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Technical Assistance Consultant’s Report
Project Number: 37697-025
September 2014
Mongolia: Darkhan Wastewater Management Project
Prepared by the Consultant Team comprised of Dr. James Arthur, Mr. Chuluun Chinzorig,
Mr. Davaasuren Chuluunbat, Mr. Nelson Jose, Ms. Dorjnyamjav Purevsuren, Mr.
Chimedkhorol Tseren, and Ms. Rachel Wildblood
For the Ministry of Construction and Urban Development, Darkhan-uul aimag government,
and Darkhan Us Suvag
This consultant’s report does not necessarily reflect the views of ADB or the Government concerned, and
ADB and the Government cannot be held liable for its contents. (For project preparatory technical
assistance: All the views expressed herein may not be incorporated into the proposed project’s design.
Wastewater Management for
Darkhan – Project Preparation
L2301-MON: Urban Sector Development Project (Additional Financing)
MON: WFMFDC00100
Ministry of Construction & Urban Development; Darkhan Us Suvag
Final Report
September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1
1.1
1.2
INTRODUCTION
Purpose and Scope of Report
Purpose and Scope of the Technical Assistance
2
RATIONALE: CONTEXT, BACKGROUND, SECTOR PERFORMANCE, CHALLENGES AND
OPPORTUNITIES
2.1
Consistency with ADB’s Country Partnership Strategy
2.2
Government Policy & Strategy in the Urban Environment, Water and Wastewater Sectors
2.2.1 Urban Sector Strategy
2.2.2 Resolution of Darkhan-Uul Aimag Khural on Ger Area Development
2.2.3 Water and Wastewater Sector Strategy
2.2.4 Urban Environmental Policy and Strategy
2.3
Urbanization and the Urban Form in Mongolia
2.3.1 Urban Form and Dynamics in Mongolia
2.3.2 Urban Form and Overall Development in Darkhan
2.3.3 Intensifying Environmental Challenges
2.3.4 Sector Performance in Darkhan
2.3.5 The Water Supply System
2.3.6 The Sewerage System
2.3.7 Industrial Wastewater
2.3.8 Wastewater Pumping Stations
2.3.9 The Central Wastewater Treatment Plant
2.4
Wastewater Discharge Standards
2.5
Government Initiatives in New Wastewater Treatment Plants
2.5.1 The Proposed WWTP at Nisekh
2.5.2 The Extension to Ulaanbaatar CWWTP
2.5.3 The Proposed WWTP Extension for Erdenet in Orkhon Aimag
2.5.4 The Proposed WWTP at Zamyn uud
2.5.5 The New WWTP at Chinggis International Airport
2.5.6 Other small wastewater treatment plants used in Mongolia
2.6
Prior Water and Wastewater Sector Initiatives in Darkhan
2.7
External Assistance in the Water and Wastewater Sectors and Lessons Learned
2.7.1 Lessons from Assistance in Urban, Water and Wastewater Sectors
2.7.2 Lessons from Assistance in Ger Area Development
2.7.3 Lessons Learned from MoMo Decentralised WWTP Pilot
2.8
Lessons Learned from International Best Practice in Wastewater Treatment in Extreme Climates
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
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33
WASTEWATER SECTOR FRAMEWORK FOR DARKHAN
Darkhan Master Plan and Strategic Plan
3.1.1 Existing Master plan: 2005 to 2020
3.1.2 City Development strategy (CDS)
3.1.3 Darkan-uul aimag Development Policy and Strategic Plan: 2009 to 2020
3.1.4 General Plan to Make Darkhan a National Model City: 2015 to 2028
3.1.5 Planning Issues to be addressed in Darkhan
Population Growth Projections
Economic and Industrial Growth Projections
Wastewater Management Typology
3.4.1 Central Planned Areas
3.4.2 Industrial Areas
3.4.3 Ger Areas
Water Demand and Supply Projections
Wastewater Flow Projections
37
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42
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43
44
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47
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48
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50
52
WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPTIONS ANALYSIS
Framework for Technology Evaluation and Selection
First-stage Options Evaluation
Second-stage Options Evaluation
Third-stage Options Evaluation
4.4.1 Option 1: Rehabilitation of Existing Activated Sludge Plant
4.4.2 Option 2: New Modified Activated Sludge Plant (Step-feed activated sludge)
4.4.3 Option 3: New Sequencing Batch Reactor Plant
54
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58
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60
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
Final Report – September 2014
4.4.4 Option 4: The Hybrid: Modified Bioreactor & Activated Sludge Plant – the Integrated Fixed-film
Activated Sludge (IFAS) system
Evaluation Results – the Optimal Technical Solution
Cost Estimates for Options
Process Evaluation: Conclusions and Recommendation
4.7.1 Evaluation Conclusions
4.7.2 Evaluation Recommendations
Government Consideration of Recommendations
61
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69
THE INVESTMENT PROJECT
Project Rationale
Project Impact and Outcome
5.2.1 Project Goals
5.2.2 Project Outcomes
5.2.3 Project Outputs
5.2.4 Project Inputs
5.2.5 Special Features
The Proposed Project
5.3.1 Project Description
5.3.2 Project Base Costs
5.3.3 Project Operation and Maintenance
Figure 5.2 Treatment Plant Layout as new Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge Plant
5.3.4 Implementation Schedule
70
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PROJECT ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL FEASIBILITY ASSESSMENT
Economic Analysis
6.1.1 Introduction
6.1.2 Project Economic Rationale, Goals, and Strategies
6.1.3 Project Alternatives and Least Cost Analysis
6.1.4 Cost and Benefit Analysis
Financial Analysis
6.2.1 Introduction
6.2.2 Financial Viability Analysis
6.2.3 Affordability and Willingness to Pay
6.2.4 Operational and Financial Strength of Darkhan Us Suvag
6.2.5 Fiscal Impact Assessment of the Project on Darkhan Uul-Aimag Government
6.2.6 Conclusions
Financial Management and Procurement Assessments
6.3.1 Financial Management Assessment
6.3.2 Procurement Capacity Assessment
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7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
ENVIRONMENTAL SAFEGUARDS AND DUE DILIGENCE
ADB and Domestic Environmental Due Diligence
IEE Key Findings
Environmental Impacts and Mitigation
Conclusion
95
95
95
100
102
8
8.1
SOCIAL SAFEGUARDS DUE DILIGENCE
Poverty Reduction and Social Strategy (PRSS)
8.1.1 Main Findings and Emphasis of the PRSS
8.1.2 Project benefits:
8.1.3 Gender and Development:
8.1.4 Participation and Empowerment:
8.1.5 Social Risks and Vulnerabilities
8.1.6 Mitigating Measures: Social Action Development Plan
Gender Action Plan (GAP):
Community Action Plan (CAP)
Design and Monitoring Framework (DMF)
Land Acquisition and Resettlement Requirements and Plan
8.5.1 Project site and ROW
8.5.2 Scope of Resettlement Impact
8.5.3 Indigenous People and Gender Impact
8.5.4 Legal and Policy Framework
8.5.5 Consultation and Grievance Redress
8.5.6 Institutional Arrangements and Monitoring
8.5.7 Compensation Strategy and Budget
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INVESTMENT COST AND FINANCING PLAN
110
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
9
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
9.1
9.2
Investment Cost
Financing Plan
Final Report – September 2014
110
111
10 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION ARRANGEMENTS
10.1
Approach to Project Execution and Implementation
10.2
ADB
10.3
GoM: MoF, MoED and MCUD
10.4
Darkan-uul Aimag
10.5
PUSO - Us Suvag
114
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11 PROCUREMENT PLAN OUTLINE
11.1
Project Procurement Approach
118
118
12 RISK ASSESSMENT
12.1
Project Risks
12.2
Risk Mitigation
121
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
List of Appendices (Separate Volumes)
Volume 1
A
Terms of Reference for the Assignment
B
Darkhan as a Model City in Mongolia
C
Environmental Policy of Mongolia
D
Institutional Set-up of Us Suvag
E
Darkhan Water Supply and Sewerage Networks
F
Mongolian Wastewater Discharge Standards
G
Development Assistance
H
ToR for Darkhan General Plan
I
Proposed Petroleum Refinery for Darkhan
J
Design and Monitoring Framework
K
Technical Characteristics of Shortlist of Wastewater Treatment Processes
L
Structural Rehabilitation of Existing WWTP
M
Pump Station Rehabilitation Details
O
Grievance Redress System
P
Project Execution and Implementation Arrangements
Q
Some Recommendations on Financial Management and Procurement Capacity
Institutional Reform, Organisational Development, Capacity Building and Project Management
Support
R
S
Comparative Lifetime Costs for WWTP Options
Volume 2
N
Initial Environmental Evaluation and Government DEIA (separate volume)
Volume 3
T
Economic and Financial Analysis of Project
U
Land Acquisition and Resettlement Pan
V
Household Socio-economic Questionnaire and Results
W
Poverty Reduction and Social Strategy
X
Social Action Development Plan
Y
Consultation and Participation Plan
Z
Stakeholder Communication Plan
AA
Community Action Plan
BB
Gender Action Plan
CC
Treatment Plant Reconstruction Sequencing and Design Layout
DD
Financial Management Assessments
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
List of Tables
Table 2.1
Table 2.2
Table 2.3
Table 2.4
Table 2.5
Table 2.6
Table 2.7
Table 2.8
Table 2.9
Table 3.1
Table 3.2
Table 3.3
Table 3.4
Table 3.5
Table 3.6
Table 4.1
Table 4.2
Table 4.3
Table 4.4
Table 5.1
Table 6.1
Table 6.2
Table 6.3
Table 6.4
Table 6.5
Table 6.6
Table 6.7
Table 6.8
Table 6.9
Table 6.10
Table 6.11
Table 6.12
Table 6.13
Table 7.1
Table 7.2
Table 7.3
Table 8.1
Recent Population Trends in Darkhan- Uul
Land Use Applications and Areas Approved – Darkhan
Darkhan WWTP performance in 2012 and H1 of 2013: Existing WWTP
Performance 2012 & January to July 2013 – Us Suvag figures
Darkhan WWTP performance in 2012 and H1 of 2013: Existing WWTP
Performance MoMo figures
Darkhan-Uul Aimag WWTP Discharges against Quality Standards
Recent Support to the Darkhan Water and Wastewater Management Sector
ADB-supported Wastewater Treatment Plant Construction in China
Wastewater Treatment Plant Operation in Cold Adjacent Regions of Russia
Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations in Cold North American Locations
Comparison of planned and actual population projections
Population Projections for Darkan – Core and Ger areas
Water Demand Projections for Darkhan City for period 2012 to 2040
Water Demand Projections Where Ger Residents Obtain Household
Connections
Wastewater Flow Projections for Darkhan City
Wastewater Projections Where Ger Residents Obtain Household Sewer
Connections
Comparative Treatment Data for Treatment Processes
Detailed Evaluation of Shortlisted Treatment Methods
Treatment Plant Capital Costs in US$ million
Annual Operational Costs for Treatment System Options
Capital Cost for Critical Sewer System Improvements
Least Cost Analysis
Incremental and Non-incremental Demand
Economic Internal Rate of Return and Sensitivity Analysis
Weighted Average Cost of Capital
Schedule of Anticipated Tariff Increases
Financial Internal Rate of Return and Sensitivity Analysis
Details of Financial Internal Rate of Return and Sensitivity Analysis
Affordability Analysis
Project Fund Requirements as Percentage of Revenue
MCUD Financial Management Assessment Summary Results
Darkhan Uul Aimag Financial Management Assessment Summary Results
Us Suvag Financial Management Assessment Summary Results
MCUW Procurement Assessment Summary Results
Potentially Affected Receptors and Resources in Component Sites
Kharaa River Water Quality
Potential Impact Significance
Summary of Project-Affected Entities
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11
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100
List of Figures
Figure 2.1
Figure 2.2
Figure 2.3
Figure 2.4
Figure 2.5
Figure 2.6
Figure 2.7
Figure 3.1
Figure 3.2
Figure 3.3
Figure 5.1
General Arrangement of Old Darkan, New Darkhan and the Industrial Estate
Current Land Use in Darkan City
Reported System Losses from Water Supply Network
Estimated Water Balance for Water Supply to Darkhan City
Total and Average Industrial Wastewater Flows over 2011
Arrangement of Sewage Pumping Stations
Existing Wastewater Treatment Plant
Existing Built up Areas and Area Proposed for Development under the
2020 Master Plan
Expansion Areas for New Darkhan Proposed for Development under Master
Plan to 2020 – 17, 300 new homes
New Gers at the edge of an established Ger Area in Old Darkhan
Location and Approximate Footprint of Proposed New WWTP
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13
16
17
18
20
22
40
41
45
75
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Figure 5.2
Figure 5.3
Figure 7.1
Figure 7.2
Figure 10.1
Final Report – September 2014
Treatment Plant Layout as new Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge Plant
Implementation Schedule for Modified Bloreactor/Activated Sludge Process
Selenge River Basin
Aimag Land Administration Maps, Darkhan City
Basic Project Implementation Arrangements
76
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87
88
104
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
Abbreviations
ADB
AIEC
ASP
BOD
CDIA
CDS
COD
CPS
CWWTP
CWWTP
D&B
DBOT
DEIA
DP
DSCR
EIA
ENPV
EPA
FCDI
FMA
FMAQ
GEIA
GRM
ICB
IEE
LARP
MCUD
MDG
MEGD
MLSS
MNRM
MNT
MoED
MoMo
NCB
NDS
NSO
O&M
OLA
PC
PIU
PLC
PMU
PPP
PPTA
PUSO
SBR
SLA
SS
TA
UDSP
USD
VAT
WACC
WWTP
Asian Development Bank
Average Incremental Economic Cost
Activated Sludge Plants
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Cities Development Initiative for Asia
City Development Strategy
Chemical Oxygen Demand
Country Partnership Strategy
Central Wastewater Treatment Plant
Central Wastewater Treatment Plant
Design and Build
Design, Build, Operate, Transfer
Detailed Environment Impact Assessment
Displaced Person/People
Debt Service Coverage Ratio
Environmental Impact Assessment
Economic Net Present Value
Environmental Protection Agency
Financial Charges During Implementation
Financial Management Assessment
Financial Management Assessment Questionnaire
General Environmental Impact Assessment
Grievance Redress Mechanism
International Competitive Bidding
Initial Environmental Examination
Land Acquisition and Resettlement Plan
Ministry for Construction and Urban Development
Millennium Development Goals
Ministry of Environment and Green Development
Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids
Mongolia Resident Mission of ADB
Mongolian Tugric
Ministry for Economic Development
Integrated Water Resource Management – Model Region Mongolia
National Competitive Bidding
National Development Strategy
National Statistic Office
Operation and Maintenance
On-lending Agreement
Project Coordinator
Project Implementation Unit
Programmable Logic Controller
Project Management Unit
Public Private Partnership
Project Preparation Technical Assistance
Public Urban Services Organization
Sequencing Batch Reactor
Sub-loan Agreement
Suspended Solids
Technical Assistance
Urban Development Sector Project
United States Dollars
Value Added Tax
Weighted Average Cost of Capital
Waste Water Treatment Plant
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
Consultant Team
Dr Jim Arthur
Team Leader
Mr Chimedkhorol Tseren
Deputy Team Leader
Ms Rachel Wildblood
Environmental Specialist
Mr Chinzorig
Institutional Specialist
Mr Nelson Jose
Financial Economist
Ms Purevsuren
Land Acquisition & Relocation Specialist
Mr Davasuren
Social Development Specialist
Disclaimer
The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views and
policies of ADB or its Board of Governors, the governments they represent, or the Government of
Mongolia. ADB or any of the above parties does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this
publication and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use.
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Background and Rationale
Darkhan is the third largest urban area in Mongolia (after Ulaanbaatar and Erdenet). It was established
as an industrial centre, and continues in this role with a thermal power plant, major metallurgical
industries, cement and other construction materials manufacturing, and a host of smaller industrial units.
However, despite this industrial heritage, there has been little new investment in either the manufacturing
or processing industry in Darkhan in recent years. As a result, while the economic performance of the
city has approximately matched that of the country as a whole, the city’s population has stagnated. The
registered population has remained much the same over the past decade, but has declined by almost
three per cent between 2010 and 2013.
As part of its socio-economic development strategy, the Government of Mongolia is committed to
promoting further investment in industrial development in Darkhan. Furthermore, Darkhan has been
identified as a model city in Mongolia and the Government is supporting the preparation of a new
Darkhan General Plan which will set out the development strategy and plan for Darkhan to year 2028 as
both a “smart city” and a “green city”. There is also the prospect of significant industrial investment in the
short- to medium-term. A new oil refinery is proposed for Darkhan, to be developed through joint
Mongolian and Japanese financing, and the aimag government is keen to encourage expansion of the
existing metallurgical and construction materials industries.
While Darkhan has the same urban form as all other urban centres in Mongolia, with a distinct duality in
the availability and quality of services between the central planned core on the one hand, and outlying ger
areas on the other, the proportion of the population living in ger areas in Darkhan is smaller than most
other urban areas in Mongolia, at only about 35-40% of the total urban population1. The city also has two
distinct urban cores – Old Darkhan to the north and New Darkhan to the south, with the industrial estate a
further 2 Km south of the southern edge of New Darkhan. This configuration means that much of the
urban core is not surrounded by ger districts. This potentially facilitates the planning and delivery of
expansion to the core areas for residential, commercial or industrial uses in a cost-efficient manner on
green-field peri-urban sites, without the need to address the difficult issues associated with ger area
redevelopment.
Conditions within the ger areas are poor – with water supply only obtainable from water kiosks, sanitation
restricted to on-plot long-drop toilets, and no access to the centralised heating system. While conditions
are significantly better within the core urban areas, with full household services provided to apartments
and low-rise housing, both the water supply and sewer networks suffer from ageing and dilapidated
infrastructure resulting in significant leakage from both systems, and frequent system failures. The three
main wastewater pumping stations and central wastewater treatment plant function reasonably well most
of the time, but are at, or beyond, the end of their economic life. The resulting occasional overloads and
breakdowns cause pollution of the areas surrounding the pump stations and treatment plant with raw
sewage. Taken together, these compromise the quality of the urban environment, and risk its progressive
further deterioration.
A more significant issue is the age and degree of deterioration of the central wastewater treatment plant.
Most elements of the system are now out of commission. Two out of three of the primary clarifiers and
two out of three of the secondary clarifiers are no longer used and derelict, and many of the internal
concrete walls of the aeration tanks are destroyed. Any mechanical equipment from the out-ofcommission units has been cannibalised to keep the one remaining unit operational. Although planned
for 50,000 cum/day, the plant is currently operating at a load of about 7,000 cum/day in summer with a
peak flow of up to 13,000 cum/day in winter. The effluent has been measured to fail national effluent
quality standards on 20 per cent of occasions, leading to elevated levels of nutrient in the Kharaa River.
1
Accurate figures are not available, but based on analysis by the consultant a figure of 35% has been used as the current
proportion of the Darkhan soum population living in ger areas.
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
The Project
The proposed project addresses these issues. The rationale for the project is threefold: (i) the existing
wastewater management system is under strain, and performance in the sector is compromised by
obsolete facilities and equipment; this puts the system at risk of failure; (ii) the city is identified by
Government as a model industrial city and the target of future industrial investment, a lack of adequate
wastewater treatment facilities could compromise this investment; and (iii) the Kharaa river presents a
sensitive ecosystem and is a source for Lake Baikal; even when functioning well, the current treatment
plant frequently does not satisfy discharge standards for nutrients, leading to elevated nutrient levels in
the river:
The goals of the project are: (i) to make a significant and measurable contribution to improving the urban
environment of Darkhan city, and (ii) to improve the water quality of the Kharaa River to meet
international river quality standards.
The intended outcomes from the project are improved management and treatment of both industrial and
domestic wastewaters delivered through more efficient and effective technology, processes and
procedures.
The project outputs will be:
 A new and more efficient central wastewater treatment plant, constructed and operating at the
location of the existing plant, delivering effluent in accordance with national and international
standards, and providing optimal energy recovery and sludge handling capacity.
 Rehabilitation and equipment replacement at pump stations, and replacement of critical sections
of the sewer network which have failed.
 Enhanced wastewater system management and operational skills developed in Us Suvag staff.
 Establishment of optimal arrangements for project procurement, execution, implementation and
operation.
The proposed Investment Project is aligned with the priorities of the national and aimag governments,
and is consistent with the current Darkhan Master Plan and with Government’s intention to develop
Darkhan as an industrial hub in the region, and as a model liveable city in Mongolia. The Government’s
Platform Action Plan for 2012 to 2016 includes the policy objective for the urban sector to “improve the
centralized heating, water supply and wastewater systems for the people living in aimag centres in order
to ensure that they live a comfortable life”. The project is also in line with the impacts, outcomes and
outputs supported by the ADB’s CPS, and will contribute to the achievement of MDG targets in improved
access to adequate sanitation in urban areas.
