.D.) 11) Old Dutch (12th c A.D.) Old Frisian Frisian 37. The West Germ. tree-diagram of lang-es. Scholars often divide the Germanic languages into three groups: West Germanic, including English, German, and Netherlandic (Dutch); North Germanic, including Danish, Swedish, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Faroese; and East Germanic, now extinct, comprising only Gothic and the languages of the Vandals, Burgundians, and a few other tribes. The High German languages (in German, Hochdeutsche Sprachen) or the High German dialects (Hochdeutsche Mundarten/Dialekte) are any of the varieties of standard German, Luxembourgish and Yiddish, as well as the local German dialects spoken in central and southern Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, Luxembourg and in neighbouring portions of Belgium, France (Alsace and northern Lorraine), Italy, and Poland. The language is also spoken in diaspora in Romania (Transylvania), Russia, the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Namibia. West Germanic languages Dutch (Low Franconian, West Germanic) Low German (West Germanic) Central German (High German, West Germanic) Upper German (High German, West Germanic) English (Anglo-Frisian, West Germanic) Frisian (Anglo-Frisian, West Germanic) North Germanic languages East Scandinavian West Scandinavian Line dividing the North and West Germanic languages As a technical term, the "high" in High German is a geographical reference to the group of dialects that forms "High German" (in the broader sense), out of which developed standard High German (in the narrower sense), Yiddish and Luxembourgish. It refers to the upland and mountainous areas of central and southern Germany, it also includes Luxembourg, Austria, Liechtenstein and most of Switzerland. This is opposed to Low German, which is spoken on the lowlands and along the flat sea coasts of the north.  High German in this broader sense can be subdivided into Upper German (Oberdeutsch, this includes the Austrian and Swiss German dialects) and Central German (Mitteldeutsch). By the High German consonant shift, the map of German dialects is divided into Upper German and Central German, and the Low German. The main isoglosses, the Benrath and Speyer lines, are marked black. Family tree Note that divisions between subfamilies of Germanic are rarely precisely defined; most form continuous clines, with adjacent dialects being mutually intelligible and more separated ones not. In particular, there has never been an original "Proto-High German". For this and other reasons, the idea of representing the relationships between West Germanic language forms in a tree diagram at all is controversial among linguists; what follows should be used with care in the light of this caveat. * Central German (German: Mitteldeutsch) o East Central German + South Markish + Upper Saxon + North Upper Saxon + Thuringian Dialect + Lower Silesian language (mostly in Lower Silesia, in Poland) + High Prussian o Transylvanian Saxon (in Transylvania) o West Central German + Ripuarian + Moselle Franconian, including the Luxembourgish language + Rhine Franconian # Lorraine Franconian (France) # Pfälzisch language # Hunsrückisch * Riograndenser Hunsrückisch (in Southern Brazil) + Central Hessian + East Hessian + Lower Hessian o Transitional areas between Central German and Upper German + High Franconian o Pennsylvania German (in the United States and Canada) * Upper German (German: Oberdeutsch) o Alemannic + Swabian + Low Alemannic (including one Swiss German dialect: Basel German) + Alsatian language (but often also classified as within Low Alemannic) + Mittelalemannisch + High Alemannic (including many Swiss German dialects) + Highest Alemannic (including Swiss German dialects) o Austro-Bavarian (On the use of dialects and Standard German in Austria, see Austrian language) + Northern Austro-Bavarian (spoken in Upper Palatinate) + Central Austro-Bavarian (includes the dialects of Upper Bavaria, Lower Bavaria, Upper Austria, Lower Austria and Vienna — see Viennese language) + Southern Austro-Bavarian (includes the dialects of Tirol, Carinthia and Styria) + Cimbrian (northeastern Italy) + Mócheno (Trentino, in Italy) + Hutterite German (in Canada and the United States) * Yiddish o Western Yiddish (Germany, France) o Eastern Yiddish + Northeastern Yiddish (Lithuania, Latvia, Belarus, Russia, northeastern Poland) + Central Yiddish (Poland, Galicia) + Southeastern Yiddish (Ukraine, Bessarabia, Romania) * Texas German, a dialect spoken by descendants of immigrants who settled in the Texas Hill Country region in the mid-19th century. 38. The East-Germ. tree of lang-es. As a result of the expansion of the Germanic-speaking peoples, differences of dialect within ProtoGermanic became more marked, and we can distinguish three main branches or groups of dialects, namely North Germanic, East Germanic, and West Germanic. Proto-Germanic West Germanic North Germanic East Germanic The East Germanic dialects were spoken by the tribes that expanded East of the Oder around the shores of the Baltic. They included the Goths, and Gothic is the only East Germanic language of which we have any record. Round AD 200 the Goths migrated south-eastwards, and settled in the plains north of the Black Sea, where they divided into two branches, the Ostgoths east of the Dieper and the Visigoths west of it. The main record of Gothic is the fragmentary remains of a translation of the Bible into Visigothic, made by the Bishop Wulfila or Ulfilas in the middle of the forth century. The Goths were later overrun by the Huns, but a form of Gothic was being spoken in the Crimea as late as the 17th century. It has since died out, however, and no East Germanic language has survived into our own times. Here is the family tree for the East Germanic languages: East Germanic Burgundian Vandal Gothic Visigothic Ostrogothic 39. North Germ. lang-es. To North Germanic belong the modern Scandinavian languages – Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Icelandic, Faroese and Gutnish (the language of the island of Gotland). The earliest recorded form of North Germanic (Old Norse) is found in runic inscriptions from about AD 300; and it is not until the Viking Age, from about AD 800 onwards, that it begins to break up into the dialects, which have developed into the modern Scandinavian languages. Here is the family tree for the North Germanic languages: North Germanic (Old Norse) West Scandinavian Icelandic Norwegian East Scandinavian Faroese Danish Swedish Gutnish 40. Old Germ. alphabet, written records. Latin: Horace - lyric poet and satirist; Virgil - epic, didactic and pastoral poet; Petronius – novelist; Pliny the Elder – scientist; Pliny the Younger – correspondent; Apuleius - novellist and philosopher. Runic (Futhark) - The two best known runic inscriptions in England are the earliest extant OE written records. One of them is and inscription on a box called the “Frank’s Casket”, the other is a short text on a stone cross near the village of Ruthwell known as the “Ruthwell Cross”. OE alphabet – Runic inscriptions: “The Frank’s Casket” VIII c; “The Ruthwell Cross” VIII c; “Beowulf” (VIII) X c; Orosious’ “World History” (V) IX; “The Anglo-Saxon chronicles” VIII-XII c. Gothic alphabet – “The Silver Codex” – CODEX ARGENTEUS . It’s a fragment of Ulfila’s translation of the Gospels (5th – 6th c A.D.). This manuscript is written on parchment with silver and golden letters. Now is kept in Uppsala, Sweden. The commonly used alphabets were Latin, Wulfilian and Runic. The term rune refers to any member of a set of symbols found in a distinctive Germanic alphabet. It is called Futhark after the sound values of the first six symbols. It was used primarily in northern Europe from probably the mid-first century on. It gives below twenty four symbols found in the oldest version of this alphabet, known as the older futhark, along with their common Romanizations and probable Germanic names. 1. The runes for b, d, g had two pronunciations, namely as the stops [b], [d], [g] and as fricatives [b], [d] [g] as in Gothic. 2. The runes show no distinction between long and short vowels, but it obviously existed. 3. The letter R, given in parenthesis after z, is actually the only value for the rune in the inscriptions that have survived. It presents a sound somewhere between [z] and [r], like Slavonic [ж]. This is the original Germanic sound [z], which is rhotacized in all the Germanic languages except Gothic. 