Generic lessons learned from prior assistance to the urban and water and wastewater sectors which have
some relevance for the Investment Project include: (i) institutional weakness is a key constraint to timely
and efficient execution of projects, and to long-term sustainability of the assets created; (ii) local capacity
constraints are exacerbated by a highly centralized system of government. (iii) local-level infrastructure
investments remain largely at the discretion of the central government, (iv) local officials lack the
budgetary and human resources to maintain infrastructure; and (v) incentives and resources for local
governments to strengthen services are limited. The project is being designed with these constraints in
mind, but is also trying to address them both in the process of project preparation and through the design
of project procedures and capacity development components.
Wastewater Treatment Technology Selection
The treatment technology proposed has been the subject of intensive analysis, based on both
international and Mongolian experience of wastewater treatment under condition similar to those found in
Darkhan. Wastewater treatment plants are complex systems which rely on a series of sensitive physical,
biological and (sometimes) chemical processes to achieve optimal treatment results. While the evaluation
has narrowed the technology choices to those which are most appropriate for Darkhan, the specific
design of the treatment plant, and the way in which it is operated, will need to respond precisely to local
conditions and the current and changing nature of the wastewater it will receive, as new generators
connect to the wastewater network.
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Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
A three stage process was adopted for the evaluation of potential wastewater treatment solutions, and
the selection of the optimal solution. During an initial evaluation, the full range of treatment options
available was evaluated and those which are clearly impractical under Darkhan physical and socioeconomic conditions were eliminated from further consideration. Under a second stage of evaluation,
those systems which could have application in Darkhan were evaluated in greater detail, along with
systems recommended for consideration by the MCUD Technical Committee on water and wastewater
infrastructure2. From these, a shortlist of four options was selected: (i) rehabilitation of the existing WWTP
as a modified activated sludge (integrated fixed-film activated sludge) process; (ii) construction of a new
step-feed activated sludge system plant; (iii) construction of a new sequencing batch reactor plant; and
(iv) construction of a new integrated fixed-film Activated Sludge (IFAS) system.
The evaluation concludes that the rehabilitation of the existing treatment plant as a modified activated
sludge (IFAS) plant is the cheapest option in capital cost terms, but presents possible operation and
lifetime risks in terms of: (i) dealing with the period of construction (further costs will need to be added to
provide for treatment during the reconstruction): and (ii) the possible risks on project costs and operation
associated with reuse of existing structures which cannot be fully evaluated without emptying the facility.
There is little between the three new systems in terms of cost and performance. The step-feed activated
sludge process is slightly more expensive and has slightly higher operational cost than the other two
systems. However, it comes close to the “tried and tested” conventional activated sludge process in terms
of operation, and thus offers some security that it can be successfully operated under Mongolian
conditions. Sequencing batch reactor technology offers high treatment efficiency and potentially the
lowest operational costs, but demands high-levels of operational control, and is currently only used in
small private plants in Mongolia, and nowhere in climates similar to that of Darkhan. The IFAS system
has not been used previously in Mongolia but is commonly used elsewhere, including in Russia and
China under climatic conditions similar to those in Darkhan. The table below summarises the outcome
from the final stage of evaluation in terms of capital, operating and lifetime costs (best values highlighted).
Rehabilitation
Evaluation Criteria
Estimated total capital cost (capital
works, equipment and other costs)
US$M
Estimated annual operating and
maintenance costs (power, staff,
chemicals and others) US$M
Estimated total economic lifetime
cost over 25 years, MNT per m3
treated
Estimated total financial lifetime
cost over 25 years, MNT per m3
treated
Economic Internal Rate of Return
(EIRR)
Financial Internal Rate of Return
(FIRR)
New
New
integrated
of existing
activated
sludge
New modified
step-feed
process
activated
sludge
sequencing
plant as IFAS
plant
reactor
fixed-film
activated
sludge
(IFAS)
system
12.25
19.30
16.35
16.70
0.592
0.631
0.541
0.567
5,931
7,844
7,426
7,324
2,087
2,329
2,168
2,372
13.0%
4.8%
6.2%
6.5%
2.4%
1.0%
1.8%
0.7%
batch
Source: Consultant.
2
Professional Committee of Water, Wastewater and Heating Engineering of the Urban Development, Building & Design Institute
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
The proposed technical options were considered by the MCUD Technical Committee on water and
wastewater infrastructure which favoured the IFAS system – either using the rehabilitated existing
structures or as a new plant. The MCUD Project Steering also considered the preferred options and
concluded that the IFAS technology should be adopted, using those elements of the existing structures
which are structurally sound and can be rehabilitated for reuse. The State Professional Inspection Agency
carried out an audit of the existing structures and concluded that while the internal walls of the biological
reactor were too degraded for rehabilitation, the external walls were structurally sound and could be
rehabilitated for reuse as reactors to contain the IFAS treatment system. Consequently, the option
selected is the rehabilitation of the existing plant using IFAS treatment technology.
Project Execution and Implementation
The processes of design, construction and operation of the plant are intimately linked. In structuring
procurement for the design, construction and operational phases, the objective is to get best value for
money for the client, while ensuring that risks to the client are minimised. The Government has elected to
fund the detailed design for the plant using its own resources. In view of this, it is recommended that the
ADB support a technical assistance to: (i) ensure that the detailed design adopts the optimal
technological choice available under the IFAS treatment system, and (ii) determine what innovative but
doable project packaging and procurement mechanisms can be used by the project to ensure that
design, construction and operational phases are integrated in such a way as to optimise the prospect that
the best and most efficient system will be selected and installed. Mongolia does not yet have in place the
legislative and regulatory system, or standard contracting tools, to support a full Design, Build, Operate
and Transfer contracting modality. However, the contract package for construction and installation of the
plant should include operation assistance to Us Suvag over an extended period, during which staff will be
fully trained in optimal operation.
The Ministry of Construction and Urban Development of the GOM will be the Executing Agency (EA) of
the Project. It is proposed that the project is managed and supported by the existing Project Management
Unit (PMU) of the Urban Sector Development Project for Mongolia (Loan 2301-MON) which will extend its
existing responsibilities to include the new Project. The state-level Project Steering Committee (PSC)
established for the Urban Sector Development Project will provide overall policy guidance on the project,
and will have full powers to take decisions on matters relating to Project execution.
Implementation of the Urban Environmental Improvement Components (Parts A1 and A2) of the project
will be by Us Suvag on behalf of the Darkhan-Uul aimag government with assistance from MCUD. MCUD
will establish a Project Implementation Unit (PIU) in Darkhan–Uul aimag or Us Suvag, with responsibility
for the day-to-day implementation of the physical works and equipment packages. Implementation of the
institutional reform and capacity development, and project management and implementation support
parts of the project (Parts B and C) will be managed by MCUD through the PMU for Loan 2301-MON.
Environmental Due Diligence
The project is Category B for environmental classification, and findings of the IEE show that the project
does not have any predicted significant, long term or irreversible impacts on the physical, biological or
socio-economic environment. The project will have short-term impacts during construction which can be
mitigated to an acceptable level through mitigation measures which seek to reduce the potential for harm
to the environment and human health. These measures relate primarily to implementing good
construction practice as well as meeting the particular needs of the project area through consultation with
affected people. Good practice through comprehensive training and appropriate technological design will
also contribute significantly to reducing the operational impacts of the project.
The project will implement a robust Grievance Redress Mechanism and will engage an Environmental
and Social Specialist to ensure that the GRM is well publicised and used effectively in order that that any
negative or positive impacts from the project are captured and dealt with appropriately.
The stakeholder and consultation during the development of the IEE, particularly with Darkhan aimag and
Us Suvag demonstrated that the project has local support as it will result in benefits in terms of the long
term environmental and social sustainability of Darkhan's WWTP.
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Social Assessment and Due Diligence
An assessment of the socio-economic conditions of the beneficiary community, and of the likely impacts
of the project was carried out based on analysis of secondary data, and on primary data obtained
through: (i) a household socio-economic survey of beneficiaries; (ii) extensive focus-group discussions
with project stakeholders; and (iii) interviews with key informants. A Poverty Reduction and Social
Strategy has been prepared which also includes: (i) a Social Action Development Plan (SADP): (ii) a
Consultation and Participation Plan (CPP); and (iii) a Stakeholder Communication Plan (SCP). During the
development of the PRSS, links were established to the national poverty reduction strategy and ADB’s
Country Partnership Strategy.
The project will provide social benefits in terms of: (i) an improved urban environment; (ii) health benefits
resulting from reduced risk and occurrence of feacal-oral diseases; and (iii) reduced time and expense
incurred by households in addressing wastewater management problems. Conclusions drawn from the
results of the household surveys in respect of participation and empowerment issues include:
 Participation of residents in community activities is low, but there is strong support for greater
involvement.
 Participation of entrepreneurs and business in the process of project planning and
implementation is crucial.
 Willingness to pay for improved service can be enhanced if public awareness of wastewater
issues is increased.
 There should be active and leading participation of the Apartment Owners Associations in the
project planning and implementation process.
 There needs to be organizational or institutional reform and improved regulation among
participants in the sanitation service.
 Residents worry about environmental issues, and especially pollution of the Kharaa River, and
are prepared to help to solve this problem.
 Residents have very little knowledge and information about the water supply and sanitation
services of Darkhan city, and have not realized that there are problems.
The Project is classified as having some gender elements (SGE). At the outset of project implementation,
the following measures should be taken: (i) incorporate gender concerns into the planning, design, and
implementation of improvements to wastewater management services; (ii) organize awareness
campaigns among women of the impacted households on the importance of the project and provide
training on the correct maintenance of sanitation facilities; and (iii) strengthen participation of women in
project implementation.
Economic and Financial Analysis
For the financial analysis, the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) in real terms is estimated at
1.41% and the financial internal rate of return (FIRR) in the base case is 2.4%. The financial net present
value (FNPV) is at MNT 4,920 million. The economic analysis indicates that the Project is economically
viable with the economic internal rate of return (EIRR) exceeding the economic opportunity cost of capital
(EOCC) in all sensitivity tests. The EOCC is assumed at 12% and the EIRR in the base case is at 13.0%,
with the economic net present value (ENPV) at MNT 1,241 million. The resulting benefit–cost ratio for the
Project is 1.3 denoting economic viability. Economic benefits were derived from analysis of willingness-topay survey conducted in Darkhan Uul. Sensitivity analysis conducted to test the robustness of the
financial sustainability and economic viability when subject to adverse economic changes (i.e., 10%
increase in capital cost, 10% increase in O&M cost, 10% reduction in benefits, combined 10% increase in
costs and decrease in benefits, and 1-year delay in benefits) indicate that FIRRs (except in decrease in
benefits, combined increase in costs and decrease in benefits, and delay in implementation) surpass the
WACC, while only EIRRs for base case and increase in O&M cost exceed EOCC.
Assessment of the financial sustainability and economic viability suggests that the integrated benefits and
impacts under base case conditions are expected to outweigh the costs. For higher financial the planned
coverage needs to be achieved and a smooth transition undertaken from completion of works to
operations. Analysis findings indicate that Project is financially viable required periodic tariff increases
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
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(starting with immediate adjustment in current year 2014 based on tariff application submitted to the
National Water Regulatory Commission and the Aimag Tariff Committee, and followed by increases every
five years from 2015 onward). For the measure to be relevant, this would be incorporated when PUSO
and Darkhan Aimag budget their annual operational plans. These plans and related issues have been
discussed and agreed with the executing agency, MUCD, for achieving financial sustainability of the
overall investment. Us Suvag JSC has applied for water tariff adjustment (with sewerage tariff proposal to
follow) to the National Water Regulatory Commission and awaiting approval, however, the budgeted
tariffs are not based on full cost recovery. The analysis proposes tariffs cognizant of cost recovery
principles and provides a realistic picture in terms of operational needs.
Land Acquisition and LARP
Only some portions of the sewerage pipelines right-of-way will involve land acquisition and resettlement;
other portions will be constructed on either public land or land possessed by the Darkhan-Us Suvag
company. A total of 8 affected entities including two small enterprises, three commercial entities and
three state budget institutions will be affected by land acquisition and resettlement. Of the 8 affected
entities, 5 affected entities were enumerated in the socioeconomic survey. 5 affected entities will lose a
total of 2,711.1m2 of land and all these losses are partial, all plots are possessed by the state institutions
and private companies. No residential land or structures will be affected by the project. Fences and gates
totaling 112m in length and belonging to 3 affected entities will need to be moved or replaced. Other
affected structures include 2 entrance ways to a food shop and hair and beauty salon, speed bump and
an advertisement board. Losses of land and structures, as well as transaction and relocation costs for
each AP are covered. The budget for resettlement is expected to amount to MNT 78,116,172 or USD
45,315 for compensation, administration and contingency costs as well as for monitoring costs which will
be funded from state government resources.
Institutional Reform and Capacity Development
The capacity of both the aimag government and Us Suvag to: (i) respond to citizen’s demands; and (ii)
initiate, plan, deliver and manage urban infrastructure development and improved service delivery is
limited. Both agencies suffer from inadequate financial and technical resources, an absence of systems,
few staff and insufficient capacity to effectively carry out these tasks. In the context of the Government’s
push towards increased fiscal decentralisation, including implementation of the Local Development Fund,
the project needs to support the aimag government and Us Suvag in enhancing its capacity and
capabilities in urban planning, and management and delivery of local infrastructure and services.
The Project presents an opportunity to introduce fundamental changes to the institutional framework for
water supply and wastewater management service provision in Darkhan, and to build capacity to improve
the efficiency and responsiveness of service delivery. This will be achieved through technical assistance
support at the aimag government and Us Suvag service provider level which will support: (i) improved
water supply and wastewater planning as an instrument to stimulate efficient, private-sector led
development; (ii) institutional reform, including opportunities for divestiture of all or part of Us Suvag so as
to decouple service providers from the aimag government administration and potentially attract private
sector capital and expertise; (iii) development of a institutional reform road may; and (iv) introduction of
an operating management contract that provides performance-based incentives for the service provider.
It is proposed under part B of the project to use the project itself as a vehicle help bring about these
changes.
Project Risks and Risk Mitigation
The major risks to timely and effective project implementation and/or realization of project outcomes, and
associated mitigation measures are summarized in the table below.
Summary of major Project Risks and Mitigating Measures
Risks
Poor technology design or
poor quality construction and
equipment installation will
Mitigating Measures
Optimisation of design, equipment specification and treatment
operation under Darkhan conditions ensured through provision
technical assistance for a wastewater management specialist to
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Risks
compromise treatment system
performance
Delay in project
implementation
Unforseen changes in flow
rates and composition of
wastewater compromise
treatment efficiency
Darkhan Uul and Us Suvag
implementation capacity is not
sufficient for large and
sophisticated works
Inefficient procurement and
corruption
Final Report – September 2014
Mitigating Measures
quality assure design of WWTP by Government and provide top
management supervision and third party quality assurance through
construction, commissioning and early stages of operation.
The government will ensure that the PMU and PIU are staffed with
experienced professionals. A procurement specialist will be
recruited in advance to assist with the tendering process, and
technical assistance will be provided to assist in procurement for the
WWTP.
Plant is designed to balance shock pollution loads (through the
balancing tank) and the biological reactor is divided into three
streams, each with a design loading of about 8,000 cum/day. Under
higher loading conditions three stream can be operated, or under
lower operating conditions two streams. Us Suvag will be
strengthened to enforce national discharge standards for industries
disposing of their effluent into the public sewer.
Specific funding covers consulting services, support, and additional
staff with experience and suitable skills. Darkhan Uul aimag and Us
Suvag capacity and performance will be built during program
implementation, particularly in the areas of project and contract
management, financial management and project performance
monitoring and reporting.
Reviews will assess procurement to validate reported procurement
capacity and address gaps that may impede program effectiveness.
Relevant provisions of ADB’s Anticorruption Policy (1998, as
amended to date) are included in the investment program’s loan
regulations and bidding documents. The executing agency MCUD
will disclose to the public and annually update the program’s current
status and how project proceeds are used.
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
1
1
INTRODUCTION
1.1
Purpose and Scope of Report
Final Report – September 2014
This is the Final Report of the Additional Financing Technical Assistance (TA) for the Preparation
of a Water Supply and Wastewater Management Project for Darkhan city under the Urban Sector
Development Project for Mongolia (Loan 2301-MON). This Final Report provides the final
technical output under the TA and presents the results from work carried out under the overall
terms of reference (see Appendix A). It also incorporates further information obtained through the
CDIA-supported Water Supply and Sanitation Infrastructure Improvement Project for Darkhan3, and
responds to comments provided during an extended period of review of the Draft Final Report by
both Government and the ADB, encompassing loan fact-finding and including subsequent project
adjustments. The Report focuses on the following areas:
i.
An overview of Government policy and strategy in the sector, and review and assessment of
Government’s urban and sector development plans, and environmental policies;
ii.
Analysis of sector performance with particular reference to water supply, sanitation,
wastewater and sludge treatment and management, including an assessment of the existing
wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and its O&M, with respect to its suitability for
rehabilitation and expansion or reconstruction;
iii.
Review of existing urban development plans for Darkhan, likely industrial and population
growth rates, likely shift between apartment and ger areas, and the development of
projections for per capita and gross wastewater generation rates;
iv.
Review of domestic and international best practices in wastewater and sludge treatment and
management drawing on Asian Development Bank (ADB) projects, and other international
experience in comparable environments;
v.
Review and evaluation of the standards and targets for surface water quality and effluent
discharge;
vi.
Review of national experience in the improvement of water supply, sanitation and wastewater
management in ger areas;
vii. Development of a framework and strategy for future wastewater management in Darkhan
considering the existing urban, industrial and ger areas, and planned growth in existing and
new areas;
viii. Development of outline concepts for water supply and wastewater management for the
different urban typologies: (i) formalized urban areas including housing blocks and commercial
and administrative districts, (ii) industrial and logistics zones, and (iii) informal Ger areas;
3
ix.
Analysis of differing physical and socio-economic characteristics of ger areas in Darkhan and
evaluation of options for service improvement to different types of ger area settlement;
x.
Analysis of industrial effluents and pre-treatment requirements in assessing wastewater
strength and assessment of separation or combination of WWTP operations;
xi.
Review of alternative plant designs and technologies with possible application in Darkhan, and
recommendation of an optimal approach for the WWTP in Darkhan;
Pre‐ Feasibility Study on the Water Supply and Sanitation Infrastructure Improvement Project (WSSIIP) for the City of Darkhan,
Mongolia, supported by the Cities Development Initiative for Asia, Manila February to July 2014.
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
xii. Identification of the location, scale and optimal technology for the new centralized WWTP and
other critical system improvement requirements;
xiii. Development and optimization of a preliminary design for the WWTP as a new facility installed
within the rehabilitated and reconfigured structures of the existing WWTP to optimize
efficiency, provide a least cost solution, and minimise land acquisition and resettlement
requirements and costs;
xiv. Development of preliminary design and costings for the proposed project package;
xv. Determination and quantification of the expected impact, outcomes, outputs, inputs, and
activities of the project;
xvi. Development of an environmental baseline on wastewater management infrastructure and
services provision, and environmental and social indicators (including health and other
relevant data) for effective monitoring of project performance;
xvii. Carrying out of an environmental assessment of the project package and preparation of an
initial environmental evaluation (IEE) and environmental management plan (EMP) for the
project.
xviii. Conduct of household socio-economic surveys and preparation of a poverty reduction and
social strategy, social action development plan, gender action plan, community action plan,
and stakeholder communication plan;
xix. Investigation of any resettlement requirements under the preparation of a Land Acquisition
and Resettlement Plan (LARP);
xx. Preparation of economic and financial justifications for the project and calculation of economic
and financial internal rates of return;
xxi. Preparation of proposals for flow of funds and sub-lending arrangements;
xxii. Preparation of proposals for project execution and implementation arrangements, and
assessment of capacity and capability of execution and implementation agencies;
xxiii. Development of policy and institutional reform proposals and capacity development
arrangements;
xxiv. Proposals for contract packaging and for procurement arrangements and modalities; and
xxv. Assessment of risks related to project design and execution, and how those risks may be
avoided or mitigated.
1.2
Purpose and Scope of the Technical Assistance
2
The objective of the assignment is to assist the Government of Mongolia and City of Darkhan with
developing a solution to the city’s wastewater management issues. The purpose of the assignment
is to carry out a wastewater sector assessment, develop proposals for wastewater management
improvements, and prepare a technical, financial and economic feasibility study to provide the
basis for possible ADB support for the rehabilitation, reconstruction, or replacement of the Darkhan
Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and associated wastewater infrastructure as appropriate.
3
This technical assistance helps Government consider wastewater treatment options, evaluate
these options, determine the optimum solution, and provides a feasibility study report for this
WWTP solution. The consultants have also prepared documentation necessary to support ADB
processing and approval of the project. The outputs include reports on the technical, financial,
economic, environmental, social and institutional feasibility of the project and associated
environmental and social safeguards and due diligence.
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
4
The work is aligned with the Government’s 2012–2016 Action Program, which includes objective
of: (i) improving public utility services and networks in provincial centres; and (ii) supporting the
significant expansion of industrial development in Darkhan city. The activity will further support the
Government’s policy objective of making Darkhan a national “model city for urban liveability”.
5
In March of 2012, the Prime Minister made an announcement on plans for developing model cities
in Mongolia, including the city of Darkan. A plan for Darkhan model city development was to be
prepared during 2012, but this is now scheduled for completion during 2014. Appendix B provides
a brief summary of the Prime Minister’s statement on the model city programme for Darkhan.
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
2 RATIONALE: CONTEXT, BACKGROUND,
SECTOR PERFORMANCE, CHALLENGES AND
OPPORTUNITIES
6
This chapter provides an overview of urban, water and wastewater sectors in Mongolia and the
framework within which the Darkhan Wastewater Management Project is being prepared. The
project responds to both the ADB’s strategic framework in the sector – as articulated through the
country assistance strategy - and the Government of Mongolia’s policy and strategy in the urban
development and environmental sectors. The chapter also looks at the trends in urban
development at both the national and city level, assesses current performance in the sector, and
identifies sector constraints and opportunities. Finally, the chapter presents an assessment of the
performance of other water supply and wastewater initiatives in Mongolia. It assesses lessons
which can be taken from experience with: (i) water supply and wastewater improvements in urban
core areas and ger areas; and (ii) wastewater treatment plants in regions with similar climatic and
socio-economic challenges to Darkhan. It also takes lessons from prior donor and lender
assistance to the urban, water and wastewater sectors in Mongolia.
2.1
Consistency with ADB’s Country Partnership Strategy
7
Urban development was first included as a distinct sector in 1992 in the ADB Mongolia Country
Strategy. However, the link between the urban sector and the overall country strategy was not
strong. In an attempt to strengthen this strategic linkage, the 2004 country strategy and program
sought to reorient the urban strategy toward the provision of those services fundamental to
achieving MDG targets (which include potable water supply and adequate sanitation). The 20122016 Country Strategy continues on this trajectory, with a strong emphasis on infrastructure and
access to basic services.
8
The second country operations strategy (although now outdated) also recognised the importance
of the urban sector. However, the expected benefits from infrastructure-led development as a
means of delivering economic growth and poverty reduction was not realised. This was partly
attributed to the capital-intensive public investments failing to deliver inclusive growth outcomes. As
a result, the operations strategy was reoriented towards placing an equivalent emphasis on wealth
creation to that placed on poverty reduction, supported by good governance. At an operational
level, this meant switching the main mechanism for growth generation from public sector
investments in infrastructure to employment-generating investments aimed at engaging the private
sector, while also providing support mechanisms to improve governance. The current country
strategy and business plan continues to reflect this position.
9
The proposed Investment Project is included in the ADB Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) 20112015 as part of the on-going Urban Sector Development Project. It is in line with the impacts,
outcomes and outputs supported by the CPS, and will contribute to the achievement of MDG
targets in improved access to adequate water supply and sanitation in urban areas. The
Investment Project is aligned with the priorities of the national and aimag governments, and is
consistent with the current Darkhan Master Plan and with Government’s intention to develop
Darkhan as an industrial hub in the region, and as a model liveable city in Mongolia.
10
Finally, emphasis on the potential role of PPPs to support the sector strategy and achieve more
inclusive growth is reflected within the ADBs strategy and plan, based on the lessons learned
during the 90’s and early 2000’s. This emphasizes the need to explore a range of implementation
and management models, including management contracts, leases, concessions, DBO and DBOT
arrangements for design, construction and operation of the Project facilities. These approaches
can consider the potential benefits around employment, knowledge transfer and increased
institutional capacity while mitigating against potential operational and management risks. In
assessing the options for project procurement and management, these sector objectives have
been borne in mind.
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Government Policy & Strategy in the Urban Environment,
Water and Wastewater Sectors
2.2
2.2.1
11
Final Report – September 2014
Urban Sector Strategy
The Government of Mongolia has not articulated a specific strategy for the development of the
urban sector. However, there are elements of existing Government policy, strategy and legislation
which infer a trajectory for growth and development of the urban sector, and suggest where priority
investment should be focused in the medium- to long-term. The most important of these are:
i.
The National Development Strategy (NDS) which covers the period 2007 to 2021 and is
structured around achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs);
ii.
The Regional Development Concept and related Law on Regionalized Development
Management and Coordination (of 2001 and 2003); and
iii.
The Government Platform Action Plan 2012 to 2016.
12
The NDS targets economic growth rates of at least 14% per annum and a GDP per capita of
US$5,000 equivalent by year 2015. It stresses both the need to “ensure rapid and sustainable
development based on a market economy”, and to “actively develop regions and infrastructure to
reduce urban-rural disparities”. The strategy also identifies as one of its key objectives to “allocate
funds in accordance with (the) priority and needs of a sector, monitor spending and ensure its
efficiency”.
13
The Regional Development Concept and related Law on Regionalized Development Management
and Coordination; and Medium-term Strategy on Regional Development 2001-2010, called for
better-balanced regional growth. This strategy sought to direct funds towards the development of
“pillar” urban centres in each of the five regions. More recently, under the previous Government,
the “soum centre development project” was intended to provide new administrative centres (school,
hospital, government buildings) for a number of strategic and fast-growing soum centres.
However, the continuing (and accelerating) primacy of Ulaanbaatar, stagnation in growth of most
other major urban centres (including Darkhan) and focussing of non-Ulaanbaatar growth in towns
impacted by major mining investment (e.g. Erdenet and the towns of the South Gobi) demonstrates
the limited success of these strategies.
14
The Government Platform Action Plan 2012 to 2016 includes the following policy objectives for the
urban sector:
15
i.
Improve the centralized heating, water supply and wastewater systems for the people living in
aimag centres in order to ensure that they live a comfortable life;
ii.
Carry out re-planning of the urban areas with community involvement, and implement housing
programs by providing centralized solutions to ger district electricity, drinking water and auto
road-related issues, and other infrastructure elements, either making them independent or
recoverable through instalments;
iii.
Carry out technological renovations in water supply, drainage and sanitation facilities of towns;
iv.
Take measures to enforce the Law on Water Supply and Sewer Use in towns and other
settlements; and
v.
Introduce technologies to treat and reuse industrial and household wastewater.
The project approach follows a number of these strategic directions, with its geographical focus on
a secondary city, and in its addressing of sanitation, wastewater management and urban
environmental issues. In addition it will support efforts to introduce technologies which will enable
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
the reuse of the outputs from the treatment process – treated wastewater effluent, mineralised
sludge and methane gas.
2.2.2
16
Resolution of Darkhan-Uul Aimag Khural on Ger Area Development
The Darkhan Aimag Khural approved a resolution on ger areas development on 30th May 2013.
The resolution commits the aimag government to improving the living conditions of ger area
residents through a number of interventions. The objectives of the proposed programme are to:
i.
Carry out research and create an urban database for ger districts;
ii.
Develop designs for improving conditions of ger districts, and estimate the budgetary
requirement;
iii.
Upgrade the waste management systems in ger districts;
iv.
Improve infrastructure conditions in ger districts; and
v.
Improve the condition of the environment in ger districts.
17
It is anticipated that the resultant programme would: (i) connect ger districts to infrastructure
networks; (ii) connect some ger areas to the sewer system and the central heating system; (iii)
provide households with full use of cleaner stoves; (iv) support smokeless fuel manufacture; and
(v) connect ger districts to the water supply system. It also proposes development of roadways,
street lighting and public parks in ger districts, and the introduction of a street address system.
Other components include holding competitions among baghs to improve the appearance of their
surroundings; encouraging bagh leaders through rewards for their accomplishments and efforts
made, and using public awareness programs to change public perceptions to support model ger
area initiatives.
18
The budget allocated for this work is MNT 46 billion (or about US$ 35 million) but it is unclear as to
where this money is to come from.
2.2.3
Water and Wastewater Sector Strategy
19
The laws of Mongolia which govern water use have been revised and consolidated, and new laws
have been adopted over recent years. The Law of Mongolia on Water dated 22 April 2004 ("Old
Water Law") has been replaced with a revised version of the Law of Mongolia on Water dated 17
May 2012 ("Water Law"). The Law of Mongolia on Fees for Use of Water and Minerals Water has
been consolidated with other laws on the use of natural resources and is replaced with the Law of
Mongolia on Natural Resources Use Fee dated 17 May 2012 ("Natural Resources Use Fee Law").
On 17 May 2012, the Law of Mongolia on Water Pollution Fees was newly adopted to introduce
fees payable for pollution of water resources ("Water Pollution Fees Law") 4.
20
The overall effect of these changes is that under the Water Law, the Government has the authority
to determine the intrinsic environmental value of water resources for each region or river basin.
Currently, governmental resolution No. 302 dated 26 October 2011 sets out the intrinsic
environmental value for each river basin in amounts ranging from MNT 800 to MNT 2651 per cubic
metre for surface water, and MNT 1510 to MNT 9440 per cubic metre for sub-surface water
(groundwater). The fee will be payable on a monthly basis and the user must also submit an
annual report for water use fees.
21
In the wastewater sector, to implement the "polluter pays" principle in terms of water resources, the
Water Pollution Fees Law introduces fees payable by entities and organizations that pollute water
resources, and sets out the maximum and minimum amount of water pollution fees per polluting
4
Based on: Revision of Environmental Laws in Mongolia and its impact on the mining sector, October 2012, Hogan Lovells,
Ulaanbaatar
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
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substance type5. The Government will set the specific fees payable in each water drainage basin
taking into account the volume and quality of the water resources contained therein.
22
The Government is pursuing an ambitious reform agenda in the water and wastewater sector,
assisted by the ADB. Based on the newly amended Law of Mongolia on Municipal Water Supply
and Wastewater Treatment Operation (amendments) Article 9 (2011), a Water Regulatory
Commission has been established and is operational. The head of the Commission and the
members were appointed by Prime Ministerial Resolution No.56 of May 30, 2012, with duties to: (i)
take control of water supply and sewerage system service tariff; (ii) set water supply and sewerage
system service tariff; (iii) give approvals for system tariff; (iv) make resolutions on tariff and carry
out analysis; (v) approve communication and regulation of water supply and sewerage entities
(PUSOs); and (vi) approve any other such resolution as may be necessary.
23
The Commission has investigated the issue of water supply and sewerage tariffs and has proposed
a system of tariff reform which would progressively increase tariffs, first to recover full operational
and maintenance costs, and thereafter to also cover the costs of depreciation.
The
recommendations include: (i) a structure which provides for both fixed and variable tariffs; and (ii)
that there be immediate substantial increase in tariff, and thereafter progressive increases in tariff
to support the sustainable operation of water and wastewater management systems. However, at
the time of writing (March 2014) there remain legal impediments to the recommended reforms of
the Water Regulatory Commission being executed.
24
The proposed project will seek to operate within this sector framework. However, the level of
investment anticipated under the project is significant, and the data from the household socioeconomic survey indicates that it is hard to achieve direct recovery of more than the basic
maintenance and operational costs of the new infrastructure and wastewater treatment plant from
the system users, at least in the near term. This issue is addressed in detail in Chapter 5 of this
Report.
2.2.4
Urban Environmental Policy and Strategy
25
There is no specific Government policy relating directly to urban environmental matters. The
Government’s overall policy for environmental protection, including the following of EIA procedures
for public sector project proposals, provides the urban environmental protection framework. A
summary of Mongolia’s Environmental Policy and Integrated Water Resource Management Plan is
provided at Appendix C.
26
The Government is promoting urban greening as part of the reforestation and green agenda of the
Ministry for Environment and Green Development (MEGD). This builds on the statutory provisions
within the urban planning laws of Mongolia which set out minimum requirements for public open
space which are in turn reflected in the development tables accompanying each master plan
(including the current Master plan for Darkhan). As with all ex-soviet countries, the guidelines for
development set out very prescriptive requirements assigning areas in percentage terms –
including those for green space. In this context, the Soum Government of Darkhan is proposing
the establishment of an urban green zone between the built-up areas of Old and New Darkhan and
the Kharaa River. There may be opportunities for use of treated wastewater as part of the
development of this proposed green zone.
27
One of the specified requirements set out in the ToR for the new General Plan for Darkhan City
which is currently under preparation6 is that it should be a “green” city. It is to be expected that the
plan would identify areas of particular ecological and environmental value which would be
recommended for retention as open space or ecological zones, and on which development would
be discouraged. This would likely include the flood plain of the Kharaa River.
5
6
This sub-divides polluting load by: low density substance; organic substance; minerals; heavy metals; and toxic substances, but
does not assign an acceptable value or fee rate for exceedence to each.
The Darkhan General Plan is under preparation by the company Ark Construction and should be complete in draft by June 2014.
7
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
2.3
2.3.1
Final Report – September 2014
Urbanization and the Urban Form in Mongolia
Urban Form and Dynamics in Mongolia
28
In 2012, urbanization in Mongolia reached 68% (1.9 million out of a total population of 2.85 million).
The urban economy grew by an estimated annual average of 11.2% during the 2006–2012 period,
and now accounts for 65% of total gross domestic product. However, the urban sector is
dominated by the capital city, Ulaanbaatar, which contains almost half the national population and
two thirds of the urban population. Ulaanbaatar’s population increased from 773,000 to 1.3 million
between 2000 and 2012, due largely to in-migration, representing an annual average growth rate of
almost 6%. Other areas which are showing significant population growth are those which are
located adjacent to mining operations – such as Erdenet in Orkhon aimag and the urban areas of
Omnogovi aimag. In stark contrast, many other urban areas – including Darkhan (see below), are
showing stagnant or declining populations as people are drawn by the strong economic magnets of
Ulaanbaatar and the booming mining towns.
29
All Mongolian cities present two very different and distinct patterns of residential development,
each of which is highly correlated with the degree and incidence of both income- and quality-of-lifepoverty. The first comprises planned areas based on Soviet-style urban design, encompassing
medium-density multi-family apartment housing surrounding public open space. The second
comprises the low-density ger areas: informal settlements that are characterized by long strips of
large, (usually 700 square meters) un-serviced or under-serviced plots (khashaas) accessed along
wide dirt roads. Each khashaa may contain a number of structures – often gers - but in better
established ger areas also often houses of wood (widely used in Darkhan), masonry, or concrete
construction. Most ger areas are served by water kiosks, supplied either from water mains or by
water trucks. However, in general, the lack of services leads to harsh and insanitary living
conditions in the ger areas.
30
The urban cores are characterized by groups of 5-storey walk-up or 9-storey apartment blocks,
many of which were constructed in the latter years of the soviet period. These are frequently
arranged around areas of public open space which include parks and playgrounds. The soviet-era
housing stock is increasingly being supplemented, or replaced, by modern medium- and high-rise
housing and commercial construction in Ulaanbaatar and other major urban centres, including
Darkhan. These core areas are fully serviced with power, district heating, water supply, sewerage,
and paved road access. Rights of way are often very wide, with ample space to allow services to
be installed in soft shoulders and footpaths.
31
The migrant population to urban areas has created a unique urban phenomenon in the Ger areas,
comprising large peri-urban and generally poorly-planned areas, characterized by unserviced plots,
unpaved roads, and unsanitary conditions. In general, ger areas have the following characteristics:
(i) disproportionate and tenacious: 30% of the country’s population lives in ger areas, many have
been there for generations; (ii) heterogeneous: households fall across the spectrum of low- to
medium-income brackets; (iii) poorly planned: ger areas are formed with very little planning and
urban regulation; (iv) un-serviced: limited access to basic urban services and lack of infrastructure;
(v) secure land tenure: most residents have land entitlement and recognized property rights, and
the eminent domain law is only applicable in Mongolia by the State to expel any tenant breaching
the law, or for national security reasons; (vi) cold climate: the long winter with temperature dropping
below -40°C, results in a short construction period and high cost of construction; (vii) low urban
densities: estimated average of 40 persons per hectare, due to land parcels generally of 700 m2
with no limitations on development and expansion of urban boundaries and the preponderance of
development on steep terrain or into river flood plains; and (ix) predominately residential:
commercial buildings, government offices, and public services occupy a very small footprint, while
unpaved roads represent a significant percentage of the land area.
32
What is particularly striking about the ger areas is their resilience in the face of other major
developments in urban areas in Mongolia – particularly over the past decade. The proportion of
urban populations residing in ger areas remains almost unchanged over this period, and all urban
centres have ger areas. Repeated attempts in the recent past to develop ger areas through
approaches such as land pooling and land readjustment have generally met with failure. Past
8
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
plans to completely redevelop ger areas by extensive re-blocking and construction of medium or
high rise housing have failed due to lack of willingness by khashaa owners to support the plans
and sell their land.
2.3.2
33
Urban Form and Overall Development in Darkhan
The city of Darkhan (now Old Darkhan) was founded in 1961 with construction of New Darkhan
commencing one year later. New Darkhan is located about 2 Km to the south of Old Darkhan, from
which it is separated by a small range of hills. Figure 2.1 shows the location of the two urban
centres, the neighbouring industrial estate, main ger areas, wastewater treatment plant and Kharaa
River
Population
34
About 85% of the population of Darkhan-Uul aimag lives in the city (Darkhan soum) but the
population of both the aimag and each of the soums has shown only a very modest increase over
the past few years. As table 2.1 shows, over the past decade, population remained little changed
between 2003 and 2009, but following a significant increase in 2010, has shown a decline since
then, with a particularly steep decline between 2011 and 2012, and only a slight recovery since
then. This suggests that during the period 2003 to 2010 the slow out-migration from Darkhan was
being compensated for by the natural population increase 7. However, the figures indicate that over
the past few years, there continues to be net out-migration from Darkhan, with the level of outmigration great enough to significantly reduce the increase which could be expected from natural
growth (estimated at about 1.5% per annum)..
35
This increased rate of out-migration may be a function of the growing attraction of alternative
economic drivers – particularly Ulaanbaatar and the mining operations in other parts of the country
during the past two years of very rapid national economic growth. Oyu Tolgoi alone employed
several thousand workers between 2010 and 2012 to work in its south gobi mine, and over 300 of
these workers gave their place of permanent residence as Darkhan 8.
36
The city is characterised by two distinct urban cores on a north-south axis, with New Darkhan to
the south and Old Darkhan to the north, and with ger areas concentrated to the west, north-west
and north-east of Old Darkhan and to the east of New Darkhan (see Figure 2.1). Figures vary as to
the proportion of the population of Darkhan soum who live in the centrally planned and serviced
apartment areas of Old Darkhan and New Darkhan, and those who live in the peripheral ger areas.
Estimates for the former vary from 60% to 69%9 with the Aimag Land Administration office
providing an estimate of 60%. The Aimag Land Administration office indicates that the target is to
have 75% of the population living in the centrally planned and serviced areas by 2020.
37
There is a transient population in Darkhan which is not fully captured in the figures provided above,
and for which accurate estimates are not available. This is primarily made up of:
7
8
9
10
11
i.
Students: Darkhan is an educational centre with ten tertiary educational institutions in addition
to 25 secondary schools and 14 kindergartens, and a number of other small vocational
training centres. The transient student population during term-time is estimated to peak at
about 5,00010.
ii.
Herders: The number of urban inhabitants rises during the winter months as some herder
families relocate back to Darkhan after summers spent with their herds. Again, accurate
numbers are unknown, but estimated at a few hundred 11.
Mongolia Human Development Report 2011: From Vulnerability to Sustainability, UNDP, Ulaanbaatar, 2011
Oyu Tolgoi Human Resources Department Employee Information, Oyu Tolgoi, Ulaanbaatar 2012.
The figure of 69% is widely quoted in the MoMo reports and by the Darkhan Us Suvag, but is not verified by the aimag
government which provides a figure of 60%. A figure of 65% is used for planning purposes.
Estimate by the office of aimag chief of policy development.
Office of the head of Administration; Darkhan Uul aimag.