4. The rune names represent mnemonics. The earliest surviving runic inscriptions date from the second half of the second century, and are found on materials, such as metal or stone, that resist decomposition. It is likely, that the runes were devised to be carved in wood, as their forms suggest by their aviodance of curves and horizontal lines. The language of the older futhark is traditionally called Proto-Norse. The majority of inscriptions were found in Scandinavia, with a few scattered in Germany, England and eastern Europe. The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. It evolved from the western variety of the Greek alphabet called the Cumaean alphabet, which was borrowed and modified by the Etruscans who ruled early Rome, which alphabet was then adapted and further modified by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language. During the Middle Ages, it was adapted to the Romance languages, the direct descendants of Latin, as well as to the Celtic, Germanic, Baltic, and some Slavic languages, and finally to most of the languages of Europe. With the age of colonialism and Christian proselytism, the Latin alphabet was spread overseas, and applied to Indigenous American, Indigenous Australian, Austronesian, East Asian, and African languages. More recently, western linguists have also tended to prefer the Latin alphabet or the International Phonetic Alphabet (itself largely based on the Latin alphabet) when transcribing or creating written standards for non-European languages, such as the African reference alphabet. In modern usage, the term Latin alphabet is used for any direct derivation of the alphabet first used to write Latin. These variants may discard letters from the classical Roman script (like the Rotokas alphabet) or add new characters to it, as from the Danish and Norwegian alphabet. Letter shapes have changed over the centuries, including the creation of entirely new lower case characters. Classical Latin alphabet Letter A B C D E F G H ā bē cē dē ē ef gē hā Name Pronunciation /aː/ /beː/ /keː/ /deː/ /eː/ /ef/ /geː/ /haː/ (IPA) Letter Name I ī K kā L el M em N en O ō P pē Q qū Pronunciation (IPA) /iː/ /kaː/ /el/ /em/ /en/ /oː/ /peː/ /kʷuː/ Letter R S T V X Y Z er es tē ū ex ī Graeca zēta Name Pronunciation /er/ /es/ /teː/ /uː/ /eks/ /iː ˈgraika/ /ˈzeːta/ (IPA) The runic alphabet is a specifically Germanic alphabet, not to be found in languages of other groups. The word rune originally meant ’secret’, ‘mystery’ and hence came to denote inscriptions believed to be magic. The runes were used as letters, each symbol to indicate separate sound. This alphabet is called futhark after the first six letters. Runic letters are angular; straight lines are preferred, curved lines avoided; this is due to the fact that runic inscriptions were cut in hard material: stone, bone or wood. The shapes of some letters resemble those of Greek or Latin, other have not been traced to any known alphabet, and the order of the runes in the alphabet is certainly original. The number of runes in different OG languages varied. As compared to continental, the number of runes in England was larger: new runes were added as new sounds appeared in English (from 28 to 33 runes in Britain against 16 or 24 on the continent). The main use of runes was to make short inscriptions on objects, often to bestow on them some special power or magic. The two best known runic inscriptions in England are the earliest extant OE written records. One of them is and inscription on a box called the “Franks Casket”, the other is a short text on a stone cross near the village of Ruthwell known as the “Ruthwell Cross” The three best-known runic alphabets are the Elder Futhark (around 150 to 800 AD), the Old English Futhorc (400 to 1100 AD), and the Younger Futhark (800–1100). The Younger Futhark is further divided into the longbranch runes (also called Danish, although they were also used in Norway and Sweden), short-twig or Rök runes (also called Swedish-Norwegian, although they were also used in Denmark), and the Hälsinge runes (staveless runes). The Younger Futhark developed further into the Marcomannic runes, the Medieval runes (1100 AD to 1500 AD), and the Dalecarlian runes (around 1500 to 1800 AD). OE scribes used two kinds of letters: the runes and the letters of the Latin alphabet. The bulk of the OE material is written in the Latin script. The use of Latin letters in English differed in some points from their use in Latin, for the scribes made certain modifications and additions in order to indicate OE sounds. The most interesting peculiarity of OE writing was the use of some runic characters, in the first place, the rune called “thorn” which was employed alongside the crossed d, ∂ to indicate [th] and [∂]. In the manuscripts one more rune was regularly used – “wynn” for the sound [w]. Like any alphabetic writing, OE writing was based on a phonetic principle: every letter indicated a separate sound. This principle, however, was not always observed, even at the earliest stages of phonetic spelling. Some OE letters indicated two or more sounds, even distinct phonemes. The letters could indicate short and long sounds. In reading OE texts one should observe the following rules for letters indicating more than one sound. The letters f, s and [th], [∂] stand for voiced fricatives between vowels and also between a vowel and a voiced consonant; otherwise they indicate corresponding voiceless fricatives. The letter з stands for [g] initially before back vowels, for [j] before and after front vowels, for [γ] between back vowels and for [g’] mostly when preceded by c: OE daз [j] The letter h stands for [x] between a back vowel and a consonant and also initially before consonants and for [x’] next to front vowels: OE niht [x’] The letter n stands for [n] in all positions except when followed by [k] or [g]; in this case it indicates [ŋ]: OE sinзan. The Gothic alphabet is an alphabetic writing system attributed to Ulfilas (or Wulfila) which was used exclusively for writing the ancient Gothic language. Before its creation in the fourth century, the Goths had used runes to write their language. The new alphabet was created by Ulfilas for the purpose of translating the Christian Bible into Gothic, and it is largely derived from an uncial form of the Greek alphabet, though some elements have been borrowed from the Latin and Runic alphabets as well. Ulfilas is thought to have consciously chosen to avoid the use of the older Runic alphabet for this purpose, as it was heavily connected with ancient heathen beliefs and customs. Also, the Greek-based script probably helped to integrate of the Gothic nation into the dominant Greco-Roman culture around the Black Sea. The individual letters, however, still bore names derived from those of their Runic equivalents. 41. The Runic alphabet, its origin. The runic alphabets are a set of related alphabets using letters known as runes to write various Germanic languages prior to the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialized purposes thereafter. The Scandinavian variants are also known as futhark (or fuþark, derived from their first six letters of the alphabet: F, U, Þ, A, R, and K); the Anglo-Saxon variant is futhorc (due to sound changes undergone in Old English by the same six letters). Runology is the study of the runic alphabets, runic inscriptions, runestones, and their history. Runology forms a specialized branch of Germanic linguistics. The earliest runic inscriptions date from around 150 AD, and the alphabet was generally replaced by the Latin alphabet along with Christianization by around 700 AD in central Europe and by around 1100 AD in Scandinavia; however, the use of runes persisted for specialized purposes in Scandinavia, longest in rural Sweden until the early twentieth century (used mainly for decoration as runes in Dalarna and on Runic calendars). The three best-known runic alphabets are the Elder Futhark (around 150 to 800 AD), the Old English Futhorc (400 to 1100 AD), and the Younger Futhark (800–1100). The Younger Futhark is further divided into the longbranch runes (also called Danish, although they were also used in Norway and Sweden), short-twig or Rök runes (also called Swedish-Norwegian, although they were also used in Denmark), and the Hälsinge runes (staveless runes). The Younger Futhark developed further into the Marcomannic runes, the Medieval runes (1100 AD to 1500 AD), and the Dalecarlian runes (around 1500 to 1800 AD). The origins of the runic alphabet are uncertain. Many characters of the Elder Futhark bear a close resemblance to characters from the Latin alphabet. Other candidates are the 5th to 1st century BC Northern Italic alphabets: Lepontic, Rhaetic and Venetic, all of which are closely related to each other and descend from the Old Italic alphabet. Each rune most probably had a name, chosen to represent the sound of the rune itself. The names are, however, not directly attested for the Elder Futhark themselves. Reconstructed names in Proto-Germanic have been produced, based on the names given for the runes in the later alphabets attested in the rune poems and the linked names of the letters of the Gothic alphabet. The asterisk before the rune names means that they are unattested reconstructions. The 24 Elder Futhark runes are: Rune UCS Transliteration IPA Proto-Germanic name Meaning ᚠ f /f/ ᚢ u /u(ː)/ ?*ūruz "aurochs" (or *ûram "water/slag"?) ᚦ þ /θ/, /ð/ ?*þurisaz "the god Thor, giant" ᚨ a /a(ː)/ *ansuz "one of the Æsir (gods)" ᚱ r /r/ *raidō "ride, journey" ᚲ k /k/ ?*kaunan "ulcer"? (or *kenaz "torch"?) ᚷ g /g/ *gebō "gift" ᚹ w /w/ *wunjō "joy" ᚺ ᚻ h /h/ *hagalaz "hail" (the precipitation) ᚾ n /n/ *naudiz "need" ᛁ i /i(ː)/ *īsaz "ice" ᛃ j /j/ *jēra- "year, good year, harvest" ᛇ ï (or æ) ᛈ p /p/ ?*perþ- meaning unclear, perhaps "pear-tree". ᛉ z /z/ ?