9
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Figure 2.1 General Arrangement of Old Darkan, New Darkhan and the Industrial Estate
WWTP
Ger area
Ger area
Old Darkhan
Kharaa River
New Darkhan
Ger area
Industrial Area
10
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Table 2.1 Recent Population Trends in Darkhan-Uul12
Year
Population:
Darkhan uul aimag
Darkhan soum
Khongor
Orkhon
Sahriin gol
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
90,178
73,692
5,530
2,888
8,068
90,428
74,277
5,390
2,913
7,848
90,656
74,663
5,336
2,933
7,724
89,427
73,457
5,404
2,932
7,634
90,224
74,526
4,950
2,935
7,813
91,093
75,104
5,115
3,076
7,798
91,358
74,454
5,603
3,185
8,116
95,043
77,547
5,796
3,277
8,423
93,137
75,494
5,856
3,356
8,431
92,735
75,644
5,693
3,277
8,121
93,554
76,428
5,729
3,240
8,127
0.3%
0.8%
-2.5%
0.9%
-2.7%
0.3%
0.5%
-1.0%
0.7%
-1.6%
-1.4%
-1.6%
1.3%
0.0%
-1.2%
0.9%
1.5%
-8.4%
0.1%
2.3%
1.0%
0.8%
3.3%
4.8%
-0.2%
0.3%
-0.9%
9.5%
3.5%
4.1%
4.0%
4.2%
3.4%
2.9%
3.8%
-2.0%
-2.6%
1.0%
2.4%
0.1%
-0.4%
0.2%
-2.8%
-2.4%
-3.7%
0.9%
1.0%
0.6%
-1.1%
0.1%
Annual Growth Rates:
Darkhan uul aimag
Darkhan soum
Khongor
Orkhon
Sahriin gol
38
Based on these additional transient populations, the current population in Darkhan Uul can be
estimated to peak at about 100,000 and for Darkhan soum about 82,000. In population equivalent
terms, the transient and student population can be estimated to provide a population equivalent of
between 4,000 and 5,000.
Land Allocations
39
An indication of the vibrancy of the local economy in the recent past can be obtained by reviewing
the number and type of land use applications made and approved in recent years. Figures
obtained from the aimag Land Administration Office on the number of applications being received
and approved for land use permits by year is provided in Table 2.2 below. This figure provides a
reasonable proxy for economic growth in the city and shows no appreciable long-term trend in
recent years in the number, or size, of land approvals being granted. However, the last two
complete years of records (2011 and 2012) showed the largest number of successful applications
for industrial commercial and institutional land. It is also noticeable that there are peaks in years
2004, 2008 and 2012 which correspond to the election cycle.
Table 2.2 : Land Use Applications and Areas Approved –
Darkhan Aimag
Year
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Residential
Approvals
98
1201
765
440
954
1189
774
700
665
1138
955
Total
Area ha
8.5
13.1
85.0
42.1
89.8
79.3
67.3
62.7
59.5
92.4
69.1
Industrial, commercial
and institutional
Approvals
31
39
42
41
57
59
33
1
78
123
17 (partial record)
40
The areas coved by industrial, commercial and institutional approvals are not shown, as approvals
for land to be used for agricultural purposes distorts the figures, and it is not possible to distinguish
between approvals by industrial, agricultural, commercial or institutional purpose.
41
However, figures from the Darkhan-uul planning office show that between 2011 and 2012, land
allocated for urban development in Darkhan soum increased from 6,544 to 6,944 ha. (out of a total
12
Source National Statistical Office of Mongolia, 2013
11
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
of 9,813 ha.) – an increase in one year of about seven per cent. Year on year increases for roads
was from 443 to 453 ha. (2% increase); for industry was from 494 to 563 ha. (10% increase); for
ger areas was from 698 to 725 ha (4% increase); and for the core urban area from 4,909 to
5,203ha (6% increase).
Industry
42
Darkhan emerged as an industrial centre, partly because of its location on the trans-Siberian
railway and road from the Russian federation, and partly as a result of its location at the centre of
an area rich in construction materials. There remain pockets of small industry in a number of
locations around Darkhan, but these are more of the cottage industry variety. Of the older mediumsized industrial units located around the city – particularly to the north of Old Darkhan – most have
closed down, and only the timber processing facility in Old Darkhan remains. All the other major
industrial units which are in operation are now located in the industrial estate which lies about 2 Km
to the south of New Darkhan (see Figure 2.1) The estate currently has the following operational
units:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
Thermal power plant
Metallurgical processing and production factory
Cement production factory
Brick production factory
Sheepskin tanning and dyeing facility
Meat processing factory
Flour mill
Vodka production facility
Grocery and edible oils production units
43
In addition, two new manufacturing undertakings were under development in 2013 and will go into
production in 2014. These are: (i) a wool and felt processing factory; and (ii) an ore processing
operation. These are not large, will employ less than 100 people between them, and will produce
relatively minor amounts of wastewater.
44
The current picture in terms of the economic condition of Darkhan is then ambiguous, but it is
reasonable to assume that following a recent decline there are now signs of growth in the local
economy, which should in turn lead to a progressive increase in population. Clearly, the future
growth of Darkhan is highly dependent on the economic performance at the national level, plus the
degree to which the Government delivers on its commitment to develop Darkhan as an industrial
centre. This is discussed more fully in sections 3.2 and 3.3 below.
45
Figure 2.2 below shows the existing land-use of Darkhan and bagh administrative boundaries13.
This includes land allocated for these uses in year 2010, some of which are not fully built out.
13
Sigel K. Environmental sanitation in peri-urban ger areas in the city of Darkhan (Mongolia): A description of current status,
practices, and perceptions, Darkan, 2010
12
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
Figure 2.2: Current Land Use in Darkan City
13
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
2.3.3
Final Report – September 2014
Intensifying Environmental Challenges
46
Encouraging and supporting the development and delivery of urban services in Darkhan requires
consideration of a range of issues. As with other urban areas in Mongolia, development planning
and land markets are highly distorted and function poorly. Current development plans are based
on a ‘top-down’ approach that does not take the changing and dynamic socio-economic conditions
on the ground into account, nor does it respond well to the requirements of a market-led economy.
This is evidenced by the fact that while the current Darkhan Master Plan is intended to provide the
development framework for the city up to the year 2020, it is already considered out of date and is
no longer used to guide growth and development. In the meantime, there is no planning
framework guiding city development while a new plan is produced.
47
The legislative and regulatory functions governing the infrastructure requirements of the city are
under the responsibility of a number of institutions responding to a wide range of laws and
regulations. The integration and coordination of these remain poor, and infrastructure and
development programming remain disjointed and are undertaken in the absence of any meaningful
community engagement or participation. The service gap between the city core centres and
outlying ger areas results in a poor integration of ger residents into the overall urban economy and
can be expected to worsen, if ger areas continue to grow.
48
Furthermore, and critically, current policy forces ger area dwellers into areas which are difficult
and very expensive to service, thus the poorest in society live in the locations that are most difficult
and expensive to service, and are most vulnerable to flooding, erosion etc. This is in areas high on
steep hillsides and in the flood plain of the Kharaa river characterised by a high water table, poor
soil conditions and vulnerability to flooding. Large areas of many hundreds of hectares of good
development land adjacent to the existing serviced areas lies vacant, while khashaas are issued
for residential purposes on hillsides, in floodplains and very far from any central service networks.
49
Minimal long-term planning, inadequate infrastructure investment, and the absence of effective
land-use regulation in ger areas have resulted in haphazard development, limited space availability
for public facilities, poor access to socio-economic services, reduced livelihood opportunities, and
unsafe neighbourhoods. Some ger districts lie in areas which should be kept fee from any
development. Ger areas in the west and northwest quadrants of Old Darkhan between the urban
core and the Kharaa River lie in areas of the Kharaa River flood plain which have a high water
table, making the installation of piped services almost impossible, and certainly extremely
expensive.
50
Within the core urban areas, conditions are better, but both the water supply and sewer networks
suffer from ageing and dilapidated infrastructure resulting in significant leakage from both systems.
Residents frequently report poor quality and discoloured domestic water supply, and there are
frequent overflows from the sewerage network in residential districts. In the household socioeconomic survey carried out under the project, residents frequently complained of raw wastewater
flooding basements and the area around their apartment buildings. The wastewater pump stations
and treatment plant function reasonably well, but occasional overloads and breakdowns cause
pollution of the surrounding areas with raw sewage (discussed in greater detail below).
51
Taken together, these factors compromise the quality of the urban environment, and risk its
progressive further deterioration. The poor choice of location for housing areas, lack of basic
urban infrastructure in some areas, and poor condition of existing infrastructure in others, is
preventing rational and dynamic urban development and raises the cost of doing business and of
accessing services.
52
The Kharaa River has elevated nitrogen and phosphorous levels as the removal of these
contaminants by the existing WWTP is inefficient. However, due to the dilution capacity and
turnover processes in the river, the nutrient levels are only moderately elevated. This has led to
limited detectable impact on the ecology of the river. It is possible that at times of low flow
combined with a future increase in housing and industry, the impacts on the river arising from the
current WWTP treatment shortcomings would become more significant and the environmental
14
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
sustainability could be compromised. This is increasingly likely as the existing outdated waste
water treatment technology becomes progressively more unreliable with age.
2.3.4
53
Sector Performance in Darkhan
The existing situation with respect to the water and wastewater sectors in Darkhan can be
described as problematic, but not critical. Water supply and wastewater management are the
responsibility of the Public Urban Services Organisation (PUSO) for Darkhan – Darkhan Us Suvag
(USAG) - which was established in 1965 and currently has 192 staff of which 40 have an
engineering qualification. Darkhan Us Suvag functions as a service organisation and a limited
liability joint stock company. The company is owned 40 per cent by the aimag government and 60
per cent by the aimag peoples Khural (on behalf of the people of the aimag). The water supply and
wastewater assets of the aimag are vested in the Us Suvag LLC. The existing institutional set-up is
set out in Appendix D.
2.3.5
The Water Supply System
54
The city is served through a system of wells located in the Kharaa river valley and about 5 Km
upstream of Darkhan city. A total of 18 wells are available which could deliver a theoretical 70,000
cum/day of groundwater. However, current total residential and industrial demand (of about 18,000
cum/day but up to 23,000 cum/day) can be provided from just 5 or 6 production wells. This
includes “technical water” of about 8,000 cum/day used by the thermal power plant, and which is
drawn from their own wells. Us Suvag abstracts about 11,000 cum/day for domestic and other
industrial use. During August 2013 abstraction rates varied from 8,800 to 12,100 cum/day, with an
average of 11,00014.
55
The raw water is generally of drinking quality at the point of extraction, and as such is not normally
subject to treatment. However, chlorination facilities exist at raw water storage tanks and it is
reported15 that chlorination is occasionally carried out during the summer period when quality
declines. Despite this, water quality problems are experienced at the point of delivery as a result of
the poor condition of many sections of the 40 year-old pipe network, which suffers an overall
leakage rate currently estimated at about 40%. Progressive replacement of key elements of the
water supply network (which has been commenced) is likely to result in a progressive improvement
in the leakage situation. However, there are still some sections which remain in urgent need of
replacement16.
56
In addition to the abstraction from Us Suvag’s own well network and those of the thermal power
plant, some individual households and businesses extract groundwater from their own wells.
However, over recent years, Us Suvag has attempted to stop this practice and now the vast
majority of water supplied to residences is from the Us Suvag well fields via the distribution
network, although there are still some private deep wells which provide water in the ger areas.
Furthermore, the household socio-economic survey carried out under WSSIIP identified some
households in baghs 1,2 and 3 (situated in the flood plain of the Kharaa river) which still use
shallow wells for potable water supply, even though the groundwater is polluted.
57
Of the 11,000 cubic meters produced by Us Suvag per day, about 3,000 cum/day is consumed by
industry and 8,000 cum/day by residential, institutional and commercial users. Of this amount most
is consumed in the core serviced areas of old and new Darkhan, with only about 500 cum/d being
consumed by the more than 25,000 who live in the ger areas, of which most is provided through
the piped network to water kiosks, and about 90 cum/day by water trucks . There are a total of 35
water kiosks serving the ger areas, of which 18 are served from the water supply network and 17
by water tanker. The tankers mainly serve kiosks in areas near the Kharaa River (Baghs 1, 2 and
3) where water supply pipes cannot easily be installed due to the high water table.
14
15
16
Us Suvag figures on raw water abstraction 2013.
Reported by Us Suvag, Head of Laboratory Services.
For instance in the area of Mangirt where the proportion of non-revenue water is estimated at 80%.
15
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
Figure 2.3: Reported System Losses from Water Supply Network
58
The centrally planned urban core areas are served by a reticulated water supply network which in
places extends into the ger areas to provide water to water kiosks. The reticulated supply is
provided through 223.2 Km of pipe varying in diameter between 100 mm and 1,000 mm. The age
of the network by length is: installed in 1965: 59%; in 1990: 33%; in 2005: 5%; and in 2011: 3%.
Appendix E shows the water supply network by length, diameter, materials and condition, and
indicates the recent rehabilitations made.
59
Average water consumption within the central serviced core areas has been measured at 175
l/cap/day in warm weather conditions (when the hot water system is not in operation) and a further
40 l/cap/day, making a total of up to 215 litres/capita/day during cold weather conditions when the
hot water system is operated. This includes the system leakage currently estimated at about 40
per cent. In the ger areas average per capita water consumption is estimated at around 10 to 20
l/cap/day17. Figure 2.4 below shows the estimated water balance for the city.
2.3.6
The Sewerage System
60
Darkhan has a separate sewer system – sanitary sewage and surface water are served by
independent networks. The sewer system of Darkhan conveys wastewater from both old and new
Darkhan and the industrial estate to the central WWTP, which lies just to the north (downstream) of
old Darkhan and about 500 m from the Kharaa river. The WWTP is about 650 m from the nearest
dwelling – which is a ger on a recently issued khashaa plot.
61
The sewer network has of total length of 223.5 Km made up of about 97 Km of trunk main, 2 Km of
rising main, and the remainder in secondary sewers and connectors. The condition of the network
is variable, as many of the pipes are almost 50 years old. The age of the network by length is:
installed in 1965: 65%; in 1990: 30%; and in 2005: 5%. There is no detailed information on the
retention period within the sewer system, although there are no reports of septicity problems. The
generally sloping topography of the core urban areas of Darkhan help in generating self-cleansing
velocities in the sewer network.
17
Source: Milojevic, Nikola, Klaus-Jochen Sympher, Matthias Schütz, and Martin Wolf, MoMo Technical Report No 6 Integrated
Wastewater Management in Central Asia – MoMo Model Region, 2011.
16
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
62
Since the two residential areas and the industrial estate are effectively in three separate valleys,
the system requires two intermediate pumping stations to convey wastewater to the WWTP (one at
the industrial estate and one in old Darkhan), with a further pump station at the plant to lift the
wastewater to allow gravity flow through the treatment process. All pumps operate automatically
according to pre-defined levels and there are both generators and emergency overflows at the
pumping stations. Despite these provisions, due to periodic breakdown of equipment reaching the
end of its economic life, there are occasions when there is overflow of raw sewage to the flood pain
of the Kharaa River adjacent to the pump stations. In addition, the pump station serving the
industrial area is an old plant running at capacity, and the far larger-capacity new pump station is
currently not operational.
63
Us Suvag maintains that some 40% of the sewer network is in need of rehabilitation or
replacement, and there is evidence of significant infiltration (and thus also exfiltration) from the
sewer network. It is reported18 that there is a significant increase in inflows to the WWTP during
periods of intense rainfall, indicating significant ingress of storm water into the system. This
suggests there is also significant ex-filtration under normal dry conditions, which has the potential
to pollute groundwater resources. Based on the differential between water consumption and
sewage flows, there are estimates that infiltration of ground water and surface water into the sewer
system is of the order of 15 to 25%19.
64
The sewer system only serves those residents that live within the service area, estimated at
between 60% and 69% of total households which are connected to the public sewer system. Of the
remaining percentage (most of whom live in ger areas), a significant majority use open long-drop
pit latrines for sanitation, and soakage pits for sullage disposal. However, it is also reported that
14% of the wastewater generated in the city is directly discharged into surface waters – mainly
from the ger settlements20.
18 wells / USAG
Figure 2.4: Estimated Water Balance for Water Supply to Darkhan City
9500 m3/d
Drinking water
9800 m3/d
City area
Connected by pipe
lines
Tank
Pumping station 2
90 m3/d
Ger area
Wells Nr. 1 and 22
Supplied by water
cars
Waste water from industries
3700 m3/d
8 wells / Power Plant
Industries
18
19
20
Waste water
8900 m3/d
Water
9100 m3/d
Power Plant
Hot water
Waste water
treatment plant
Us Suvag flow records at CWWTP
Source: Milojevic, Nikola, Klaus-Jochen Sympher, Matthias Schütz, and Martin Wolf, MoMo Technical Report No 6 Integrated
Wastewater Management in Central Asia – MoMo Model Region, 2011.
Source: p2mberlin GmbH Integrated Water Resouce Management (IWRM) Mongolia - MoMo Project: Proposal for a pilot SBR
treatment system in Darkhan City, Berlin, 2010
17
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
2.3.7
Final Report – September 2014
Industrial Wastewater
65
The industrial estate generates up to an estimated maximum of 3,700 cum/day of wastewater,
although the summer average is nearer 2,500 cum/day, which enters the public sewer network. Of
this amount, approximately 2.5 cum/day generated by the sheepskin tanning and dying factory is
subject to pre-treatment using a coagulation and precipitation reactor which precipitates out
chromium and delivers an effluent which is acceptable for discharge into the public sewer. The
meat processing factory also has a pre-treatment facility for its 40 to 60 cum/day effluent which is
high in BOD and nutrients. However, this plant is currently not functioning so this effluent (which
represents about 0.5% of total sewage flow) is discharged directly to the public sewer and thence
to the treatment plant. Wastewater flows from other industries are not pre-treated. Us Suvag
monitors the characteristics of industrial flows into the sewer network and believes that all industrial
flows satisfy the conditions for discharge to a public sewer, except for the meat processing factory
as long as its treatment plant is out of operation. These standards are provided at Appendix F.
66
Figure 2.5 below21 shows a time series of industrial wastewater flows as reported by individual
industries during 2011, although this is significantly less than the wastewater pumped as measured
at pump station No 1. Us Suvag indicates that all industries discharge wastewater into the public
sewer system. The left ordinate shows the monthly wastewater flow by industry, and the right
ordinate depicts the monthly sum of industrial wastewater discharged. Industrial wastewater
production in the winter months (October to March) is about 20% higher on average than in the
summer months (April to September).
Figure 2.5: Total and Average Industrial Wastewater Flows over 2011
2.3.8
67
21
Wastewater Pumping Stations
There are three wastewater pumping stations currently used to deliver wastewater to the WWTP,
including the station at the treatment plant itself which raises wastewater to the preliminary
treatment works. There is a further pumping station at the industrial estate which is not currently
operational, but which needs to be brought into service as the increasing wastewater volumes
justify its use.
Source: Heppeler, Jörn. Optimization of the operation of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) – On the example of the pilot
wastewater treatment plant in Darkhan, Mongolia, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, 2012
18
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
68
Wastewater from the industrial area is pumped to the WWTP in two stages, and that from Old
Darkhan and New Darkhan in a single stage from the secondary pump station (See figure 2.4). The
first stage pump station at the industrial estate is operating at its capacity (reported as 160 cum/hr),
and under peak inflow conditions raw sewage surcharges in the wet well, sometimes to the point
where it overtops the parapet. Consequently, the primary screens are ineffective, thus further
adding to the risk of pump failure. It has single operating and standby pumps.
69
The unused primary pump station at the industrial estate has never been operated, despite being
connected to the network and provided with pumps, power connections and a standby generator.
It has a theoretical capacity of about 1,000 cum/hr, but pumps and electrical equipment have been
removed and significant investment is required to make it operational.
70
The secondary pump station collects wastewater pumped from the industrial area, and flowing by
gravity from New Darkhan and parts of Old Darkhan. The structure is in generally good condition,
but again, the pumping equipment and power connections are in an advanced state of dilapidation.
In addition, overflow pipework from the pump station is in need of replacement.
71
Figure 2.5 shows the pumping arrangement. The primary pumping station for the industrial area
which is currently used is approximately 200 m south of the major primary pumping station which is
currently unused but would need to be brought into service with increasing industrial wastewater
flows.
2.3.9
The Central Wastewater Treatment Plant
72
The first stage of the CWWTP was built during the construction phase of Darkhan in 1965,
adopting Russian design and standards, and initially adopting a process of preliminary treatment
followed by primary treatment in two primary clarifiers. From 1987 to 1990, a major upgrade and
expansion of the facilities was completed, with the provision of: (i) new grit channels, (ii) three new
primary clarifiers, (iii) secondary biological treatment based on the activated sludge process, (iv)
three secondary clarifiers, and (v) effluent chlorination facilities. This mechanical and biological
plant had a design capacity of 50,000 cum/day, and was complemented by a series of constructed
ponds providing: (i) polishing in maturation ponds, (ii) sludge drying beds, and (iii) sand and grit
disposal ponds. The original primary clarifiers were decommissioned once the new plant came on
stream. It is unclear whether all three streams of the 1990 plant were ever operated since in recent
years the flow has seldom exceeded 10,000 cum/day, which is one fifth of the design capacity.
73
Most elements of the system are now out of commission. Two out of three of the primary clarifiers
and two out of three of the secondary clarifiers are no longer used and derelict. Any mechanical
equipment from the out-of-commission units has been cannibalised to keep the one remaining unit
operational. Despite this, the plant is fully operational, with the exception of the chlorination facility.
However, although planned for 50,000 cum per day, the plant is currently operating at a load of
about 7,000 cum/day in summer and an average of 10,000 cum/day in winter, with a reported peak
flow of significantly less than 20,000 cum/day. Consequently, only one stream (out of three) of
both primary and secondary clarifiers is necessary. However, all three streams of the activated
sludge biological reactor are operated, resulting in excessively long aeration periods. During the
month of August 2013, daily flow rates into the plant varied between 5,100 and 10,900, and
averaged 7,100 cum/day22. The inflow rates are somewhat higher in winter due to the extensive
use of hot water in apartments and institutions.
74
Figure 2.7 below shows the layout of the WWTP and indicates the units which are currently
operating highlighted in blue.
22
Us Suvag inflow records for CWWTP.
19
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Figure 2.6 Arrangement of Sewage Pumping Stations
WWTP Pump
Station
Rising Main
Secondary
Pump Station
Gravity Sewer Main
Rising Main
Primary
Pump Station
Indust. Estate
20
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
75
Despite being operational most of the time, the plant is in an advanced state of disrepair. Some of
the original pumps are decommissioned and have been cannibalised to provide parts for remaining
serviceable pumps. Most of the control equipment in no longer operational, which means that the
plant is operating sub-optimally contributing to excessive operational costs and compromising
effluent quality. Although most pumps are out of order, the pumping stages in the plant are kept
operational by repaired pumps and new pumps brought in to replace those no longer operable.
Occasional breakdown and insufficient duty and standby pump capacity causes occasional raw
sewage overflow and pollution of the immediately surrounding area.
76
The operation of the mechanical treatment processes is severely compromised by the failure of the
screens which allow bulky debris to enter the system and provide a potential risk to pipes and
pumps. The efficiency of the sand and grease trap is doubtful as the intermittent operation of the
inlet pumps results in high temporary loads on the sand and grease trap and the primary
sedimentation tank – exceeding the capacity of both to do an adequate job.
77
The primary sedimentation process is sometimes overloaded as only one out of three tanks is
operational, and the sedimentation process in the primary sedimentation tank appears insufficient
as faeces, paper and other floating debris leave the tank. The biological treatment aeration tank is
in a very poor structural condition, with parts of the concrete walls having been eroded away,
resulting in very uneven spill-over at the overflow weir. Aeration is very intensive, and visual
inspections suggest the aeration rate is far too high, negatively impacting on treatment and wasting
energy.
78
The performance of the secondary sedimentation tank is compromised by the ineffective operation
of the sludge bleed system, resulting in sludge rising and being carried over with the supernatant.
If the effluent from the plant is conveyed to the maturation ponds this should result in further
effluent polishing, but is in unclear as to whether this is done on a regular basis.
79
In sum, the plant is struggling to keep going, and suffers frequent breakdowns which compromise
the treatment efficiency and risk pollution events. In summer and autumn of 2012 regular aeration
failures were observed due to the breakdown of the blowers, which on occasion, lasted for more
than one week. The repeated blackouts led to a loss of activated sludge and negatively impacted
on the treatment efficiency23.
80
Despite these problems, the plant shows reasonably good treatment efficiency in terms of BOD
and SS removal, less so in the case of COD and nutrient removal. Table 2.3 shows the
performance of the plant measured by Us Suvag during 2012 and the first half of 2013. This
measures parameters at the outlet from the secondary clarifier, and further treatment can be
anticipated in the polishing ponds prior to discharge to the Kharaa River. It should be noted that
this data is based on filtered samples of effluent, which is the standard practice adopted by Us
Suvag in measuring wastewater parameters. It is noticeable that BOD5 removal is consistently
high at around 90% apart from in April 2013 when it dropped significantly. This could be due to the
sudden warming of the weather causing a dramatic increase in anaerobic activity in trapped sludge
deposits releasing BOD into the supernatant and increasing sludge carry-over.
23
Pm2berlin, Terms of Reference Main Trunk Sewer and Central Wastewater Treatment Plant for Darkhan, Mongolia Draft, Berlin
March 2013
21
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
Figure 2.7: Existing Wastewater Treatment Plant (Units shown in blue are currently operational)
22
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Table 2.3: Darkhan WWTP performance in 2012 and H1 of 2013
81
Additional data were collected by the MoMo project in the summer of 2012 on the treatment
efficiency achieved by the WWTP, in this case using unfiltered samples. The average results are
shown in Table 2.4 below. These also show a poor performance in terms of nutrient removal,
although improved performance in removing COD.
Table 2.4 Darkhan WWTP performance in 2012 and H1 of 2013
82
The Meteorological Office24 of Darkhan-Uul aimag is responsible for monitoring the performance of
treatment plants in the aimag, and the Darkhan CWWTP is one of four plants operating within the
aimag which are monitored for compliance with national effluent discharge standards (see
Appendix F). The results from sampling at the points of discharge from the treatment plants to the
Kharaa River carried out in the summer of 2013 are shown in Table 2.5. This reveals that despite
its operational problems, the Darkhan WWTP delivers an effluent which satisfies the effluent
discharge standards on 80% of occasions. In doing so, it performs better than the other
wastewater treatment plants in the aimag.
Table 2.5 Darkhan-Uul Aimag WWTP Discharges against Quality Standards.
% of effluent samples meeting
Wastewater
Treatment Approximate Distance from
Mongolian National Standard
Plant Location
Darkhan city (km)
MNS4586:1998
Darkhan WWTP
Khongor Soum WWTP
Salkhit WWTP
Sharin Gol WWTP
24
25 km
35 km
47 km
80.0
36.9
42.9
70.4
Source: Darkhan Meteorological Office Data available on http://www.icc.mn/aimag/Darkhan/
23
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
2.4
Final Report – September 2014
Wastewater Discharge Standards
83
The standard for wastewater discharges to water bodies (MNS 4943: 2011) has been recently
revised (2011) and now aligns quite closely with European Standards. It appears to be both
consistent with international standards and appropriate for Mongolian conditions. (See Appendix
F).
84
The standard for wastewater discharges to a public sewer (Regulation number No a/11/05/A/18:
Allowed Limits of Industrial Wastewater Composition Before Letting Effluents into the Central
Wastewater Treatment Systems) are older (1997) and appear to be based on Russian standards.
Some parameter limits look high, and problems could be experienced with treatment plant
operations where heavily polluted industrial flows comprised a high proportion of wastewater flow
into the plant, even though satisfying these discharge standards.
2.5
Government Initiatives in New Wastewater Treatment Plants
85
The Government, either through its own funding or with the assistance of donors and lending
agencies, is embarked upon an ambitious program for the construction of new or expanded
wastewater treatment plants in the major cities, and in rapidly growing smaller urban centres, of
Mongolia. Those which are of a similar size to the treatment plant proposed for Darkhan, and as
such are of greatest relevance in informing the approach to the Darkhan WWTP, are the new plant
proposed at Nisekh, on the edge of Ulaanbaatar; and the extension to the existing WWTP for
Erdenet in Orkhon aimag. However, all major current proposals are considered here so that any
lessons relevant to the design of the WWTP for Darkhan can be drawn out.
86
In Ulaanbaatar, a new plant is proposed at Nisekh ultimately treating 20,000 cum per day, with a
first stage of 10,000 cum/day, for which a tender has been issued and a preferred bidder selected.
The Nisekh plant has been the subject of full feasibility analysis and, although initially proposed for
funding by KfW, is now being funded using the government’s own financial resources. In addition,
preliminary plans and a feasibility study have been prepared for the upgrading and extension of the
existing Central WWTP in Ulaanbaatar. The proposal is to increase the current capacity of 120,000
cum/day (upgradable to 180,000 cum/day) by progressive increments of 63,000 cum/day by 2020,
a further 84,000 cum/day by 2028 and a further 63,000 cum/day by 2035.
87
In Orkhon aimag, the existing plant is being extended to enable it to treat a further 20,000 cum per
day using a combination of Government funds and a loan from the Government of France. In
addition, a new wastewater treatment plant is being designed for Zamyn uud soum in Dornogovi to
be funded under the Chinese infrastructure loan, and with a first phase design population of 20,000
which is equivalent to a capacity of about 3,000 cum/day.
88
Finally, government has commissioned the construction of a new plant to replace the poorly
functioning existing plant at the airport at Nisekh in Ulaanbaatar. This has a design capacity of
2,000 cum/day and it has been constructed adopting a modified activated sludge treatment
process. The plant is ready for commissioning, but is not yet operational.
89
These initiatives, and the lessons they provide in consideration of the options for wastewater
treatment for Darkhan, are briefly discussed below.
2.5.1
90
25
The Proposed WWTP at Nisekh
Feasibility studies and plans were developed for the Nisekh plant with funding from KfW over a
period of more than one year and through three development phases 25. The reports together: (i)
carry out a detailed investigation of possible wastewater treatment alternatives at Nisekh; (ii)
provide a more thorough evaluation of the preferred two options (sequencing batch reactor and
modified activated sludge process); and (iii) provide detailed costs and operational requirements
for the preferred option of a step-feed process activated sludge process. The work also develops a
Environmentally Sound City Development in Ulaanbaatar, Feasibility Study Report, Final Version, Gitec and Mongol Erdem,
Ulaanbaatar August 2011.
24
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
project planning matrix that discusses potential risks to project implementation, and possible
remedial measures to mitigate those risks.
91
The first stage evaluation considered six systems against a range of criteria including cost and
operability under Mongolian conditions etc. These were:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
92
Although there was no detailed evaluation of each of these options, from preliminary assessments
of suitability for Nisekh, a shortlist of three processes emerged which were subject to further
scrutiny: (i) a modified activated sludge system - adopting a step feed activated sludge process
and including anaerobic sludge digestion; (ii) a sequencing batch reactor system, including
anaerobic sludge digestion; and (iii) an extended aeration system (in this case using an oxidation
ditch or Carrousel approach). The Oxidation Ditch (Carrousel) process used as an extended
aeration system was further considered only as this was understood to be the preferred option of
the Municipality of Ulaanbaatar. However, on detailed evaluation of these three systems, the
extended aeration option was rejected for the following reasons:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
93
Trickling Filter technology
Activated Sludge technology
Extended Aeration technology
Sequencing Batch Reactor technology
Membrane Bioreactor technology
Biofilm technology
Sludge treatment and disposal issues – sludge less well mineralised than in other options
a. Greater sludge volumes generated
b. No energy recovery option from sludge digestion
c. Poor handling characteristics of sludge
Volume of aeration tanks: Extended aeration tanks are three times the size of activated
sludge tanks, incurring higher capital costs and risking reduced temperatures inducing
freezing problems unless enclosed
Energy demand for oxygen is 30% greater than for the other options
Energy recovery not possible whereas from the activated sludge and SBR plants energy
recovery could be as great as 2,500 MWh/annum
The preferred process identified through this selection procedure was the Activated Sludge Step
Feed Process. This is a relatively new process but now successfully demonstrated elsewhere and
increasingly used. It was evaluated as preferable to either the SBR process, or to other modified
activated sludge process systems for the following reasons:
i.
It achieves a high rate of denitrification and of Phosphorous removal (good for discharge to
water courses)
ii. It enables a compact design, reducing aeration tank size by between 33% and 70%
iii. It is energy efficient: no sludge recirculation is required and it exerts a lower oxygen demand
that is comparable to conventional ASP systems
iv. Average mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) is higher without an increased load on
clarifiers
v. There is a reduced risk of sludge bulking
vi. It is relatively easy to operate (compared to an SBR) with greater flexibility of operation
vii. It offered least combined capital and operation and maintenance (O&M) cost
viii. The capital cost was about 10% less than for the SBR option
25
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
2.5.2
94
Final Report – September 2014
The Extension to Ulaanbaatar CWWTP
A study on strategic planning for the water supply and sewerage sectors in Ulaanbaatar was
carried out during 2012 and the first half of 2013 with assistance from JICA 26. The study provided
analysis and recommendations for the future development of the water and wastewater systems in
Ulaanbaatar, including for the rehabilitation and expansion of the existing central wastewater
treatment plant of Ulaanbaatar. The existing facility is an activated sludge process plant, the
original design of which dates back to the soviet period. For the extension of the plant’s capacity to
accommodate increasing wastewater flows over the 20 year design period, seven potential
treatment processes were evaluated against a range of criteria which were focussed mainly on
treatment efficiency, management and operational requirements and cost. The evaluation was
conducted on the following systems:
i.
ii.
95
96
Conventional activated sludge (AS) system;
The anaerobic anoxic oxic (A2O) process – a modification of the AS process for targeted
nitrogen and phosphorous removal;
iii. The step-feed biological nitrogen removal process – another modified AS process;
iv. Sequencing batch reactor process;
v. Membrane Bioreactor technology;
vi. Waste stabilisation ponds; and
vii. Reverse Osmosis technology
This evaluation concluded that: (i) stabilisation ponds and conventional activated sludge should be
removed from further consideration due to poor Nitrogen and Phosphorous removal; (ii) the A2O
and SBR processes present operational complexities in removing both Nitrogen and Phosphorous;
and (iii) the reverse osmosis process is prohibitively expensive to construct and operate. The three
remaining options: the oxidation ditch (or Carrousel) process, activated sludge step-feed process,
and membrane bioreactor process are each judged suitable process for the plant extension, and
are recommended for further evaluation during a future full feasibility study.
However, it is understood that Ulaanbaatar city has expressed a preference for the oxidation ditch
(Carrousel) technology and the development plans for CWWTP presented in the report assume
that this is the technology which will be adopted.
2.5.3
The Proposed WWTP Extension for Erdenet in Orkhon Aimag
97
Erdenet is the second largest city in Mongolia, and was constructed to serve the adjacent copper
mine. The city continues to grow at about 3% per annum27, and as a result, the existing activated
sludge wastewater treatment plant has reached its capacity. A feasibility study to prepare an
extension for the plant, increasing its treatment capacity by 20,000 cum/day, was conducted with
assistance from the Government of France in 2010. The project preparation study did not consider
a wide range of options. Rather, the approach taken was to build upon the existing treatment
technology which has been successfully operated by the Erdenet PUSO.
98
Consequently, the extension plant uses the same basic process as the existing facility, with some
evolution in activated sludge configuration, and the addition of mechanical sludge drying using a
centrifugal process. The wastewater treatment process follows a conventional activated sludge
process configuration: (i) screening; (ii) grit and grease removal; (iii) primary settling; (iv) a modified
activated sludge process; (iv) secondary settling; and finally (v) transfer of effluent to the existing
tertiary treatment system (sand filtration) for polishing. The excess sludge treatment process is
thickening and centrifugation prior to disposal into sludge drying beds.
99
The rationale for this approach is primarily the adoption of a treatment process which is already
well-understood in Erdenet, with the system adaptation enabling the process to be optimised based
on a better understanding of how the activated sludge process can be made more effective through
26
27
Study on the Strategic Planning for Water Supply and Sewerage Sector in Ulaanbaatar City in Mongolia, Draft Final Report, JICA,
NJS consultants, Tokyo Metropolitan Sewerage Service Corporation, Ulaanbaatar, May 2013.
Based on NSO figures for inter-censul period between 2001 and 2011.
26
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
revised configuration and sludge return arrangements. This option offers security both in terms of
process efficiency, and in maximising the prospect of successful operation by the current plant
management team due to its similarity to the existing system.
100
One interesting feature of the execution of this project is the separation of the contracts for
equipment and civil works. The process equipment (paid for through a credit from the Government
of France) was procured two years ago and has been on-site since 2011. The civil works to create
the plinths, tanks and aeration basins has only just commenced (in August 2013), and will not be
completed until 2014. It is to be hoped that the equipment will not have deteriorated during the
time of its on-site storage. In any event, this would appear not to provide an optimal procurement
arrangement, as it also risks problems when attempts are made to install the equipment into the
structures. If problems occur at this stage in the fit between equipment and structures, the owners
could find themselves assuming responsibility for any additional costs occurring as a result of extra
work required to ensure smooth installation. Problems could occur again if operation problems are
encountered and it is unclear whether these are the fault of the equipment supplier or the civil
works contractor.
2.5.4
The Proposed WWTP at Zamyn uud
101
The proposed WWTP for Zamyn uud appears to have been developed without evaluation of
alternative treatment process options, but to exceed the national standards for wastewater
discharge which will enable the effluent to be used for watering green areas and dust suppression
on gravel or earth roads. The plant is designed to replace an existing waste stabilisation pond
WWTP at Zamyn uud which is not functioning well.
102
The proposed WWTP adopts a standard activated sludge technology with additional tertiary
treatment stages as follows:
i.
Preliminary treatment: screening, grit and grease removal
ii.
Primary sedimentation and balancing tank
iii.
Activated sludge biological treatment, using diffused air aeration
iv.
Secondary sedimentation and sludge return
v.
Sand filtration
vi.
Carbon filtration; and
vii. Sludge treatment through sludge press, dewatering and disposal into sludge drying ponds
103
This project is at an early stage of development, and the arrangements proposed for management
and operation are not known at this stage. However, the tertiary treatment processes in particular
are complex, and will require a high level of operational skills.
2.5.5
104
The new WWTP for the Chinggis International Airport appears to have been developed without
consideration and evaluation of alternative treatment process options. It is unclear what led to the
selection of the process, but it is understood that the plant is based on a modified activated sludge
process (ASP) technology. Construction of the plant is complete and it is shortly to be made
operational.
2.5.6
105
The New WWTP at Chinggis International Airport
Other small wastewater treatment plants used in Mongolia
It is worth drawing on experience from the operation of other small wastewater treatment plants in
Mongolia, as this can further inform the selection process for optimising the system adopted for
Darkhan. Most of the small treatment systems currently operational fall under three basic
categories, which cover a wide range of operational sophistication. These are:
i.
Waste stabilisation ponds: Used in a number of aimag centres, and previously constructed
under ADB and other donor and lender-supported urban development projects. The
27
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
experience of these systems28 is that while they are both cheap and easy to operate: (i) they
tend to be neglected, resulting in poor performance and nuisance problems; (ii) they provide
little treatment in winter, storing the influent wastewater, which can cause operational
problems in the spring thaw; and (iii) even when functioning well, they provide only poor
removal of nutrients (N and P).
ii.
Activated Sludge Plants: A number of urban communities which have sewerage systems are
served by small activated sludge plants, many of which were constructed during the soviet
period. Experience is variable, but those plants which have been well maintained function
reasonably well, and those which have not (often due to high power consumption costs and
equipment breakdown) are either completely out of operation or provide little or no treatment.
Even when working well, nutrient removal is generally poor. There were recent rehabilitations
of the activated sludge systems in at Tuv and Selenge aimags (Zunmod and Sukhbaatar
respectively). These introduced system modifications, automatic control systems, sludge
dewatering devices, and in the case of Tuv, uniting the buildings and structures to reduce the
number of pipelines underground and thus frequency of freezing in winter. Training was also
provided, but while the Zunmod system is working well, that in Sukhbaatar is not being
operated according to the prescribed operational system, and as a result, treatment is largely
ineffective29.
iii.
Sequencing Batch Reactors: SBRs have been installed to serve a number of communities in
Mongolia – particularly mining camps30. In general, these plants have been operated by the
equipment supplier and consequently operation has been continuous and performance has
invariably achieved design discharge standards. The SBR is considered an appropriate
choice for this type of situation, where the necessary high-level of management and
operational supervision is available. Also the use of SBR systems in similar cold weather
situations is well proven31.
2.6
Prior Water and Wastewater Sector Initiatives in Darkhan
106
There are a number of other organisations supporting, or planning to support, the development of
urban utilities, including wastewater management, in Darkhan. Work under the current TA builds
on the work previously carried out, and, where possible augments it. Key past, on-going and
proposed investments in the water and wastewater sectors are presented in table 2.6 below.
107
The past and on-going projects to replace critical sections of the water supply network should
ensure that system losses continue to fall from the peak of over 50% observed in 2010 (see
section 2.3.4). However, there is currently no investment in the rehabilitation of the sewerage
system, and Us Suvag has insufficient funds to address the immediate priorities for system repair
and rehabilitation to reduce infiltration to, and exfiltration from, the system.
108
Under the MoMo project, a pilot scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) was operated at the
existing central wastewater treatment plant in Darkhan for a period of two years. The SBR pilot
plant was commissioned in August 2011, and consists of a 6m³ aeration and sedimentation tank
with an excess sludge thickener, and process for water reception from sludge treatment. It is fully
automated and controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC). The SBR is fed with raw
wastewater coming directly from the distribution chamber of the primary clarifiers at the Central
WWTP, and as such should, to some extent, mimic real wastewater treatment conditions.