*algiz unclear, possibly "elk". ᛊ s /s/ *sōwilō "Sun" ᛏ t /t/ *tīwaz/*teiwaz "the god Tiwaz" ᛒ b /b/ *berkanan "birch" ᛖ e /e(ː)/ *ehwaz *fehu /æː/(?) *ī(h)waz/*ei(h)waz "wealth, cattle" "yew-tree" "horse" ᛗ m /m/ *mannaz "Man" ᛚ l /l/ *laguz "water, lake" (or possibly *laukaz "leek") ᛜ ᛝ ŋ /ŋ/ *ingwaz "the god Ingwaz" ᛟ ᛞ o d /o(ː)/ *ōþila-/*ōþala/d/ *dagaz "heritage, estate, possession" "day" 42. OE, its literary monuments. The historical sources and the archeological evidence agree that the major influx of Germanic immigration into England came in the mid-fifth century. They refer to a British tyrant, who invited the Saxons, under leaders Hengest and Horsa, to help his country resist attacks from barbarian Picts and Scots. If this story is true, the invitation was a gross miscalculation. According to Bede, the forebears of the Anglo-Saxons came from three great Germanic groups on the Continent: the Saxons, the Angles, who lived north of the Saxons on the Jutland Peninsula, in modern Schleswig, and the Jutes, who are supposed to have lived north of the Angles, also on the Jutland Peninsula. Although the Germanic invaders must at first have had little greater organization than isolated war bands, they quickly united into larger territorial groups under kings. Seven kingdoms were set up on the territory of what we call now England. The centers of power in Anglo-Saxon England were to rest in the three kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia, and Wessex. These were the kingdoms on the northerly and westerly frontiers of the area under Anglo-Saxon control. Their constant border wars with Picts, Scots and British kept their armies in fighting shape. The other kingdoms were Kent, Sussex, East Anglia and Essex. These kingdoms were often at war with each other, and especially with great powers, Wessex and Mercia. Ironically, Viking attacks were to lead to a permanently united English kingdom under Wessex in the ninth century. Due to the talents of King Alfred the Great, his overcoming the Danes in 886, he was recognized as the overlord of all the English not subject to the Danes. He entered into a formal treaty with the Danes, in order to extract from them the best possible treatment of the English living in Danish-dominated territories. Old English literature is second only to Old Norse in the volume and variety of texts. Poetry. The dialect of Old English, in which it was written was West Saxon, with occasional Anglian and Northumbrian forms. Beowulf (eighth century). The central character is the legendary Geatish hero, for whom the poem is named, and its central episodes are three fights that Beowulf has with various monsters in order to save allies, kin, and country. In addition to Beowulf, there are a number of other (shorter) examples of secular heroic poetry in Old English. These include a fragment dealing with a battle between Danes and Frisians, known as Fight at Finnsburg; another fragment dealing with the story of Walter of Aquitaine, known as the Waldere; and two later poems dealing with historic battles against Anglo-Saxon enemies: The Battle of Brunanburh, and The Battle of Maldon. Prose. Before the reign of King Alfred the Great (871-99), prose writing in Anglo-Saxon England was primarily in Latin. When the Christianization of the Anglo-Saxons commenced at the end of the sixth century, Latin writing began among English. The earliest documented texts are saints’ lives. Eighth century is associated with the Venerable Bede (673-735), a Nothumbrian monk. Besides his saints’ lives, Bede wrote treatises on Latin Grammar, metric and rhetoric, commentaries on the scriptures, and the like. Most important work of his is the Ecclesiastical History of the English people. He gives a detailed account of the history of the Church in England, and the early history of the Anglo-Saxons. The most striking literary product credited to Alfred’s time is the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. This is the history of Anglo-Saxons beginning with the birth of Christ, and continuing to the year 1154. 43. Old Icelandic, literary monuments. Old Icelandic is usually called Old Norse. Old Norse During the Age of Migrations, when many other Germanic groups were migrating from the ancestral homeland in the north, the ancestors of the speakers of Old Norse stayed close to home. Yet, Danes moved south out of southern Sweden into Zealand and the Jutland Peninsula, which after the departures of the Angles and other tribes was relatively empty. The Swedes set about conquering their neighbors, the Geats, and slowly expanded their power base through central Sweden and Götland. The royal house of Norway also originally came from Sweden to the Oslo region. It was not until late in the eighth century, that the rest of Europe came to hear much about these people. And when they did it was of little joy. For the northernmost Germanic peoples appeared on the world scene as Vikings, professional pirates who attacked from the sea without warning and carried away any treasure they could get their hands on. It was in the mid-eighth century that the Vikings began their attacks and conquests in Western Europe. For by the time the Norwegians attacked Ireland and England, they had already established their bases in the Shetlands and Orkneys. They raided England in 789, and they were responsible for the sack of the Lindisfarne monastery in northeastern England in 793. In the main, the Norwegians concentrated on northern Scotland and the Hebrides, the Isle of Man, and the various coasts of the Irish sea. In 836 they founded Dublin as a trading post and military base for raids elsewhere. In the ninth century, they arose as a Norse kingdom in Ireland, based on mixed Scandinavian and Celtic elements, which was independent of any control from the Norwegian homeland. The Danes first appeared in Europe about forty years after the Norwegians, but from the outset their attacks were far more central than the Norwegians. The course of the ninth century they attacked Dorestad on the Rhine in Frisia. In 845 they attacked Hamburg, and throughout the ninth century they raided Low Countries and northern France. The Danes made their most permanent presence in England. They first wintered in England in 851, and in 865 the great army had arrived. In 878 the Danes briefly captured most of the last remaining Anglo-Saxon kingdom, Wessex, but king Alfred the Great forced them to leave that kingdom in the same year. They took East Anglia as consolation prize. The Vikings were not only pirates; they were also explorers. Pushing westward far out of sight of the land, the Norwegians discovered the Faroe islands and in the late ninth century, Iceland. Their first settlement in Iceland is dated to 874, and by the mid-tenth century about 50.000 people were living there. Iceland became not a kingdom but a kind of aristocratic republic ruled by priest-chieftans. From 930 it had its own parliament under the chairman of a law-speaker. Greenland was discovered in 981 by Eric the Red, who had been banished for manslaughter. He brought 14 ships full of people there. About the year 1000, Eric’s son Leif, investigating a report of land farther to the west, discovered and explored ‘Vinland’, which could be nothing other than some part of North America. If the Danes and Norwegians can be described as mercantile pirates, the Swedes are better characterised as piratical merchants. Before the Viking age Swedes had established profitable trading towns on the Baltic, whence they carried out a trade in furs, cloth, spices, precious metals, and the like. The principal trading routes lay through Russia and Ukraine, especially along the Dnieper and Volga rivers. There is a hypothesis according to which Swedes (under the name of Rus) founded the major cities, Kiev and Novgorod. Christianity first came to Denmark, where it was generally introduced by the mid-tenth century. It then arrived in Norway. In Sweden Christianity was adopted in the twelfth century. Old Norse is unique among the Germanic languages in the volume and richness of its literature. The basic bulk of Old Norse manuscripts are in Latin. Runic inscriptions (about 45) have no value as literary monuments. (1) Eddic poetry (Edda) represents the oldest preserved genre of Old Norse literature. These poems, short, dramatic, and alliterative, are found primarily in a single manuscript written after 1250. The poems deal with two subjects: the gods and myths of Germanic heathendom, and the heroes of the Germanic Age of Migrations. (2) Prose Edda of Snorri Sturluson written about 1220. It has three parts: 1. Myths of the heathen world, told in prose with occasional poetic quotations; 2. A textbook of poetic speech; 3.A long poem in honor of Snorri’s benefactors. (3) Scaldic verse was an ancient genre. Much of skaldic poetry deals with the exploits of kings and other patrons, and was clearly meant as praise poetry. It was subject to very rigid rules of meter, alliteration, and rhyme; it deviated considerably from everyday syntax. (4) Konungasögur (King’s sagas) dealt with the two Norwegian kings Olaf Tryggvason and St. Olaf Haraldsson. Etymologically the word saga means ‘something said’, but in the Icelandic tradition it is a piece of prose literature, a deliberate composition by a particular author. 44. Old Saxon, its written records. Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, is the earliest recorded form of Low German, documented from the 8th century until the 12th century, when it evolved into Middle Low German. It was spoken on the north-west coast of Germany and in Denmark by Saxon peoples. It is close enough to Old Anglo-Frisian (Old Frisian, Old English) that it partially participates in the Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law; it is also closely related to Old Low Franconian ("Old Dutch"). It is separated from Old High German by the High German consonant shift. Only a few texts survive, predominantly in baptismal vows the Saxons were required to perform at the behest of Charlemagne. The only literary text preserved is “Heliand” – IX c A.D. Also there is “Genesis”, a poem of religious character – IX c A.D. 45. Pliny’s classification of the Germanic tribes. Pliny the Elder was a Roman naturalist, scholar, historian, traveler, officer, and writer. A great historian Pliny spent many years in the Roman provinces of Low and High Germany. He was a prominent encyclopedias. He wrote a book called “Natural History”. He was the first who enumerated and classified the military tribes. It was proved by many scientists. According to Pliny there were several Germanic tribes: The Vindili. They lived in the eastern part of the territory inhabited by the Germanic tribes. They consisted of the Goths, the Burgundians and the Vandals. The Vandals first inhabited the territory between the Oder and the Vistula. Later they moved to Northern Africa through Spain. The word vandalism originated from Vandal (means Barbary). The Burgundians came to the continent from the island of Bornholm. It was in the Baltic Sea. Later they moved to the west and settled in south-eastern part of France in the area called Burgundia. The Goths first inhabited the lower coast of the river Vistula. Later they moved to the south and formed powerful tribal unions of Ostrogoths and Visigoths. The Ingvaenoes. They lived in the north-western part of the Germanic territory. They inhabited the Jutland peninsula and the coast of the North Sea. The tribes of Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians were formed later of this group. The Istaevones. They lived on the Rhine. Later they formed a very powerful tribal union of Franconians. In the early Middle Ages they were powerful group of West Germans. The Herminones lived in the centre of Germany and later the German nation was formed of these tribes. The Hilleviones were isolated from other Germanic tribes. They inhabited Scandinavia. Modern Scandinavian nations are the descendants of these tribes. The Vindili spoke eastern Germanic; the Hilleviones spoke northern Germanic, the Ingvaones, Istaevones and Herminones – West Germanic. 46. Main sources of information about the Germ. tribes. The Germ. tribes in the AD 1. Archeology and ethnography data Borrowing in the lang-es of the neighbouring nomadic tribes Written records The written records are as follows: PYTHEAS from Massilia, IV c BC An account of a sea voyage to the Baltic Sea. Has not come down the Greek astronomer, to us. Was used by Greek and Roman writers, historians, traveler and geographer geographers. JULIUS CAESAR, the I c BC Described some militant Germ. tribes who bordered on the Celts of Roman general, writer and Gaul in the North-East in his “Commentaries on the War in Gaul” statesman (“Записки про галльську війну”). PLINY THE ELDER, the I c AD Made a classified list of the Germ. tribes grouping them under six Roman scientist and writer headings in “Natural History” (“Природна історія”). I-II c AD Complied a detailed description of the life and customs of the CORNELIUS TACITUS, the Roman historian and ancient Germans. Reproduced Pliny’s classification of the Germ. senator tribes, characterized their social culture. “Germania” (“Германія”), “Annales” (“Анали”). JORDAN, the Gothic VI c AD His work “On the Origin and History of the Goths” (“Про historian походження та історію готів” чи “Гетика”) was written in Latin and comprised the description of historical events from Cassiodor’s history (533) and legends of the Goths of those times. Cassiodor’s history has not come down to us. BEDE the Venerable, the VIII c D “Ecclesiastical History of the English People” (“Церковна історія English scholar and monk народу англів”). XIII c AD “Younger Edda” (“Молодша Едда”) – prose Edda. SNORRI STURLUSON, the Old Icelandic statesman, poet and historian ----- By the 1st century CE, the writings of Caesar, Tacitus and other Roman era writers indicate a division of Germanic-speaking peoples into tribal groupings centred on: * the rivers Oder and Vistula/Weichsel (East Germanic tribes), * the lower Rhine river (Istvaeones), * the river Elbe (Irminones), * Jutland and the Danish islands (Ingvaeones). The Sons of Mannus, Istvaeones, Irminones, and Ingvaeones are collectively called West Germanic tribes. In addition, those Germanic people who remained in Scandinavia are referred to as North Germanic. These groups all developed separate dialects, the basis for the differences among Germanic languages down to the present day. ----- Starting with the 1st century AD, the pressure of the Germanic tribes on the border of the Roman Empire started to be felt. Many Germanic people had reached Rome as slaves; but later, during the decadence of the Roman Empire, some Germanic warriors were employed as mercenaries. By the 3rd-4th centuries BC, there was a general Germanic invasion in the Roman Empire, mainly non-violent. But, to the end of the 4th century, this invasion turned massive, countless waves crossing the Rhine and the Danube, and the weakened Roman army did not handle the situation. The "Barbarians" destroyed and pillaged everything on their way. In 150 years, all the territories of the Western Roman Empire were distributed between Germanic tribes: Iberia was occupied by Visigoths, Alsace by Alamans, Savoy by Burgunds, Gaul by Franks, Britain by Anglo-Saxons and Italy by Ostrogoths. 47. The age of migrations: the Visigoths. Communal system of Germ. tribes stopped existing, large tribal unions were formed. This caused the great migration of peoples. The Goths remained in Dacia until 376, when one of their leaders, Fritigern, appealed to the Roman emperor Valens to be allowed to settle with his people on the south bank of the Danube. Here, they hoped to find refuge from the Huns. Valens permitted this, as he saw in them "a splendid recruiting ground for his army." However, a famine broke out and Rome was unwilling to supply them with the food they were promised nor the land; open revolt ensued leading to 6 years of plundering and destruction throughout the Balkans, the death of a Roman Emperor and the destruction of an entire Roman army. The Battle of Adrianople in 378 was the decisive moment of the war. The Roman forces were slaughtered and the Emperor Valens was killed during the fighting. Adrianople shocked the Roman world and eventually forced the Romans to negotiate with and settle the barbarians within the empire's boundaries, a development with far reaching consequences for the eventual fall of Rome. The new Emperor Theodosius I settled Visigoths on Balkan Peninsula and gave them the best lands. They adopted Christianity in its form “Arianism”. The Visigoths are allowed by the Romans to settle south of the Danube, but Roman demands soon provoke them into rebellion. At Adrianople, in AD 378, they inflict a shattering defeat on a Roman army. Two thirds of the Romans are killed, including the emperor, Valens, whose body is never found. The relationship between the Roman empire and its barbarian neighbours changes dramatically. The next emperor, Theodosius, hands over the province of Moesia to the Visigoths, according them the status of foederati - federates, or allies, granted land within the empire which they, in return, are expected to defend against other barbarians. But there is an implicit danger to Rome. The loyalties of the tribesmen are to their own leaders. From AD 395 the Visigoths become restless. They have a new ruler, Alaric, who wants more funds from the Romans, better territory, a more honourable place within the empire. In pursuit of these rather generalized aims he leads an army southwards into Greece, much of which is plundered. By 401 Alaric and the Visigoths are in Italy. After several campaigns (and a fruitless bribe in 407 of some 2000 kilograms of gold) the Visigoths reach Rome. Their siege is twice lifted by negotation, but in 410 they enter the city. They are the first enemy intruders for exactly eight centuries - since the arrival of Celts in Rome in 390 BC. When the Visigoths leave Rome, they are laden with plunder but they have not destroyed the city. Alaric moves on south, intending to invade Africa, but he dies later in the year, still in Italy. His people wander north again into France and move briefly through the Pyrenees into Spain. In 418 they return to southwest France, or Aquitaine, where they are offered land again as Roman federates. 48. The Ostrogoths. Hunnic invasions. The rise of the Huns around 370 overwhelmed the Gothic kingdoms. Many of the Goths migrated into Roman territory in the Balkans, while others remained north of the Danube under Hunnic rule. They became one of the many Hunnic vassals fighting in Europe, as in the Battle on Catalaunian plains in 451 – the battle of peoples. Romans were supported by the Visigoths, Burgundians and Franks. Huns were supported by the Ostrogoths and Sarmatians. Huns leaded by Attila were defeated, and in 455 Hunic Kingdom broke down. In 476 – the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. 493 – Theodoric headed the Ostrogothic Kingdom and ruled until 526. 535 – the Emperor Justinian declared war on the Goths. 555 – total collapse of the Ostrogoths. 