28
29
30
31
Project Completion Report; Mongolia: Integrated Development of Basic Urban Services in Provincial Towns; ADB, Manila, June
2010
Observations based on visits to Tuv and Selenge but study team members
Review of Wastewater Treatment Plants in South Gobi, SMEC, Ulaanbaatar, 2012
Morling, S., SBR Technology – Use and potential Applications for Treatment of Cold Wastewater, 2009, TRITA-LWR PhD Thesis
1050, ISBN 978-91-7415-341-5
28
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Table 2.6: Recent Support to the Darkhan Water and Wastewater Management Sector
Funding
Agency
Activity
Implementation
Period
Allocation
Government
Replacement of old and leaking water supply
transmission and distribution pipes in PVC
Water Supply Improvement Project: Rehabilitation
of Water Supply wells, replacement of pumps,
construction of water kiosks and 8 km of pipeline
replaced
MoMo 1: 12 water kiosks constructed
MoMo 2: Pilot SBR installed and pilot sludge
collection and digestion facility installed
2010-2013 (ongoing)
2005 to 2011
US$0.8 million
2007 to 2010
US$ 100,000
US$ 400,000
Support to the development of a pre-treatment
WWTP for Sheepskin factory in Darkhan
Replacement of 1.2 Km water supply distribution
mains in Bagh 7
Proposed preparation of a water supply and
sanitation infrastructure improvement project for
Darkan
2006-2010
US$1.4 million
2010
US$0.2 million
2014
US$0.3 million
JICA
German
Ministry for
Education and
Research
Czech
Republic
ADB
CDIA
US$ 4.5 million
109
The objective of the two-year operation period of the pilot plant is the adaptation of this flexible
technology to the varying sewage loads and extreme climatic conditions experienced in Darkhan. It
was anticipated that the plant would achieve better treatment results than the existing activated
sludge process adopted at the WWTP, although full results of the pilot are currently not available.
The treatment process was optimised, focusing on low concentrations of suspended solids in the
treated effluent in preparation of the future disinfection and reuse of the effluent.
110
Preliminary conclusions have been drawn from the first two years of operation of the pilot, which
could have implications for the design of a full scale plant, but only limited information has been
made available on the operation of this plant. It is understood that some operational problems have
been experienced with freezing in winter, although this may be a function of the small scale of the
pilot plant. However, a recent MoMo publication concludes that “the (SBR) process and the
implemented control strategy have been found to be suitable for Mongolian conditions, and the
majority of technical problems could be solved”32. It is also worthy of note that (as indicated above
in section 2.4.5) SBR plants have been working successfully for a number of years serving mining
communities of up to 10,000 in the South Gobi region.
111
Under the Cities Development Initiative in Asia (CDIA)-funded Water Supply and Sanitation
Infrastructure Improvement Project (WSSIIP) for Darkhan, assistance is being provided to the
aimag with development planning, including preparation of a water supply and sanitation
infrastructure improvement strategy and program for the city of Darkhan. This work is focussed on
the ger areas, and also addresses some of the sector issues which are currently not being
addressed by other donors or lenders, and are not a part of this current technical assistance. This
includes a more thorough assessment of the existing water supply and wastewater networks, and
system constraints, and in particular addresses issues relating to ger area water supply and
sanitation, particularly in those areas close to the river where the water table is high (Baghs 1, 2
and 3).
2.7
112
32
External Assistance in the Water and Wastewater Sectors
and Lessons Learned
There has not been much external assistance directed specifically to the wastewater sector in
Mongolia in recent years, but wastewater improvements have been included in: (i) urban
Integrated Water resources Management – Model Region Mongolia: Experiences and Results in Integrated Urban Water
Management; Fraunhofer IOSB; 2013
29
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
development and housing projects and programmes; and (ii) water and wastewater sector
investment projects. The details of recent investments in these sectors is set out below, along with
an analysis of this assistance and some lessons that have been drawn from those projects which
have been implemented and for which project completion or project evaluation reports are
available.
113
There is much greater experience in the implementation of water supply, sanitation and wastewater
management projects in ger areas in Mongolia. In addition, the MoMo project has piloted
sanitation approaches in its work in Darkhan. The lessons drawn from this work are also
summarised below.
2.7.1
114
Lessons from Assistance in Urban, Water and Wastewater Sectors
Generic lessons learned from prior assistance to the urban and water and wastewater sectors
which have some relevance for Darkhan Wastewater Management Project include:
i.
Institutional weakness is a key constraint to timely and efficient execution of projects, and to
long-term sustainability of the assets created.
ii.
Local capacity constraints are exacerbated by a highly centralized system of government.
Related to this is the delineation of functions and inter-governmental fiscal relations which
constrain the ability of local government to plan and manage public sector investments, and
also to manage the recovery of investment costs.
iii.
Local-level infrastructure investments remain largely at the discretion of the central
government, and local officials lack the budgetary and human resources to maintain
infrastructure properly and effectively respond to constituents' needs.
iv.
Incentives and resources for local governments to strengthen services are limited. These
weaknesses may have been reinforced by interventions which have been executed centrally
and maintained and operated locally.
v.
There is a need for externally-supported projects to take the opportunity to support greater
local involvement in project planning, design and implementation, and address issues of
capacity constraints and poor incentives for quality service provision at the local level.
vi.
In considering the possible adoption of a design and build (D&B) procurement modality the
project might be able to eliminate problems experienced in prior ADB loans where there is
difficulty in assigning responsibility for deficiencies when infrastructure is turned over to local
authorities.
vii. Projects have had limited and variable success in raising tariffs, resulting in under-funding of
operation and maintenance. The support of ADB and other donors has focused on rebuilding
assets in a variety of urban sub-sectors, but has placed relatively less emphasis on building
the institutions and systems required to ensure these assets are maintained and operated
efficiently. Given the acute needs in urban areas in the 1990s, the emphasis on building and
rehabilitating assets was probably justified. Today, it is clear that Mongolia lags behind other
former socialist countries in institutional reform and strengthening, and risks wasting resources
on infrastructure that is not well maintained and managed.
115
As there has been little direct support to wastewater treatment, there are few specific lessons from
donor assisted projects supporting WWTP construction. However, in addition to the generic
lessons drawn from urban and water sector projects outlined above, experience has been gained
from attempts to extend water and wastewater infrastructure to provide household connections in
ger areas, and from attempts to introduce decentralised wastewater treatment plants into ger
areas. These findings are instructive in developing a wastewater typology for different forms of
urban development in Darkhan (which is provided in section 3.4 below), and in determining what
the most effective and sustainable solutions to the improvement of sanitation services in ger areas
is likely to be.
30
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
2.7.2
Final Report – September 2014
Lessons from Assistance in Ger Area Development
116
Many attempts have been made over the past 20 years to improve conditions and access to
services for ger dwellers on a sustainable basis. The Government of Mongolia has worked with a
wide range of bilateral and multilateral development agencies in numerous attempts to design and
introduce service improvements that are technically feasible, socially acceptable and financially
affordable. Some of these interventions have succeeded, but many have failed. It is important that
this project learns from this experience and only adopts approaches which have a proven good
chance of success.
117
Experience from a number of projects33,34 which have attempted to introduce water and wastewater
networks into ger areas is that:
118
33
34
35
i.
Due to the large plots, connection to the water main and sewer main is expensive – even
where communities have been surveyed to establish interest in making connections, when it
comes to signing up, many back away from their prior commitments. Even where
commitments are signed in advance of construction, experience is that households renege on
these agreements once payments have to be made to join the network.
ii.
Due to the high cost of keeping the water and sewer pipes above freezing at the point of entry
to the dwelling (which requires 24 hour heating), few people connect.
iii.
Due to the low community water demand and thus low pipe flow velocities resulting from the
limited number of connections, water supply pipes freeze.
iv.
Due to the low sewage flows, self-cleaning velocities cannot be achieved and pipes block and
then freeze.
v.
The problems of freezing highlighted above result in the loss of water supply and sewerage
services for those connected, for months during winter.
Under the WB-funded Second Ulaanbaatar Services Improvement Project, a decentralised
wastewater treatment plant was constructed at Dambadarjaa – a ger area in Ulaanbaatar to which
water supply and sewerage services were also provided to institutions and households. An
evaluation report on the project35 found that the sub-component for households in Dambadarjaa to
be connected to the main water supply system and be provided with individual sewerage
connections with a stand- alone WWTP (septic tank and pond) to treat the collected wastewaters
was not successful. This was partly due to freezing of water supply and sewerage pipes, and
partly failure of the decentralised treatment plant which was found not to represent the most costeffective solution for wastewater disposal. The conclusions drawn were that:
i.
On-site (i.e. on-plot) sanitation approaches are recommended for ger area development since
they present the most cost-effective approach. The recommended detailed approach depends
on the water supply situation. If the supply is by water kiosks (in which case, water use is at
around 10-20 l/cap/d) lined pit latrines, holding tanks or Eco Sanitation is recommended which
are assumed to produce effectively zero operating costs for the beneficiary.
ii.
Should it be decided to go for individual water supply connections, then only a septic tank
approach will be able to cost-effectively cope with the increased wastewater production. If
septic tanks are to be provided, a geological test should be carried out to determine soil
absorption and percolation capacity.
iii.
In this case, a sanitation concept based on household sewer connections and a small
independent WWTP is definitely not the least-cost sanitation concept. Such a concept is
Project Completion Report: Mongolia: Integrated Development of Basic Urban Services in Provincial Towns, ADB, Manila, June
2010.
Implementation Completion and Results Report (IDA 38900; TF 53820) on a credit in the amount of SDR 12.1 million to Mongolia
for the Second Ulaanbaatar Services Improvement Project, October. 2012
Options Study to Improve Dambadarjaa Pilot Project, E Kaschka, World Bank, Washington DC, December 2012
31
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
expensive and technically risky. Costs per household of more than US$ 4,500 equivalent have
to be considered – not an easy sell for a sanitation system.
iv.
A small independent sewer system in ger areas is a major challenge – from both the technical
and financial perspectives. This approach requires a density of population that can generate
constant and sufficient flow of wastewater. Such systems should only be developed: (i) if
sufficient density and connections can be achieved; and (ii) if the system can be connected to
the central sewer system. If an independent sewer system is unavoidable, the design should
ensure that as far as possible institutions producing continuously large quantities of
wastewater will be connected (e.g. bath houses, schools, restaurants, and other commercial
and institutional establishments).
v.
For large areas with only private single houses on large plots (most ger areas), a sewer
system should be avoided. In this case on-site sanitation facilities are the only workable
option.
vi.
For shallow sewer sections in ger areas, heating cables must be provided, and a realistic
hydraulic load must be considered in the design (around 50l/cap/day). In case a small WWTP
is unavoidable, simple, robust, processes should be applied such as rotating biological discs,
trickling filters, or aerated ponds (all housed).
vii. A WWTP or a stand-alone sewer system can only be considered if receiving water for
discharge is available which has sufficient dilution capacity for the received wastewaters.
Infiltration to the ground is definitely not suitable as a final recipient under the climatic
conditions of Mongolia.
viii. If water supply and sewerage systems are introduced to ger areas, steps must be taken to
minimise the risk of freezing. Services (particularly heating and water supply) need to be
installed in common trenches, and heating of both water supply and sewer pipes is necessary.
This is expensive. In the Dambadarjaa pilot area in the winter months, the average cost of
water supply to households was US$ 2 per month, while the average cost of heating the water
supply pipes was US$25 per month – more than 10 times the cost of the water consumed.
119
120
There is a lot to be learnt from past projects and programmes in developing proposals for the
improvement of water supply, sanitation and wastewater management services in the ger areas in
Darkhan. However, it is also the case that the socio-economic environment in Mongolia is
changing rapidly – particularly in urban areas. It maybe that approaches which have failed in the
past, would not fail today. Consequently, a balanced view must be taken between tried and tested
approaches and those which offer new and innovative solutions. Recent innovations in making
service provision to ger areas include:
i.
The “New District’’ project at Khilchin in Ulaanbaatar which adopts "Soft line'' technology
involving heated cable insulated with a vacuum-layer around pipes laid at a depth of less than
1 m. The development is not yet fully operational, but the development costs are high.
Household connection costs for heating, hot and cold water and sewerage averages 15.0
million MNT per household – unaffordable for most ger areas residents;
ii.
The iPIT system, piloted under the MoMo project and similar on-plot Ecosan toilets can have a
role in sanitation solutions for ger areas, and could be particularly useful where a high water
table makes pit latrines ineffective and piped solutions very expensive. However, a number of
operational issues would need to be resolved before a technology of this type would be likely
to be sustainable under conditions in Darkhan: (i) how to deal with frozen excreta in winter; (ii)
how to deal with the high costs of transportation equipment and operation; (iii) how to solve
the problem of faeces digestion not working in winter; and (iv) how to encourage a market for
the organic fertilizer produced as a result of digestion.
In adopting any of these or other approaches, the risk of failure must be minimised or mitigated.
To reduce or mitigate risks, important findings from past ger area improvement projects and
programmes, particularly in the water supply and wastewater sectors, are as follows:
32
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
i.
When implementing projects to improve water supply and sanitation in ger districts, it is
important that they are aligned with city development planning and trends;
ii.
Household water supply and sanitation improvements are expensive - it is important to select
technologies which provide the most cost-effective and optimal solution according to local
physical, social and affordability characteristics;
iii.
Technical solutions should only be proposed if there is a strong and realistic indication of
success – pilot approaches must be avoided;
iv.
Excreta removal systems can work, but face problems in winter, and with the cost of the
excreta removal service; and
v.
Where household connections are made in ger areas, the project beneficiaries need to
assume some responsibility for maintenance of household connections if pipe freezing is to be
avoided.
2.7.3
Lessons Learned from MoMo Decentralised WWTP Pilot
121
A pilot decentralised WWTP using bio film technology has been installed under the MoMo project
at a kindergarten in Orkhon soum of Darkhan-Uul aimag, with a load of 50 population equivalents
(PE), and replacing an existing septic tank. The objective of the two-year pilot operational period is
to test adaptation of this technology to the varying sewage loads and extreme climatic conditions
experienced in Mongolia. The treatment process is optimized for low energy consumption and thus
minimal operating cost (although more than for the septic tank). The plant appears to be
functioning well so far, but has not been observed under deep winter conditions.
122
It is anticipated that the trial results could have application in the basic design of a standardized
system for groups of houses or gers serving from 5 to 5,000 PE. Specific process benefits are
claimed to be: (i) media is self-cleansing and does not need replacing; (ii) a robust system able to
handle shock loading and long periods of low loading; (iii) low sludge generation; (iv) low
consumption of energy and minimal operating costs; (v) nitrification at temperatures below 12°C.;
and (vi). Simultaneous nitrification and de-nitrification of at least 30 to 50%.
123
However, as noted above, even if a wastewater treatment system of this type is installed in a ger
area, the challenge will be to avoid problems with freezing of the sewer network. Decentralised
wastewater treatment plants of this nature are considered to have wider application is serving a
cluster of public or private buildings with relatively high wastewater flows – such as might be found
in a soum centre.
2.8
Lessons Learned from International Best
Wastewater Treatment in Extreme Climates
Practice
in
124
In addition to the review of other wastewater treatment systems operating and planned in
Mongolia, investigations were made of wastewater management systems used in climatic and
socio-economic conditions similar to those experienced in Darkhan This focussed on: (i)
experience in Northern and Central China (and particularly ADB-funded wastewater treatment
plants); (ii) experience in Russia – particularly those regions of Russia which are relatively close to
Mongolia; and (ii) experience from other parts of the world, and particularly the far North of North
America and Europe.
125
The ADB has supported construction of a number of wastewater treatment plants in northern and
central China, and Table 2.7 below shows the size of the facility, technology used in each case,
and other special features such as sludge handling. Information on the performance of these
systems is not readily available, but where project completion reports have been completed, no
adverse performance of the plants has been noted.
33
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Table 2.7: ADB-supported Wastewater Treatment Plant Construction in China
Location
126
Capacity
cum/day
Treatment System
Sludge Treatment and
Other Features
Activated Sludge (Anaerobic/Oxic (A/O)
process) similar to IFAS
Fertilizer pellet production
Hebei- Baoding
240,000
Hebei - Chengde
80,000
Extended Aeration (Oxidation Ditch)
Composting and fertilizer
Hebei- Tangshan
80,000
Activated Sludge (Anaerobic/Oxic (A/O)
process) similar to IFAS
Composting and fertilizer
Hebei-Xuanhua
120,000
Extended Aeration (Oxidation Ditch)
Hebei- Zangjiakou
100,000
Extended Aeration (Oxidation Ditch)
Shandong- Binzhou
40,000
Activated Sludge (Anaerobic/Oxic (A/O)
process) similar to IFAS
Sludge landfilled
Shandong- Gaotang
40,000
Activated Sludge (Anaerobic/Oxic (A/O)
process) similar to IFAS
Composting and fertilizer
Shandong-Shanghe
40,000
Activated Sludge (Anaerobic/Oxic (A/O)
process) similar to IFAS
Composting and fertilizer
Shandong- Linquing
100,000
Submerged biofilm (plastic media)
Sludge landfilled
Tianjin-Beicang
100,000
Activated Sludge (Anaerobic/Oxic (A/O)
process) similar to IFAS
Centrifugal sludge dewatering
The experience of wastewater treatment systems in cold continental climates in Russia is again
based largely on variations on the activated sludge process. Recent innovation has introduced a
modification to the traditional activated sludge system which takes elements of both the
sequencing batch reactor and step-feed activated sludge processes. This hybrid system is known
as the Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge (IFAS) system and has been used successfully in a
number of locations in the region. Table 2.8 provides summary information on some of the
systems recently constructed in Russia.
Table 2.8: Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations in Cold Adjacent Regions of Russia
Location
International airport
at Irkutsk, Russia
127
Capacity
cum/day
1,000
Treatment System
Sludge Treatment and Other
Features
Single module system of the IFAS
hybrid process
Mechanical dewatering using
filter press
Yakutsk city , Russia
100,000
IFAS process
Mechanical dewatering using
filter press
Tyumen city, Russia
150,000
IFAS process
Dewatering using centrifuge
International airport
at Vladivostok,
Russia
2,000
IFAS process
Mechanical dewatering using
filter press
For comparative climatic conditions in other parts of the world, the WWTPs for the main cities in
Alaska and the Canadian city of Winnipeg are of interest. Table 2.9 below provides a summary of
treatment capacities and technologies adopted. In the case if Winnipeg there is on-going work
valued at hundreds of millions of dollars to bring its existing treatment plants in line with nutrient
discharge requirements. While the treatment technologies are of interest the relevance to the
34
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
situation in Darkhan is limited as the cultural and socio-economic conditions in North America are
quite different from those of Darkhan.
Table 2.9: Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations in Cold North American Locations
Location
Treatment System
Sludge Treatment and Other
Features
Activated Sludge Process and
Sequencing Batch Reactors (indoors)
Sludge press and incineration
Alaska: Anchorage
(three plants)
200,000
Alaska: Fairbanks
30,000
Modified Activated Sludge Process
(indoors)
Sludge digestion and composting
for fertilizer
Alaska: Juneau –
Mendenhall Plant
40,000
Modified Activated Sludge Process
(indoors)
Sludge digester and filter press
Activated Sludge Process and Modified
Activated Sludge – further
modifications on-going to reduce N&P
Sludge treatment consolidated at
one facility – sludge trucked from
others
Canada: Winnipeg
(three plants)
128
Capacity
cum/day
400.000
Preliminary investigation of WWTPs constructed for cities in similar environments (Northern China,
USSR, North America and Northern Europe)36 provides the following guidance in the design
process for the WWTP at Darkhan:
i.
The use of relatively large quantities of hot water during winter months in cold climates
(particularly where district heating is provided) ensures that relatively high temperatures are
maintained in urban sewage, ameliorating potential problems related to low treatment
efficiencies and freezing at low sewage temperatures. However, systems involving nonsubmerged media should be avoided as should reactors with large surface areas, since these
lose heat quickly. Surface areas in open reactors should be minimised, and in extreme cold
environments, systems are fully housed. This is expensive and should be avoided, or if found
necessary, reactor surface areas should be minimised. Minimising inter-connecting pipework
will also reduce operational problems due to freezing in conditions of extreme cold.
ii.
Where cities have large industrial wastewater flows, these can become an issue adversely
affecting wastewater treatment efficiency, and/or contaminating sludges, unless pre-treatment
is provided. There are clear guidelines for discharges to the public sewer system in Mongolia
and provided that these are complied with, and volumes of industrial wastewater remain
modest in comparison to domestic flows, problems of this nature should be avoided. Where
necessary, heavily polluting industries (such as tanneries) should provide their own pretreatment in individual or collective treatment facilities.
iii.