49. Division of Frankish Empire and its linguistic consequences The Frankish Empire was the territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks from the 3rd to the 10th century. Under the nearly continuous campaigns of Charles Martel, Pepin the Short, and Charlemagne—father, son, grandson—the greatest expansion of the Frankish empire was secured by the early 9th century. Charlemagne had several sons, but only one survived him. This son, Louis the Pious, followed his father as the ruler of a united empire. But sole inheritance remained a matter of chance, rather than intent. When Louis died in 840, the Carolingians adhered to the custom of partible inheritance, and after a brief civil war between the three grandsons, they made an agreement in 843, the Treaty of Verdun, which divided the empire in three: 1. Louis' eldest surviving son Lothair I became Emperor in name but de facto only the ruler of the Middle Frankish Kingdom, or Middle Francia or King of the Central or Middle Franks. His three sons in turn divided this kingdom between them into Lotharingia (centered on Lorraine), Burgundy and (Northern) Italy Lombardy. These areas with different cultures, peoples and traditions would later vanish as separate kingdoms, which would eventually become Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Lorraine, Switzerland, Lombardy 2. Louis' second son, Louis the German, became King of the East Frankish Kingdom or East Francia. This area formed the kernel of the later Holy Roman Empire by way of the Kingdom of Germany enlarged with some additional territories from Lothair's Middle Frankish Realm — much of these territories eventually evolved into modern Austria, Switzerland and Germany. 3. His third son Charles the Bald became King of the West Franks, of the West Frankish Kingdom or West Francia. This area, most of today's southern and western France, became the foundation for the later France under the House of Capet. The expansion and consequent division of the Frankish Empire had a big influence on the development of languages in that region. As the Empire was gaining new territories it brought the franconian language to them, and overtime the substratum language became overshadowed, resulting in phonetical, lexical and grammatical changes. With the division of the Empire the whole new countries were created, and it set off the development of new languages. 50. German mythology and beliefs. Continental Germanic mythology is a subset of Germanic mythology, going back to Proto-Germanic polytheism as practiced in parts of Central Europe before gradual Christianization during the 6th to 8th centuries, and continued in the legends, and Middle High German epics during the Middle Ages, also continued although in a recharacterized and less sacred fashion in European folklore and fairy tales. It includes the mythology of many tribes of Germanic peoples: Lombards Alamanni Thuringii Saxons Frisians Unlike North Germanic, and to a lesser extent Anglo-Saxon mythology, the attestation of Continental Germanic paganism is extremely fragmentary. Besides a handful of brief Elder Futhark inscriptions, the lone genuinely pagan Continental Germanic documents are the short Old High German Merseburg Incantations. Mythological elements were however preserved in later literature, notably in Middle High German epic poetry, but also in German, Swiss, and Dutch folklore. Gods and heroes The major gods can be identified by their influence on the English weekday names Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday which come from Tiw, Wóden, Þunor, and Fríge respectively, through the Old English names Tíwesdæg, Wédnesdæg, Þunresdæg and Frígedæg. The Osses correspond to the Norse Æsir: Woden, the leader of the Wild Hunt and the one who carries off the dead. He was one of the chief gods of the Angles and Saxons before the Christian era. He was held to be the ancestor of Hengist and Horsa, two legendary figures from early English history and most of the early AngloSaxon kings claimed descent from Woden. He gives us the modern Wednesday ("Woden's day"). Thunor, (AS Þunor). He is the god of thunder, who rules the storms and sky. He also protects mankind from the giants. He was the god of the common people within the heathen community. His name gives rise to the modern Thursday. Fríge is the goddess of love, and is the wife of Woden. She is one of the most powerful Goddesses, this position being threatened only by Freyja. Her day is Friday, due to her associations with Venus. Tiw is the god of warfare and battle, and gives us Tuesday. There is some speculation that he is a sky-god figure and formerly the chief god, displaced over the years by Woden. The Wones correspond to the Vanir: Ingui Fréa was one of the most popular Gods, after Thunor and Woden. He is above all the God of fertility, bringing abundance (wone) and fruitfulness to the crops, herds, and the Folk. Though he is a fertility God, he is also connected to warfare to a degree; however, this warfare is defensive, as opposed to offensive, and is not to create strife and havoc. After all, peace is necessary for a good harvest and a productive community, while needless warfare destroys any prospect of peace and abundance. The Yngling royal line of Sweden claimed descent from him. Freo is said to be the most beautiful of all the goddesses, and is therefore described as the Goddess of Love. She is not to be mistaken with Frige, however; Freo's dominion is erotic love, whereas Frige's is romantic love. Being a goddess of unbridled passion, she also takes half the slain of the battlefield, with the other half taken by Woden . Like her brother, Fréa, she is connected to abundance and wealth; however, her wealth is primarily in precious metals and gems. She is also a Goddess of Magic, having taught Woden seiðr. Neorð is Frea and Freo's father, and is the God of the seas and commerce. He is called upon by fishermen and sailors who depend upon good seas. Like his son and daughter, his realm is that of wealth; namely, the wealth of the sea. He married the giantess Sceadu, though the marriage was not successful as neither of them could tolerate the other's element; Sceadu her mountains, and Neorð his sea. Eorðe, whose name means "Earth," is the wife of Woden, by whom she gave birth to Þunor. She is also the daughter of the Goddess Niht. Her worship is generally passive, as opposed to active, though she is called on for "might and main." Her latent strength can be seen in her son, Þunor. Eostre, according to Bede, is a Goddess tied with the "growing light of spring,"   and embodies purity, youth, and beauty, as well as the traditional rebirth and renewal concepts   . Her symbols are hares  and eggs    , which symbolize the beginning of life and fertility. The current Christian festival of Easter is thought to contain elements of a pre-Christian festival in honour of Eostre   ; hence the name Easter   . Niht is the Goddess of Night, and also the mother of Eorðe. The Norse night was the daughter of Narvi. She was married three times; the first to Naglfari by whom she had Aud; the second, to Annar by whom she had Eorðe; and the third to Dellinger Daeg. Sigel is a goddess associated with the sun. Sunday means "day of the sun," and may refer specifically to the goddess, or only to the star. Weyland, Wayland, or Welund - a mythic smith. Agil - a legenday bowman, brother to Weyland. Earendel - a name for a star and also a Germanic hero. Hengest and Horsa Weisse Frauen Nix 51. Gods, days of week, months. Balder was the god of light. He was the son of Odin and Frigga. Other important gods were Ragnarok, Hoenir, Vidhavoc and Vali, all very brave gods. Odin’s battle maidens were called the Valkyries; they protected his favourite warriors and granted them victory. Odin held his court at Valhalla. This was the place where all brave warriors went when they died. Odin was usually pictured with a raven upon each shoulder. These birds were called Hugin and Munnin. They whispered into Odin’s ears all things they saw and heard in thei flights around the world. Odin had only one eye. It was thought that he had given up one of his eyes to gain more knowledge. Loki was a great godlike giant, ‘the spirit of evil’. He was always ended up doing cruel and destructive things. Loki had 3 children. They were the serpent Fenris, the wolf Midgart, and Hela, death. Sunday OE sunne – the sun OE Sunnan + OE dæхь = The first day of the week was named for the sun god Sunnandeхь Monday OE mona – the moon OE Monandeхь Was devoted to the goddess of the moon Tuesday OE Tiw – the war-god OE Tiwesdeхь Named in honour of the Anglo-Saxon god of war (ON Tyr) Wednesday OE Wodan – the god of divination and the dead OE Wednesdeхь Was named for the chief god and the giver of wisdom (ON Odin) Thursday OE Thunor – the storm-god OE Thore’sdeхь Was named in honour of the ancient Germ. God of thunder Friday OE Fri – the fertility goddess (ON Frigda), goddess of the OE Frideхь household and marriage, Oddin’s wife. Later became as Freya, goddess of the Earth Saturday OE Setern – Saturn, Jupiter’s father, the god of agriculture OE Seternesdeхь and sowing of seeds in Roman mythology. His feast, called the Saturnalia, began on December 17 and was a time of rejoicing and feasting. There were different versions of old Germanic names of months (eg, louprîsi in ancient Switzerland, ie, "the month of falling leaves" - November), but in general they reflect the economical activities of the Germans. Title winnemanoth (May, ie, "month grazing") was used in the Netherlands, for July (weidemaand); April was called grasmaand ( «a month of grass"). In Frisians hewimanot («hay month) already sounds like heimoanne, the Germans - Heumond, in the Netherlands - howmaen. In the early Middle Ages in many areas of Western Europe Germanic-speaking winnemanoth often interchange bisemânôt (ie, "the time when the cows like mad, galloping across the meadow"). Anglo thrimilci meant "the time when the cows three times a day, give milk". Farming has been reflected in the names brachmanoth (June - "the time of sowing after the harvest of the first harvest»), aranmanoth (July - "the month of harvest"). Months were devoted to the gods: April (eosturmanoth, ôstarmanoth) - the goddess Ostara, March (hredmanoth) - goddess Hrede etc. Very soon, along with starogermanskimi names of months have been used in Latin (and later all regions of Europe, in Iceland, from the XIII century.), For example: February - mensis Plutonis (mensis purgatorius), April - mensis venustus or mensis novarum, May - mensis Mariae, June - mensis magnus, July - mensis fenalis, August - mensis messionum etc. 52. The Epoque of Vikings The Vikings who invaded western and eastern Europe were chiefly from Denmark, Norway and Sweden. They also settled the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Caithness in Scotland, Greenland and (briefly) North America. Their language became the mother-tongue of present-day Nordic languages. By 801, a strong central authority appears to have been established in Jutland, and the Danish were beginning to look beyond their own territory for land, trade and plunder. In Norway, mountainous terrain and fjords formed strong natural boundaries. Communities there remained independent of each other, unlike the situation in Denmark which is lowland. By 800, some 30 small kingdoms existed in Norway. The sea was the easiest way of communication between the Norwegian kingdoms and the outside world. It was in the eighth century that Scandinavians began to build ships of war and send them on raiding expeditions to initiate the Viking Age. The northern sea rovers were traders, colonizers and explorers as well as plunderers. The earliest date given for a Viking raid is 787 AD when, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, a group of men from Norway sailed to Portland, in Dorset. There, they were mistaken for merchants by a royal official. They murdered him when he tried to get them to accompany him to the king's manor to pay a trading tax on their goods. The beginning of the Viking Age in the British Isles is, however, often given as 793. It was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle that the Northmen raided the important island monastery of Lindisfarne. In 794, according to the Annals of Ulster, there was a serious attack on Lindisfarne's mother-house of Iona, which was followed in 795 by raids upon the northern coast of Ireland. From bases there, the Norsemen attacked Iona again in 802, causing great slaughter amongst the Céli Dé Brethren, and burning the abbey to the ground. The end of the Viking Age is traditionally marked in England by the failed invasion attempted by the Norwegian king Harald III (Haraldr Harðráði), who was defeated by Saxon King Harold Godwinson in 1066 at the Battle of Stamford Bridge; in Ireland, the capture of Dublin by Strongbow and his Hiberno-Norman forces in 1171; and 1263 in Scotland by the defeat of King Hákon Hákonarson at the Battle of Largs by troops loyal to Alexander III. Godwinson was subsequently defeated within a month by another Viking descendant, William, Duke of Normandy (Normandy had been acquired by Vikings (Normans) in 911). Scotland took its present form when it regained territory from the Norse between the thirteenth and the fifteenth centuries. The traditional definition is no longer accepted by most Scandinavian historians and archaeologists. Instead, the Viking age is thought to have ended with the establishment of royal authority in the Scandinavian countries and the establishment of Christianity as the dominant religion. The date is usually put somewhere in the early 11th century in all three Scandinavian countries. The end of the Viking-era in Norway is marked by the Battle of Stiklestad in 1030. They proclaimed Norway as a Christian nation, and Norwegians could no longer be called Vikings. The clinker-built longships used by the Scandinavians were uniquely suited to both deep and shallow waters. They extended the reach of Norse raiders, traders and settlers along coastlines and along the major river valleys of northwestern Europe. Rurik also expanded to the east and in 859 became ruler either by conquest or invitation by local people of the city of Novgorod (which means "new city") on the Volkhov River. His successors moved further, founding the state of Kievan Rus with the capital in Kiev. This persisted until 1240, the time of Mongol invasion. Other Norse people, particularly those from the area that is now modern-day Sweden and Norway, continued south to the Black Sea and then on to Constantinople. Whenever these Viking ships ran aground in shallow waters, the Vikings would reportedly turn them on their sides and drag them across the land into deeper waters. The Kingdom of the Franks under Charlemagne was particularly hard-hit by these raiders, who could sail down the Seine with near impunity. Near the end of Charlemagne's reign (and throughout the reigns of his sons and grandsons), a string of Norse raids began, culminating in a gradual Scandinavian conquest and settlement of the region now known as Normandy. In 911, French King Charles the Simple was able to make an agreement with the Viking warleader Rollo, a chieftain of disputed Norwegian or Danish origins. Charles gave Rollo the title of duke and granted him and his followers possession of Normandy. In return, Rollo swore fealty to Charles, converted to Christianity, and undertook to defend the northern region of France against the incursions of other Viking groups. Several generations later, the Norman descendants of these Viking settlers not only identified themselves as French but carried the French language, and their variant of the French culture, into England in 1066. With the Norman Conquest, they became the ruling aristocracy of Anglo-Saxon England. 53. Old Frisian ethnic community. Geographical The Roman historian Tacitus, writing in Germania, mentioned the Frisians among people he grouped together as the Ingvaeones. Their territory followed the coast of the North Sea from the mouth of the Rhine river up to that of the Ems, their eastern border according to Ptolemy's Geographica. Pliny states in Belgica that they were conquered by the Roman general Drusus in 12 BC, and thereafter the Frisians largely sank into historical obscurity, until coming into contact with the expanding Merovingian and Carolingian empires. In the 5th century, during this period of historical silence, many of them no doubt joined the migration of the Anglo-Saxons who went through Frisian territory to invade Britain, while those who stayed on the continent expanded into the newly-emptied lands previously occupied by the Anglo-Saxons. By the end of the sixth century the Frisians occupied the coast all the way to the mouth of the Weser and spread farther still in the seventh century, southward down to Dorestad and even Bruges. This farthest extent of Frisian territory is known as Frisia Magna. Cultural One of the most important cultural expressions of a people is their language. The Frisians mothertongue is 'Frisian'. Frisian is a 'Germanic' language. The Germanic languages can be divided in North, East and West Germanic. Frisian belongs to the 'West Germanic' language group. Other languages belonging to this group are High/Low German, Dutch and English. Of these four languages Frisian is the closest in relation to English. Frisian, High and Low German, Dutch and English can also be classified as Inguaeonish languages. They have a common origin. In the 8th century A.D. Frisian starts to set itself apart from the other Inguaonish languages. This is the birth of the Frisian language. In the 8th century the Frisian language is spoken in the coastal areas from Holland up to Denmark. As any language, Frisian started to develop dialects. Three dialects can be distinguished: East, North and West Frisian. The current spread of the Frisian Language: West-Frisian, East-Frisian (Saterland), North-Frisian. Frisian Runes The runes are an ancient alphabet used by the Germanic peoples. They were in use by the peoples of Northern Europe since the beginning of the Christian era (1 A.D.). Inscriptions were initially carved in wood, hence their angular shape. Inscriptions of the 'old' runic script (100 A.D. till 700 A.D.) are very rare, and are found on only 200 items. The first runes were carved in Southern Juteland in Denmark (also the place of origination of the proto-Frisians).The Germanic tribes called the runic alphabet after the soundvalue of the first six letters, Futhark. The Futhark comprises a 24 letter alphabet arranged in a unique order. This is the Germanic futhark: f u th a r k g w h n i j ï p z s t b e m l ng o d The runes were used for two purposes: to send messages of a plain nature, and for religious, ritual and magical purposes. In areas populated by Angles, Saxons and Frisians, new letters were developed, to a total of 26 runes. This alphabet is known as the Anglo-Frisian Futhorc. This is Frisian futhork: In Friesland only 21 runic inscriptions (Frisian) have been found on items of wood, bone, antler, ivory and gold. These inscriptions date from 450 A.D. to 750 A.D.. Religious Beliefs. Christianity came early to Friesland with the dominion of the Franks in the eighth and ninth centuries, but it did not succeed in completely eradicating Indigenous tradition. Pre-Christian beliefs, called byleauwe, are derived from the larger Germanic folk tradition, and they retain some currency especially in rural areas and the forested region. These folk beliefs, modifying and being modified by the newer Christian faith, now consist of an interwoven tapestry of folktales and superstitions regarding supernatural beings such as devils, spooks, and ghosts; "white ladies" who lived underground and kidnapped travelers in the night; a more beneficent category of female spirits who provided help to travelers in distress; and elves, witches, wizards, and trolls. Belief in oracles and predictive visions were common in the relatively recent past. Predominantly, Frisians are Protestant: 85 percent are members of the Calvinist Dutch Reformed or Reformed churches, with another 5 percent being Mennonites. 