Wastewater treatment technologies adopted for both large and medium-sized cities of similar
climatic and socio-economic conditions to Darkhan are most commonly a variation on the
Activated Sludge Process, with only limited experience in other technologies, except in the
case of industrial wastewater treatment. SBR systems are used more widely in countries
(such as North America and Northern Europe) where there is greater familiarity with more
sophisticated operating systems. There is little or no experience with the operation of fullscale SBR systems for the treatment of wastewaters in very cold continental climates. The
most northerly example found are in Wyoming in the USA and in Sweden, where average
temperatures dip below freezing in the winter, but are not comparable with those experienced
during the Darkhan winter.
iv.
Sludge handling can become more of an issue in colder conditions. There are considerable
benefits to including sludge digestion in the process (production of more stable and better
mineralised sludge and energy recovery) where sludge volumes are adequate. However, the
35
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
anaerobic digestion process requires relatively high temperatures, and maintaining such
temperatures is a challenge during the coldest winter months.
In addition, BOD5
concentrations in Mongolia are relatively low by international standards (see table 2.3),
resulting in relatively low sludge volumes, and making digestion a marginal proposition. There
have been claims37 that the technology proposed for Nisekh was changed from a step-feed
process to traditional activated sludge in order to generate sufficient sludge to justify sludge
digestion. If this is the case, it does not represent a sound rationale for making such a
change.
37
Personal communication with MCUD.
36
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
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3 WASTEWATER SECTOR FRAMEWORK FOR
DARKHAN
129
Plans for future development of water supply and wastewater management services, and the
sequencing of such development, depend upon the creation, approval by competent authorities
and execution of viable structure plans and spatial development plans for Darkhan. While there is
an existing master plan for Darkhan (see section 3.1.1 below), as it stands this plan does not offer
a realistic blue-print for the future development of the city. Indeed, the head of land administration
and chief architect for Darkhan-Uul aimag have both indicated that the existing plan is inadequate
as a guide for development, and that the land-use plan is no longer being followed in providing
land-use and construction permits.
130
Based on the current Master Plan 2005-2020, and on other spatial development plans of the aimag
Government, there are proposals for the development of new residential and industrial areas at
some distance from the existing serviced areas (see Figure 3.2 below). This does not represent
the most efficient form of development as there are suitable plots both within and adjacent to the
existing (serviced) residential and industrial areas which remain vacant. As is indicated below, the
existing plan does not present a realistic long-term outcome for the development of Darkhan, either
to year 2020 or within any other planning horizon. However, Darkhan is included as one of a
number of key aimag and soum centres which are to receive Government assistance through
MCUD for preparation of a new General Plan for the city which could improve the planning
framework and plan execution, in order to maximise development effectiveness. The ToRs for the
proposed General Plan preparation are discussed below.
131
The current situation is that development is still being encouraged in areas of the city that are
unsuitable for residential housing and/or are very expensive to provide with infrastructure, either
because they are high above the core city, on flood plains, or remote from the core area. This is
poor planning, and does not represent the most efficient form of development as: (i) any servicing
or redevelopment of ger areas comes at a very high social and investment cost; and (ii) there are a
number of suitable plots both within and adjacent to the existing (serviced) residential and industrial
areas which remain vacant, and would thus be ideal for further medium- and high-rise
development, without the need to relocate ger area dwellers, or encourage them to settle in hardto-service locations.
132
A note of caution. The economy of Darkhan has been, and is likely to continue to be, based on
manufacturing, and to a much lesser extent on mining and agriculture. The economic impacts on
national economies of a resource boom, such as that in which Mongolia now finds itself, are well
documented. In the medium-term, the appreciation of the Tugric is likely to bring about the socalled “Dutch disease”, in which manufacturers relying on export markets will find it hard to
maintain prices in real terms, thus suffering reduced demand for their products. It is notable that
even over the past 10 years, while the population growth of Ulaanbaatar and of mining areas such
as Erdenet and the South Gobi has been in the range of 3 to 5% per annum, Darkhan’s population
has remained flat, or even declined slightly. Without significant Government investment in
Darkhan, it is unlikely that the city will see anything other than very sluggish growth.
133
The TA team is working with the information currently available on Government’s plans for the city,
to enable likely future wastewater flows to be calculated and thus the wastewater treatment facility
to be sized. A strategic framework for future wastewater management in the city has been devised
based on this information, and on what the consultant believes are realistic projections for
development of the city. However, the proposals are designed to be robust in the face of the
changing pace and nature of future development as refined through subsequent master-planning,
and the realities of the pace and magnitude of future investment in Darkhan. The practicalities of
this are that future facilities should make provision for incremental modular expansion which can be
implemented if more optimistic projections of economic and population growth are realised.
37
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
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Darkhan Master Plan and Strategic Plan
3.1
3.1.1
Existing Master plan: 2005 to 2020
134
Darkhan was one of the cities designated as a “pillar centre” under the Government’s Regional
Development Concept (2001) and Mid-Term Strategy on Regional Development (2003). As such,
the previous Master Plan was updated in 2004 to reflect the new status of Darkhan as a growth
node of the north central region. The Master Plan 2005-2020 for Darkhan was then prepared
adopting a Soviet-style, centralized planning methodology. The plan provides illustrated site plans,
targeting uses for each specific land parcel, and using this to develop what amounts to an
investment plan for the central government. The Plans are based on the assumption that the state,
as the unique owner of urban real estate, will finance the development of the plan in its entirety.
135
The Plan is also a symptom of national fiscal policy at the time of its preparation, in that it restricts
local governments’ ability to be financially self-sufficient. Because local government resources and
thus ability to invest in capital improvements are severely constrained, the Master Plan comprises
a set of centrally-driven urban investments dependent on the central government for financing. The
plan does not make room for investment by either local government or the private sector. In
today’s context, the Master Plan’s restrictions for individual parcels hinders the exercise of marketdriven choices by individuals and businesses which could put the city’s land and infrastructure to its
most productive uses.
136
In addition, the existing Master Plan was developed without public participation, being prepared by
non-resident consultants with very little input even from the local government, let alone the city’s
residents and businesses. This process did not give the city the opportunity to set its own
development priorities and make those known to the central government, donors or private
investors. Critically, the 2005-2020 Master Plans disregards the ger areas altogether, designating
other uses, such as parks or recreation areas on land occupied by ger communities, and where
about 35 percent of the population currently lives.
137
For these reasons, the aimag now considers the 2005-2020 Master Plan an inappropriate tool to
guide future development of the city. Figure 3.1 shows the areas targeted for development
between 2005 and 2020 under the plan, and Figure 3.2 shows specific areas proposed for the
development of 17,300 new dwellings (high-rise and low-rise) in New Darkhan under the plan.
3.1.2
138
City Development strategy (CDS)
A City Development strategy (CDS) was carried out for the city of Darkan in 2005 with financing
from the World Bank and the support of international and national consultants. This was a
participatory planning exercise involving city officials and administrators, local businesses and
community representatives which sought to address some of the shortcomings of the Master
Planning process. The CDS prioritized selected investments outlined in the Master Plan and
provided an action plan for implementation of these priority projects. It also sought to bring in new
development ideas based on local knowledge and input to the planning process. The strategic
initiatives identified were as follows, although there is no evidence that these initiatives where ever
introduced into the development plans of the aimag government:
i.
Improve the business environment to encourage the development of small and medium-size
enterprises;
ii.
Improve living conditions of the ger communities through infrastructure investment;
iii.
Develop human resources capable of meeting the requirements of both the existing and future
job market;
iv.
Adopt appropriate urban development and land management systems to encourage socioeconomic growth;
v.
Protect the urban and local environment; and
38
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
vi.
139
Final Report – September 2014
Improve local human development and social welfare policies.
It is unclear where the ownership of this exercise lay at the local level, and as a result it appears to
have had no impact on the development trajectory of Darkhan. There was no institutional or
financial framework developed as part of the CDS framework, and consequently no one to take
responsibility for the delivery of these strategic initiatives.
39
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
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Figure 3.1 Existing Built up Areas and Area Proposed for Development under the 2020 Master Plan
Key: Blocked areas: already developed; Hatched areas: to be developed by 2020. 1 – Old Darkan; 2 – New Darkan; 3 – Industrial Area
40
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
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Figure 3.2: Expansion Areas for New Darkhan Proposed for Development under Master Plan to 2020 – 17,300 new homes
Key: Areas for high rise development shown in red; and for low rise housing in yellow.
41
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
3.1.3
Final Report – September 2014
Darkan-uul aimag Development Policy and Strategic Plan: 2009 to 2020
140
The Darkan-uul Development Policy and Strategic Plan 2009 to 2030 articulates the aimag
Government’s development objectives for the plan period. Although the plan is quite generic, lacks
detail, and is not accompanied by any spatial plans, it does provide some guidance as to what are
seen as key development constraints and opportunities, and sets out strategic priorities in the main
economic sectors for Darkhan-uul.
It recognises that: (i) a key constraint to growth is outmigration of both skilled and unskilled workers to find jobs in Ulaanbaatar or other growth areas of
the economy; and (ii) that the key to reversing this decline is to create more jobs in Darkhan
through attracting investment in manufacturing, agriculture and service industries.
141
It sets as its development target for the plan period that the economic growth of Darkhan-Uul
aimag should match than of the country as a whole. At the time of plan preparation in 2009 this
provided target economic growth rates of between 10 and 13 per cent per annum over the plan
period. This translates into a doubling of the GDP per capita, from US$ 3,800 in 2009 to US$
7,600 by 2021.
142
The sectoral split in the local economy in 2009 was: 43.3 per cent in the industrial and construction
sector; 23.7 per cent in the agricultural sector and 33.0 per cent in the service sector. The strategy
proposes a slight shift away from industry and agriculture to the service sector with the proportions
respectively 43.2 per cent, 22.9 per cent and 34 per cent by year 2021. Growth in the industrial
sector is anticipated to come from:
143
i.
The further development of industrial areas in Darkhan, through introduction of additional
industrial units in the existing industrial estate to the south of New Darkhan, the existing
industrial area to the north of Old Darkhan (around the WWTP site) and at a new industrial
zone to be created to the north east of New Darkhan;
ii.
The development of a Free Economic Zone for industry and trade in Darkhan (location
unspecified);
iii.
Additional investment in the following industries: (i) mining and ore processing factories based
on locally-mined minerals (including cement, metallurgy and brickworks); (ii) development of
dairy industry based around local animal husbandry; (iii) sustainable environmental products
in transport, energy and infrastructure sectors; and (iv) processing of local products –
sheepskins, cotton and felt; and
iv.
Establishment of an aimag development fund to support private sector investment in industry
and commerce, particularly around manufacture of high quality products for export and in the
IT sector.
The importance of infrastructure and urban development investment is also recognised with a
focus on road transport (grade separation for critical junctions in Darkhan), land development for
housing and redevelopment of ger areas. Water supply and wastewater infrastructure is
mentioned, but the focus is on rehabilitation and extension of existing networks, and not on
improving wastewater treatment.
3.1.4
144
38
General Plan to Make Darkhan a National Model City: 2015 to 2028
The Government of Mongolia, through MCUD, has issued Terms of Reference for planning
consultancies to prepare General Plans for a number of major towns in the country as “Model
Cities”. Darkhan has been designated as one of these model cities, and the Terms of Reference
(ToR) for the work are provided at Appendix H. MCUD has selected consultants38 to carry out this
work which has now been in implementation since February of 2014. The first stage of the work to
collect and analyse data has been completed. The General Plan covers the period 2013 to 2028 in
two phases: a first phase from 2013 to 2018, and a “Long-term Strategic Plan” for the period 2018
to 2028. Development and investment plans will be prepared for these two phases, with a draft
report complete by June 2014.
Ark Construction
42
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145
Final Report – September 2014
The ToR set out the requirements, based on existing national planning documents which cover
some of the plan period (up to 2016). The objective is to provide a plan for Darkhan as both a
“smart city” and a “green city”. Key features of the General Plan will be:
i.
A comprehensive review of the development opportunities in Darkhan (completed but not yet
issued).
ii.
A focus on industrial development, and particularly on the development of an oil refinery,
metallurgical industry, construction materials industry, light industries and food industries.
iii.
A comprehensive plan for land use and for the development of areas for housing and
commercial activity.
iv.
Development of detailed sector-by-sector plans for infrastructure and services, and for the
development of green areas within the city.
v.
A process of consultation to obtain the views of government and civil society on the planning
proposals and as inputs to the plan development.
146
While the ToR cover the physical aspects well, and make frequent mention of using innovative
approaches to ensure efficient and environmentally sustainable approaches are used, there is no
requirement to address the issue of how the proposals will be paid for and implemented. This
raises the prospect that the resultant plan will again provide a model for the future without
addressing the key issues of how this end-state will be brought about: how the proposals will be
paid for, and who will do it. In this regard, the plan is set up adopting a traditional master planning
approach, and assuming that Government has control over all the resources required to bring
about realisation of the plan – which it doesn’t. There is no mention of the potential role for the
private sector in realising the plan objectives.
147
Some discussions have been held between the planning consultant and the TA team to try to
ensure there is some consistency in the planning approaches being adopted in both projects.
However, there is no certainty that the General Plan will follow the growth and development
assumptions adopted in this report.
3.1.5
148
149
Planning Issues to be addressed in Darkhan
It is to be hoped that the consultants hired to prepare the proposed General Plan for the period
2013 to 2028 will adopt an approach which introduces the idea of a more flexible planning
framework designed to attract private sector investment to help achieve the desired development
outcomes. One critical issue is improving connectivity between the ger areas and the city core
centres – this is critical for inclusiveness and important to ease of movement of people and goods,
develop urban corridors, and introduce the possibility of creating sub-centers in the ger areas.
Another is to develop a planning hierarchy: There is neither a hierarchy of plans nor an
understanding of contemporary planning practice and the role of plan making. Preparing
appropriate development plans needs to be based on the acknowledgement that land use planning
provides a policy mechanism that enables diverse and often conflicting objectives to be integrated
and addressed in a development or spatial framework which:
i.
Identifies appropriate area(s) and location(s) for specific land uses;
ii.
Determines what risks are associated with specific land uses in specific locations;
iii.
Determines and identifies sensitive or important societal or environmental features; and
iv.
Details minimum requirements and/or expectations of particular land use types.
Put simply, this determines what development is required and where it should go. Developing this
further in the preparation of the General Plan and development framework should involve the
consideration of a number of important questions. Some of these are asked as part of the General
43
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Plan ToR in an oblique manner, but it is far from certain as to whether the General plan prepared
for Darkhan will be able to answer these questions:
i.
What is the development objective?
ii.
What environmental assets are present?
iii.
What development constraints exist?
iv.
What and where is major infrastructure located or does it exist?
v.
What type of development is appropriate in this area?
vi.
What opportunities and inducements exist to encourage multifunction or mixed use areas?
vii. What types of changes are likely to occur over time e.g. pressure for urban land, informal
development areas and climate change impacts?
viii. What types of management controls are necessary (based on preceding outcomes to
questions above)?
150
Relating this to the development of Darkhan, the General Plan will need to identify a typology of
areas with specific constraints and opportunities within the context of inherent planning
complexities. This complexity is apparent in topography, climatic conditions, areas of specific
environmental sensitivity (e.g. along the river), absent or dilapidated infrastructure, degraded
environment, high levels of vulnerability and risk, and a current centrally-led planning framework
prepared in isolation without the input and/or support of the community, and in the absence of
capacity within the local authorities to implement and enforce it. It is to be hope that some of
these issues will be addressed in the General Plan preparation,
3.2
151
Population Growth Projections
The only “official” population projections available in published documents for Darkhan are those
contained within the 2005 to 2020 Master Plan, and are for Darkhan-uul aimag rather than for the
soum. However, it is interesting to compare the projections made at the time of plan preparation in
2005 and the actual population as measured by NSO in the same years. This data is presented in
Table 3.1 below:
Table 3.1: Comparison of planned and actual population projections
Year
152
39
2000 (base)
2005
2010
2015
Darkan Master Plan 2005
to 2020
84,200
93,600
103,600
Actual as measured by
NSO
84,200
90,600
95,000
Over-estimation in Plan
0
3,000
8,600
113,500
2020
122,800
Population projections have been generated based on: (i) the recent history of population change
in Darkan-Uul aimag and Darkhan soum; (ii) UN projections for the current period39; and (iii)
UNSTATS. "United Nations Statistics Division." Vers. 30. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2012.
http://unstats.un.org/unsd/pocketbook/
44
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
discussions with the Darkan-Uul Government and aimag statistics office on likely future population
trends. Based on these sources, the assumption that have been made are as follows:
i.
There is sufficient evidence from: (i) the growing number of development approvals and landuse parcel permissions issued; (ii) current levels of residential construction (at least eight
apartment blocks currently under construction in New Darkan); and (iii) new occupations of
khashaas on the edge of existing get areas (see figure 3.4), to suggest that the recent trend of
declining population in Darkhan has been reversed. Thus the growth rate for the period from
2013 to 2015 has been assumed at 1.5% per annum – this approximately matches natural
growth.
Figure 3.3: New Gers at the edge of an established Ger Area in Old Darkhan
ii.
In recent years the urban population growth rate in Mongolia has been running at 1.9 percent
per annum, and there is little to suggest that this will change in the short-term. Based on
Government’s commitment to invest in the city, It is assumed that Darkhan will grow at slightly
above this urban growth rate average (at 2% per annum) over the period 2015 to 2020
(moderated by the continuing more rapid growth of Ulaanbaatar and urban areas close to
mining operations).
iii.
In the medium-term, there could be a significant impact on population from the development of
additional industries as currently proposed for Darkhan by the Government of Mongolia. It is
assumed that over time, at least some of the industrial development currently planned will be
established in Darkhan. However, in the absence of either confirmed funding or firm
proposals at present, it is unlikely than any impact would be felt on the population for at least
the next few years. In addition, the pull factors of Ulaanbaatar and mining towns will continue
to exert out-migration pressure on Darkhan’s workforce.
iv.
Despite these pressures, population increase through natural growth and some in-migration
could be expected during both the construction and operational phases for these new
industrial facilities. Indications are that once operational, the additional work force would be of
the order of 2,000 to 3,000, resulting in an overall population increase of perhaps 10,000 to
12,000. This would occur over several years, but it is assumed that this would mean the
growth rate in Darkhan continuing at a rate slightly above the current average urban growth
45
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
rate of 1.9%. An annual rate at 2% per annum has been assumed between 2020 and 2030,
adding a population of about 20,000 to the city over that period. After this period of sustained
high growth, it is assumed that the rate would decline, but remain relatively high at 1.5% for
2030 to 2035 and the same from 2035 to 2040.
153
The proportion of the total population living in apartments has remained at somewhere between
60% and 70% over the past couple of decades. In the short term there is little to suggest that this
would change, although in the medium-term, it is anticipated that there would be a slow but
progressive move from ger areas to centrally planned areas – either through people moving from
ger areas into apartments, or through services being progressively introduced into ger areas. In
line with the target of the aimag Government, it is assumed that over the next 20 years the
proportion living in ger areas would decrease from about 35% to 20%. Experience over the past
few years when there has been significant economic growth without a commensurate shift in
population between the ger and central core areas, suggests that a more aggressive target for this
transition would be overly optimistic.
154
Over the past 15 years there has been a five-fold increase in GDP per capita in Mongolia – but this
has had little impact on the proportion of the urban population living in ger areas in any of the cities
and towns in the country. The proportion remains much the same, and the numbers have
increased. Consequently it is considered unlikely that any such change in the future would be
rapid, but it is assumed that with increasing wealth, there would be a progressive reduction in the
number of people living in the ger areas, and commensurate increase in those living in apartment
areas. Experience also suggests that some of those moving to apartments will keep their ger area
residences for summer occupation.
155
Based on these assumptions, the projected population growth for Darkhan city is shown at Table
3.2. This does assume a turnaround in the trajectory of the local economy and population dynamic
over the next few years. From an average annual increase in population of 0.4 percent over the
past 10 years, to an average annual increase of 1.8 percent over the next 27 years.
Table 3.2 Population Projections for Darkan City – Core and Ger areas.
Year
Darkhan soum
Core Area
Ger Area
% in core assumed
Growth actual/assumed
65%
1.1%
2005
74,663
48,531
26,132
2010
77,547
50,406
27,141
2011
75,494
49,071
26,423
2012
75,644
49,169
26,475
2013
76,428
49,678
26,750
2015
75,063
52,544
22,519
2020
82,876
60,085
22,791
2025
91,501
68,626
22,875
2030
101,025
78,294
22,731
2035
108,832
87,066
21,766
2040
117,244
96,726
20,518
65%
0.5%
65%
4.2%
65%
-2.6%
65%
0.2%
0.4%
65%
1.0%
70%
1.5%
73%
2.0%
75%
2.0%
78%
2.0%
80%
1.5%
83%
1.5%
1.8%
Ave:
3.3
Ave:
Economic and Industrial Growth Projections
156
There are proposals to increase the industrial economic base of Darkhan. The Government of
Mongolia has committed to reinforcing the role Darkhan as an industrial centre through supporting
investment in industrial growth in Darkhan. Government has also committed to moving some
industries (e.g. leather processors, tanneries and sheepskin factories) from areas around
Ulaanbaatar to a single location in Darkhan. However, these proposals are as yet at a low level of
detail, and it is unclear as to the timeframe within which the developments would take place.