54. OE Heptarchy. Wessex. Heptarchy – is the seven kingdoms into which Anglo-Saxon England is thought to have been divided from about the 7th to the 9th centuries AD: Kent, East Anglia, Essex, Sussex, Wessex, Mercia, and Northumbria. Heptarchy is a collective name applied to the supposed seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of south, east, and central Great Britain during late antiquity and the early Middle Ages which eventually unified into the Kingdom of England. During the same period, what is now Scotland and Wales were also divided into comparable petty kingdoms. The term has been in use since the 16th century but the initial idea that there were seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms is attributed to the English historian Henry of Huntingdon in the 12th century and was first used in his Historia Anglorum By convention the label is considered to cover the period from AD 500 to AD 850, approximately representing the period following the departure of Roman legions from Britain until the unification of the kingdoms under Egbert of Wessex. The period supposedly lasted until the seven kingdoms began to consolidate into larger units, but the actual events marking this transition are debatable. At various times within the conventional period, certain rulers of Northumbria, Mercia and Wessex (such as Penda of Mercia) claimed hegemony over larger areas of England; yet as late as Edwy and Edgar, it was still possible to speak of separate kingdoms within the English population. In reality the end of the Heptarchy was a gradual process. The 9th century Viking raids that led to the establishment of a Danish-controlled enclave at York, and ultimately to the Danelaw, gained considerable advantage from the petty rivalries between the old kingdoms. The need to unite against the common enemy was recognised, such that by the time Alfred of Wessex resisted the Danes in the late 9th century, he did so essentially as the leader of an Anglo-Saxon nation. Successive kings of Wessex (and especially Athelstan) progressively reinforced the English unitary state, until the old constituent kingdoms in effect became irrelevant. Recent research has revealed that some of the Heptarchy kingdoms (notably Essex and Sussex) did not achieve the same status as the others. Conversely, there also existed alongside the seven kingdoms a number of other political divisions which played a more significant role than previously thought. Such were the kingdoms (or sub-kingdoms) of: Bernicia and Deira within Northumbria; Lindsey in present-day Lincolnshire; the Hwicce in the southwest Midlands; the Magonsæte or Magonset, a sub-kingdom of Mercia in what is now Herefordshire; the Wihtwara, a Jutish kingdom on the Isle of Wight, originally as important as the Cantwara of Kent; the Middle Angles, a group of tribes based around modern Leicestershire, later conquered by the Mercians; the Hæstingas (around the town of Hastings in Sussex); and the Gewissæ, a Saxon tribe in what is now southern Hampshire later developing into the kingdom of Wessex. Certainly the term Heptarchy has been considered unsatisfactory since the early 20th century, and many professional historians no longer use it, feeling that it does not accurately describe the period to which it refers. However, it is still sometimes used as a label of convenience for a phase in the development of England. The unification of England and the Earldom of Wessex. After the invasions of the 890s Wessex and English Mercia continued to be attacked by the Danish settlers in England and by small Danish raiding forces from overseas, but these incursions were usually defeated, while there were no further major invasions from the continent. The balance of power tipped steadily in favour of the English. In 911 Ealdorman Aethelred died, leaving his widow, Alfred's daughter Aethelflaed, in charge of Mercia. Alfred's son and successor Edward the Elder, then annexed London, Oxford and the surrounding area, probably including Middlesex, Hertfordshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire, from Mercia to Wessex. Between 913 and 918 a series of English offensives overwhelmed the Danes of Mercia and East Anglia, bringing all of England south of the Humber under Edward's power. In 918 Aethelflaed died and Edward took over direct control of Mercia, extinguishing what remained of its independence and ensuring that thenceforth there would be only one Kingdom of the English. In 927 Edward's successor Athelstan conquered Northumbria, bringing the whole of England under one ruler for the first time. The Kingdom of Wessex had thus been transformed into the Kingdom of England. Although Wessex had now effectively been subsumed into the larger kingdom which its expansion had created, like the other former kingdoms it continued for a time to have a distinct identity which periodically found renewed political expression. After the death of King Eadred in 955, England was divided between his two sons, with the elder Edwy ruling in Wessex while Mercia passed to his younger brother Edgar. However, in 959 Edwy died and the whole of England came under Edgar's control. After the conquest of England by the Danish king Cnut in 1016, he established earldoms based on the former kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia, but initially administered Wessex personally. Within a few years, however, he had created an earldom of Wessex, encompassing all of England south of the Thames, for his English henchman Godwin. For almost fifty years the vastly wealthy holders of this earldom, first Godwin and then his son Harold, were the most powerful men in English politics after the king. Finally, on the death of Edward the Confessor in 1066, Harold became king, reuniting the earldom of Wessex with the crown. No new earl was appointed before the ensuing Norman Conquest of England, and as the Norman kings soon did away with the great earldoms of the late Anglo-Saxon period, 1066 marks the extinction of Wessex as a political unit. 55. Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. * The Angles, who may have come from Angeln, and Bede wrote that their whole nation came to Britain, leaving their former land empty. The name 'England' (Anglo-Saxon 'Engla land' or 'Ængla land' originates from this tribe. * The Saxons, from Lower Saxony (German: Niedersachsen, Germany) * The Jutes, from the Jutland peninsula. The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the ancestral cultural region of Angeln, a district located in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. The Angles were one of the main groups that settled in Britain in the post-Roman period, founding several of the kingdoms of AngloSaxon England, and their name is the root of the name "England". The Saxons (Latin: Saxones) were a confederation of Old Germanic tribes. Their modern-day descendants in Lower Saxony and Westphalia and other German states are considered ethnic Germans (the state of Sachsen is not inhabited by ethnic Saxons; the state of Sachsen-Anhalt though in its northern and western parts); those in the eastern Netherlands are considered to be ethnic Dutch; and those in Southern England ethnic English (see Anglo-Saxons). Their earliest known area of settlement is Northern Albingia, an area approximately that of modern Holstein. Saxons participated in the Germanic settlement of Britain during and after the 5th century. It is unknown how many migrated from the continent to Britain though estimates for the total number of Germanic settlers vary between 10,000 and 200,000. Since the 18th century, many continental Saxons have settled other parts of the world, especially in North America, Australia, South Africa, and in areas of the former Soviet Union, where some communities still maintain parts of their cultural and linguistic heritage, often under the umbrella categories "German", and "Dutch". The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutae were a Germanic people who, according to Bede, were one of the three most powerful Germanic peoples of their time. They are believed to have originated from Jutland (called Iutum in Latin) in modern Denmark, Southern Schleswig (South Jutland) and part of the East Frisian coast The Frisians are an ethnic group of Germanic people living in coastal parts of The Netherlands, Denmark and Germany. They are concentrated in the Dutch provinces of Friesland and Groningen and, in Germany, East Frisia and North Frisia. They inhabit an area known as Frisia. They have a reputation for being tall, big-boned and light-haired people and they have a rich history and folklore. The Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians that migrated to Britain after the Roman occupation became known as the "English" and during modern times are referred to as "Anglo-Saxons". They mainly came from areas in and around the area of Holstein in modern Denmark. The Anglo-Saxons had been raiding the coasts of Britain during the Roman occupation and it was because of this activity that the Romans constructed a network of large defensive forts called the Litora Saxonica or Saxon Shore. It wasn't until the Roman occupation ended around 450AD that the Anglo-Saxon migration to Britain started in earnest. There were many possible reasons why these peoples left their homes to risk their lives sailing across rough seas in small boats to a foreign land: • they may have been pushed out by other people moving in to their lands • the lands may have not been as productive as they once were • the population may have increased such that some had to move away • armed war-bands may have been attacking their villages making people move to somewhere they thought was safer • some people may have looked for trade or work in other lands We do know that some Saxons were employed by the Britons as mercenaries to fight the Picts and other raiders, and we also know that trade existed between Britain and Europe. So it was probably a mix of all these reasons and maybe others; whatever they were, the "English" came to Britain, they stayed and they prospered. The Early Anglo-Saxon buildings in Britain were simple timber constructions with thatched roofs. Saxon life was based around agriculture and there was a preference to settle in small towns away from the old Roman cities, each having a main hall surrounded by huts for the townsfolk to live in. The Saxons were pagans worshiping many gods, not just one like the Christians did. In times of war they would make offerings to the God of War to help them win, they would make offerings to other gods to help with the harvest and to bring them good fortune elsewhere. There were religious festivals at various times of the year to honour their gods and to make offerings to them. The Saxons generally converted to Christianity during the 6th, 7th and 8th centuries, but there was resistance to this, especially from the middle classes, who resented the Christian influence on the Saxon nobility. The Anglo-Saxon army was know as the Fyrd, which was comprised of men who were called up to fight for the king in times of danger. The Fyrd was led by the nobles called Thegns who were well armed with swords and spears but the rest of the Fyrd were armed only with weapons such as farm implements, clubs and slings. The later Anglo-Saxon army included a class of professional soldiers called Huscarls (Household troops) that were loyal to the King or Earl. The early religion was pagan based on the worship of a number of gods similar to that of the northern Europeans. Organised Christianity later replaced paganism and led to the establishment of a unified Church based on the Roman model. 56. Paganism vs Christianity in OG ethnic communities. Germanic paganism refers to the theology and religious practices of the Germanic peoples of north-western Europe from the Iron Age up until their Christianization during the medieval. It has been described as being "a system of interlocking and closely related religious worldviews and practices rather than as one indivisible religion" and consisted of "individual worshippers, family traditions and regional cults". Germanic paganism took various different forms in each different area of the Germanic world. The best documented version was that of 10th and 11th century Norse paganism, although other information can be found from Anglo-Saxon and Continental Germanic sources. Scattered references are also found in the earliest writings of other Germanic peoples and Roman descriptions. The information can be supplied by archaeological finds and remains of pre-Christian beliefs in later folklore. Germanic paganism was polytheistic, revolving around the veneration of various deities. Some deities were worshipped widely across the Germanic lands, but under different names. Other deities were simply local to a specific locality, and are mentioned in both Anglo-Saxon and Icelandic texts, in the latter of which they are described as being "the land spirits that live in this land". Teiwaz, god of war, "Germanic Mars", Norse Tyr, Old English Tiw, Old High German Ziu, continues Indo-European Dyeus. Wōdanaz, "lord of poetic/mantic inspiration", "Germanic Mercury", Norse Óðinn (Odin), Old English Woden, Old High German Wuotan. Frijjō, wife of Wodanaz, Norse Frigg. "wife", c.f. Sanskrit priyā "mistress, wife". Probably also addressed as Frawjō "lady" (Norse Freya). Fraujaz. "lord", c.f. Norse Freyr Þunraz, "thunder", "Germanic Jupiter", Norse Þórr (Thor), West Germanic Donar, Old English Thunor. possibly Austrō, goddess of dawn and springime. Heavenly bodies may have been deified, including Sowilo the Sun, Mænon the Moon, and perhaps Auziwandilaz the evening star. At their sacred sites, Germanic pagans widely practiced ritual sacrifice to their deities. This was often in the form of a blood sacrifice such as that of an animal, but also sometimes that of a human being. The Germanic people underwent gradual Christianization in the course of Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. By the 8th century, England and the Frankish Empire were (officially) Christian, and by AD 1100 Germanic paganism had also ceased to have political influence in Scandinavia. In the 4th century, the early process of Christianization of the various Germanic people was partly facilitated by the prestige of the Christian Roman Empire amongst European pagans. Until the decline of the Roman Empire, the Germanic tribes who had migrated there (with the exceptions of the Saxons, Franks, and Lombards, see below) had converted to Christianity. Many of them, notably the Goths and Vandals, adopted Arianism instead of the Trinitarian beliefs that came to dominate the Roman Imperial Church. The gradual rise of Germanic Christianity was, at times, voluntary, particularly amongst groups associated with the Roman Empire. From the 6th century, Germanic tribes were converted (and re-converted) by missionaries of the Roman Catholic Church. Many Goths converted to Christianity as individuals outside the Roman Empire. Most members of other tribes converted to Christianity when their respective tribes settled within the Empire, and most Franks and AngloSaxons converted a few generations later. During the later centuries following the Fall of Rome, as the Roman Church gradually split between the dioceses loyal to the Patriarch of Rome in the West and those loyal to the other Patriarchs in the East, most of the Germanic peoples (excepting the Crimean Goths and a few other eastern groups) would gradually become strongly allied with the Western Church, particularly as a result of the reign of Charlemagne. Unlike the history of Christianity in the Roman Empire, conversion of the Germanic tribes in general took place "top to bottom", in the sense that missionaries aimed at converting Germanic nobility first, which would then impose their new faith on the general population: This is connected with the sacral position of the king in Germanic paganism: the king is charged with interacting with the divine on behalf of his people, so that the general population saw nothing wrong with their kings choosing their preferred mode of worship. Consequently, Christianity had to be made palatable to these Migration Age warlords as a heroic religion of conquerors, a rather straightforward task, considering the military splendour of the Roman Empire. Thus early Germanic Christianity was presented as an alternative to native Germanic paganism and elements were syncretized, for examples parallels between Woden and Christ. A fine illustration of these tendencies is the Anglo-Saxon poem Dream of the Rood, where Jesus is cast in the heroic model of a Germanic warrior, who faces his death unflinchingly and even eagerly. The Cross, speaking as if it were a member of Christ's band of retainers, accepts its fate as it watches its Creator die, and then explains that Christ's death was not a defeat but a victory. This is in direct correspondence to the Germanic pagan ideals of fealty to one's lord. 57. = 50. 58. Material, spiritual culture. Weapon. The main weapon of early Germans was spear with thin short tip, iron sword and bow with arrows. For protection they used shield made of leather or wood. The biggest shame for a warrior was to leave his shield on the battle field. The helmet was decorated with fangs of wild boar. Household goods. The clothes ware kept in separate room. The food (pieces of meat) was taken out from boiler with the help of a big fork made of wood. They used earthenware or made plates and dishes of wood. Clothes. Germans wore animal and sheep skin. Later, they started to make clothes of wool and flax. Men wore flax shirts and trousers, coarse mantles and jackets with long sleeves. Women wore long shirts, dresses and mantles. Shoes were made of thick piece of leather which was fastened to the feet with to thongs. Dwelling. Houses of Germans consisted of 1 or 2 parts: one for people and the other for domestic animals. The roof was covered with rush and straw. Inside the house there was a open fire. Germans dug pits for keeping food supplies in winter, sometimes they lived there themselves. Funeral ceremony. The deads were not buried, they were burnt. Their weapon and horses were buried also.