157
In the short–term there are small industries establishing and planning to establish within the
existing industrial areas around the city – and particularly within the existing Industrial Estate. As
mentioned in section 2.3.2 above, two new enterprises are expected to go into production in 2014:
a wool and felt processing factory; and an ore processing operation, although both are relatively
small.
158
One major investment which is committed is the construction of the Darkhan Petroleum refinery,
which will be funded by loans from Japanese Banks and other financial institutions, and through a
Government equity stake of 51 per cent (see Appendix I). There are still issues as to the financial
46
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
structuring and guarantees for the investment, but a site has been identified to the north of Old
Darkan (and north of the existing WWTP) which would be used for the facility. The refinery has an
estimated development cost of US$ 600 million, and once operational is expected to have the
capacity to process two million metric tons of oil per year. It would employ several hundred people
during the construction phase and in operation would employ about 200.
159
While the aimag Government’s medium-term strategy and plan predicts further investments in
metallurgy and other ore-based industries there are as yet no firm proposals for investments in
these areas. For the metallurgical industries, government has estimated a further 5 to 6 units will
become established in the medium-term (say, up to 2020) each with the capacity to hire between
300 and 800 employees. However, there is no detail as to any specific proposals of this nature,
and no information on any potential investors.
160
The same is the case for proposal for the relocation of skeepskin, leather processing and tanneries
out of Ulaanbaatar and into an estate established for the purpose in Darkhan. While this is stated
as a proposal of government, the timing of any such move is unknown, and incentives would need
to be provided to the existing industries to get them to move to Darkhan. No site has been
identified for the relocation of these industries, although a detailed plan was prepared in 2011 for a
dedicated industrial estate of this nature, located about 10 km. to the west of Ulaanbaatar40. This
site of about 200 ha, was fully serviced and included a collective wastewater management facility.
161
Likely additions to the existing Industrial Estate, or to the other areas currently intended for
industrial use (the area north of Old Darkan and to the east of New Darkan) are difficult to predict
accurately. However, based on the information available, a modest growth in industrial activity can
be predicted in the short-term, with the possibility of major investments in the medium- to longterm. The implications for the wastewater management strategy and approach are to: (i) plan for
this modest growth; (ii) assume polluting industries would be grouped together to facilitate
collective pre-treatment; and (iii) provide a solution at the CWWTP that would facilitate options for
modular expansion should this become necessary.
Wastewater Management Typology
3.4
162
This section briefly describes the categorisation of the city into sanitation catchments which exhibit
one of three differing characteristics. For this purpose the areas of Darkhan can be grouped into:
i.
Central, planned and serviced medium-density, largely residential, commercial and
institutional areas of both Old Darkan and New Darkhan;
ii.
The existing industrial estate area to the south of New Darkhan, and the old industrial area to
the north of Old Darkhan (a typology which would also apply to any new industrial areas or
zones);
iii.
The ger areas, which include dachas, and which lie outside the centrally serviced urban core,
in well-defined but semi-planned or un-planned low-density communities.
3.4.1
Central Planned Areas
163
The centrally planned and serviced areas of both New Darkhan and Old Darkhan present the same
basic characteristics in terms of wastewater management. The majority of the core is made up of
apartment blocks and commercial and institutional buildings, which are fully serviced with water
supply, wastewater and district heating connections. The new housing areas of New Darkhan (to
the west of the centre) which have condominium-style apartment blocks, duplex or detached
houses on small (200 sqm) plots on the edge of the apartment block areas, are connected to the
sewer network and are thus included in this category.
164
In these areas, wastewater is discharged directly to the sewer network and thence conveyed to the
treatment plant via a pumping station in Old Darkhan. This would continue to be the arrangement
40
New Industrial and Residential Technology Zone, Feasibility Report, IDEA Group LLC, Ulaanbaatar, 2011
47
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
in the future. There are areas of the existing network which require rehabilitation, and these repair
needs would be progressively addressed through a rolling program of upgrading and replacement
using Us Suvag’s own financial resources.
165
As new core serviced areas for residential or mixed residential, commercial and institutional
development are opened up, the sewerage network would be extended to serve these areas.
Almost all the current development of apartment blocks and mixed residential and commercial
buildings is taking place within the serviced core, or immediately contiguous with it.
3.4.2
Industrial Areas
166
The current Industrial areas to the south of New Darkhan and to the north of Old Darkhan also
discharge wastewater directly to the sewer network and thence to the wastewater treatment plant.
The one exception to this is the sheepskin factory in the industrial estate which pre-treats
wastewater for the removal of Chromium prior to discharge to the public sewer network.
Information available suggests that all other industries are
167
For the existing and future industrial areas, all those industries which produce wastewater which
contain one or more pollutants which exceed the discharge standards to a public sewer should
provide pre-treatment sufficient to deliver an effluent which achieves the standard for discharge to
a public sewer. Future planning for industrial estates should ensure that industries of a similar
nature, or which produce wastewaters of similar characteristics, are grouped together so as to
provide the opportunity for them to develop and make use of common pre-treatment facilities. This
approach is being followed by the Darkhan-uul planning department, and it is anticipated will be
incorporated into the new General Plan to be prepared in the near future (see section 3.1.4 above).
168
New industrial areas planned, either contiguously with the existing industrial area, or in new parts
of the city, will follow the same pattern.
3.4.3
Ger Areas
169
The ger areas are currently characterised by a lack of household-level water supply, district heating
or hot water supply. Domestic water supply is obtained from water kiosks operated by Us Suvag
and which are supplied either from the reticulated water supply network, or by water tankers.
Consequently, water consumption is very low (usually restricted to between 10 and 20
litres/cap/day), and as a result of this low water consumption, wastewater generation is equally low
– probably of the order of 5 to 10 litres/cap/day. Sewer connections are not possible since the
sewerage system does not extend into these peri-urban areas. Consequently wastewater is
disposed of on-plot. This method of disposal is not a problem in spring, summer and autumn,
when simple on-plot soakaways can be used for sullage disposal. This situation does become
more problematic in the winter, when sullage freezes before it percolates or evaporates. However,
even then, wastewater volumes are so low and plots so large, that no public health or
environmental problems result from this practice. Dry pit latrines are invariably used for excreta
disposal, although some commercial or institutional water users in the ger areas are connected to
individual septic tanks, which are generally in a poor state of repair.
170
The development of improved wastewater management in ger areas is entirely dependent on the
introduction of improved water supplies. Without sufficient water to drive a sewerage network,
sewers won’t work, and without sewers, options are effectively restricted to dry on-plot systems –
improved pit latrines or possibly compost toilets (although these have repeatedly failed to find
favour in ger areas in Mongolia). A recent World Bank41 report on ger areas in Ulaanbaatar notes:
“While various donors offer programs to improve latrines, none of these programs seem to have
made any large-scale impact in ger areas, and some donors have withdrawn support for improved
latrines. It does not appear that there is much incentive for ger area residents to invest in improving
latrines”.
171
The alternative, which is provision of full services to individual houses in ger areas (whether
through a centralised sewer system or community-level system), is prohibitively expensive, as
41
Enhancing Policies and Practices for Ger Area Development in Ulaanbaatar; World Bank, Washington DC, 2010.
48
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
noted in Section 2.6 above. Another World Bank report42 notes: “Because of the minimal amount
of water consumption in the ger areas and the extreme climate of the country, sewer collection
would face almost unsolvable technical challenges unless the ger residential areas are converted
to fully-served apartment dwellings. For ger areas, the existing system of public kiosks seems to be
the most practical way to provide water. It would be exorbitantly expensive to connect detached
houses in established ger areas to the central water supply (and wastewater) systems; estimated
connection costs range from Tg 5.6 million–Tg 16.1 million (US$4,000–US$11,500) per household,
depending on topography, proximity to existing networks, and requirements for wastewater
treatment”.
172
In addition, experience in Mongolia is that pipes in ger areas freeze, if not in the supply pipes, at
the point of meeting of pipe with ground and/or structure. Provision of such services to ger areas
should thus only be contemplated if a heated utilities room is provided. Also, the design of the
manholes for the necessary co-locating of water and heating networks in the road should include a
manifold system as a means of: (i) providing a more efficient and cost-effective supply; and (ii)
allowing take off points underground to then be directed to consumer sites. For the sewer system,
sufficient water for self-cleansing is required, and in winter, sufficient hot water to prevent sewers
from freezing – which means connection to the hot water supply. Again, this points to a prohibitive
level of expense.
173
Numerous studies and evaluations43 have shown that for significant behavioural change to take
place that full services (water, heating, hot water and wastewater) need to be provided, that the
cost of doing this in ger areas is extremely high, and that previous attempts have failed. For
centralised (or community-level) piped services to be introduced to ger areas requires that: (i)
densification takes place to generate sufficient demand to drive networks; and, related to this (ii)
that there are enough paying users to defray the high costs of provision. A new approach is
proposed under the ADB-supported ger-area sub-centre project in Ulaanbaatar which supports
processes to achieve greater densification built around existing sub-centre “cores” within the ger
areas44. This approach relies on infrastructure provision as just one in a number of strategies to
encourage development and a move to higher-value uses for land (others being better planning,
direct trading or pooling of land, and attracting private sector development investment).
174
While this approach might have some application in Darkhan, it is unlikely that this will happen in
the short- to medium-term. Consequently, it is not anticipated that the ger areas will contribute
significant volumes of wastewater to the centralised sewer system or wastewater treatment plant.
It is assumed that there will be a slow migration of ger residents to the core serviced areas of the
city over time, and this is reflected in the population projections provided at section 3.2.
175
A further consideration is that Darkhan does not have the same land pressures as Ulaanbaatar,
which is surrounded by ger areas to west, north and east, and a national park to the south.
Darkhan has a wealth of undeveloped areas adjacent to the existing fully-serviced urban core areas which would be significantly cheaper to develop with full services for new build, rather than
the ger areas with their complexities of unplanned access, large plots and variable land tenure
arrangements. This again suggests that extension of networks into ger areas is unlikely to
represent an efficient use of scare investment funding for system expansion.
176
However, it is understood that future work in Darkhan might include further efforts to find a solution
to the problems posed by the high cost and difficulty of connecting ger areas to the central water
and wastewater system, so some provision is made for this eventuality. However, in such cases,
wastewater generation is likely to be low (recorded as 50 litres/cap/day in Ulaanbaatar 45) and
systems need to be flexible enough to respond to varying demand. This again supports an
approach which ensures that the selected WWTP system provides the opportunity for relatively
simple and cost-efficient modular expansion.
42
43
44
45
Managing Urban Expansion in Mongolia, World Bank, Washington DC, 2010.
See footnotes 26, 27 and 28
TA 7970 Mongolia: Ulaanbaatar Urban Services and Ger Areas Development Investment Program; ADB, Ulaanbaatar,
September 2013.
Options Study to Improve Dambadarjaa Pilot Project, E Kaschka, World Bank, Washington DC, December 2012
49
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
3.5
Final Report – September 2014
Water Demand and Supply Projections
177
The most recent work on water consumption in Darkhan 46 indicates that water consumption per
capita among those with a household connection, based on raw water actually supplied, is of the
order of 175 litres/capita/day. This is quite a high figure, but includes the approximately 40 per
cent which is lost through system leakage. Figures for actual household consumption, which would
dictate wastewater flows, are more modest, at an average daily cold water consumption of about
125 l/cap, which, with the addition in winter of the average daily warm water consumption of 40
l/cap provides a winter total of 165 litres/cap/day (Gross of about of 215 litres/cap/day). One
important feature of the water supply system which impacts on the wastewater volumes arriving for
treatment at the WWTP, is that the source of the heated water consumed in apartments is not the
Us Suvag supply system, it is the technical water extracted by the thermal power plant.
178
The 125 litres/capita/day is an average consumption figure based on analysis of both domestic and
commercial users. Based on 2013 billing figures, the 11,000 household connections use an
average of about 6.5 cum/month – equivalent to about 60 litres/capita/day. In addition, the 2,000
commercial users consume an average of about 50 cum/month, equivalent in per capita terms to
about 70 litres per day. These combined provide the actual cold water per capita consumption
estimate of 125 litres per day.
179
Water consumption to the industrial area is currently measured at about 3,000 cum/day47, with the
majority of this consumed in industrial processes rather than for domestic use. There are some
contradictions in the figures for industrial wastewater volumes generated, with figures provided by
each industry failing to match with the much higher volumes pumped from Pump Station No. 1. In
addition, future industrial demand for water is difficult to predict in the absence of clear indications
of industrial development in the short-medium or long-term. However, recent trends in water
supply requirements have been used to generate future projections.
180
For the ger areas, water supply requirements are only a fraction of the total, and this is unlikely to
change dramatically for the reasons outlined in section 3.4 above. However additional projections
have been made to show the likely impact on demand if mains water supply were to be
progressively introduced to households in the ger areas, as is currently proposed.
181
Water supply projections presented in Table 3.3 are based on the above assumptions and on the
population growth projections provided at section 3.2 above. Further assumptions made are:
46
47
48
i.
Through improvements to the water supply distribution network currently being made, and
through likely future management and network improvements, there will be a progressive
reduction in the currently high rate of system losses. Over the next 27 years to 2040, losses
are predicted to fall from the current 40% to 28%. This appears a reasonable assumption
based on the experience of Ulaanbaatar in particular, which has benefitted from a number of
years of system management and technical support48.
ii.
There will be a modest increase in the actual water consumption per capita by consumers
served with household supplies from about 125 l/c/d in 2012 to 150 l/c/d by year 2040. This
reflects a progressive increase in wealth and thus use of more water-consuming appliances,
moderated by the downward pressure on consumption introduced through a continued
progressive increase in tariff. This would mean that the per capita consumption in Darkhan
would remain below current levels of consumption in Ulaanbaatar.
iii.
In ger areas there will be a moderate increase in per capita consumption only. This reflects
the continuation of water supply via kiosks in view of the impracticality of the introduction of
mains water supply to get households.
Source: Milojevic, Nikola, Klaus-Jochen Sympher, Matthias Schütz, and Martin Wolf, MoMo Technical Report No 6 Integrated
Wastewater Management in Central Asia – MoMo Model Region, 2011.
This excludes an estimated 8,000 cum/day of technical and make-up water used by the thermal power plant which is drawn from
its own wells and does not enter the wastewater system.
Personal communications with USUG staff and Vitens Evides International staff
50
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
iv.
182
There will continue to be a progressive rise in the “floating population” of Darkhan which is
currently considered to contribute about 5,000 population equivalents (PE) of demand.
Table 3.3 below shows projected water consumption and demand for Darkhan city based on the
assumptions outlined above. This shows water demand more than doubling between 2012 and
2040. However, it should be noted that the capacity of the existing well fields supplying raw water
to Darkhan are estimated at 70,000 cum/day – more than double this projected demand. It can be
assumed that the 70,000 cum/day represents a sustainable yield from the well field since this is the
Water Authority-approved reserve estimation for the source.
Table 3.3: Water Demand Projections for Darkhan City for period 2015 to 2040
Year
Darkhan soum
Core Area
Ger Area
Water Supply Projections
Core Residential Area
Net Per capita consumption l/c/d
Losses % of extracted
Total Per capita consumption l/c/d
Total Demand (cum/day)
Industrial Area
Total Demand (cum/day)
Ger Areas
Per capita consumption l/c/d
Total Demand cum/day
Grand total demand (cum/day)
183
2012
2013
2015
2020
2025
2030
2035
2040
80,418
52,272
28,146
81,345
52,874
28,471
82,995
54,777
28,218
91,258
63,881
27,377
100,370
73,270
27,100
110,418
83,918
26,500
118,690
93,765
24,925
127,594
104,627
22,967
125
0.40
175
9,148
125
0.40
175
9,253
128
0.38
176
9,638
134
0.36
182
11,631
141
0.34
188
13,801
148
0.32
195
16,350
150
0.30
195
18,284
150
0.28
192
20,088
3,000
3,000
3,300
3,960
4,752
5,702
6,843
8,211
15
422
12,570
15
427
12,680
16
444
13,382
17
474
16,065
18
493
19,046
19
506
22,558
20
500
21
484
25,627
28,783
To determine the impact on demand of mains water supply and household connections being
progressively introduced to the ger areas, the projections were run with a progressive increase in
numbers of ger area households connected so that by 2040 ger area residents are consuming
about the same volumes of water as apartment residents. This exercise is undertaken to show the
likely impact of this assumption on water demand. As shown in table 3.4, the impact on overall
demand would be relatively minor, with the demand in 2040 about 10 per cent higher than it would
be with all ger residents continuing to use water kiosk supplies. .
Table 3.4: Water Demand Projections Where Ger Residents Obtain Household Connections
Year
Darkhan soum
Core Area
Ger Area
Water Supply Projections
Core Residential Area
Net Per capita consumption
Losses
Total Per capita consumption
Total Demand (Cum/day)
Industrial Area
Total Demand (Cum/day)
Ger Areas
Per capita consumption l/c/d
Total Demand cum/day
Grand total demand (cum/day)
2012
2013
2015
2020
2025
2030
2035
2040
80,418
52,272
28,146
81,345
52,874
28,471
82,995
54,777
28,218
91,258
63,881
27,377
100,370
73,270
27,100
110,418
83,918
26,500
118,690
93,765
24,925
127,594
104,627
22,967
125
0.40
175
9,148
125
0.40
175
9,253
128
0.38
176
9,638
134
0.36
182
11,631
141
0.34
188
13,801
148
0.32
195
16,350
150
0.30
195
18,284
150
0.28
192
20,088
3,000
3,000
3,300
3,960
4,752
5,702
6,843
8,211
56
1,513
72
1,898
99
2,468
125
2,866
15
422
12,570
15
427
12,680
28
779
13,717
41
1127
16,718
20,066
23,950
27,595
31,166
51
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
3.6
184
185
Wastewater Flow Projections
The current wastewater flow is made up of contributions from the core residential areas of New
Darkhan and Old Darkhan, the industrial areas around the treatment plant to the north of Old
Darkhan, and the Industrial Estate to the south. There is no wastewater flow contribution from the
ger areas. Wastewater inflow to the plant varies considerably by day and by season, due to
variable flows from industry and increases once the hot water system is made operational.
However, projections have been made based on the water supply projections presented above and
on the following assumptions:
i.
The proportion of water delivered by Us Suvag and consumed in apartments and homes
within the serviced core area which enters the sewerage system is 80%, and will remain at
this level in the future. This is consistent with international comparators for communities in
similar socio-economic conditions to those observed in Darkhan;
ii.
The hot water provided from the thermal power plant during winter and used in apartments
and homes in the serviced area will remain at the current levels of 40 l/c/d actually consumed,
and the proportion of this hot water delivered to the sewer network is assumed at 75% of that
consumed. This will remain the same over the projection period;
iii.
Industrial wastewater flows are assumed to increase at an average rate of about 3% per
annum over the period 2013 to 2040. This is the area for which it is most difficult to make
reliable projections, and the 2.7 fold increase over this period is somewhat higher than that
projected by the MoMo project which predicts a doubling of industrial water demand and
wastewater flows for the Darkhan region over the same period49;
iv.
The current level of exfiltration losses from the sewer network are assumed at 15%. This is in
accordance with the figures observed under the MoMo project 50 at the lower end of the scale.
It is assumed that the amount of exfiltration will reduce over time as those sections of the
sewer network which are most in need of rehabilitation or replacement are repaired or
replaced. This will result in a progressive reduction in exfiltration from an average of 15% in
2015 to 10% in 2040.
Based on the foregoing assumptions, the projected wastewater flows for winter conditions in
Darkhan (when the hot water system is on) is as follows in Table 3.5. Summer flows will be
reduced by about 10% to account for the absence of the hot water contribution, although this is
partially compensated for by additional cold water use.
Table 3.5 Wastewater Flow Projections for Darkhan City
Year
Wasewater Projections cum/day
From core residential area
Additional from hot water
From Industrial Area
Exfiltration
Total Wastewater Flow cum/day
186
49
50
-
2012
2013
2015
2020
2025
2030
2035
2040
5,227
1,464
3,105
1,469 8,326
5,287
1,480
3,105
1,481 8,392
5,587
1,534
3,416
1,580 8,956
6,842
1,789
4,099
1,782 10,947
8,240
2,052
4,918
1,977 13,232
9,909
2,350
5,902
2,179 15,981
11,252
2,625
7,082
2,306 18,654
While arrived at using a quite different methodology, the 2040 projected wastewater flow figure of
about 21,500 cum/day agrees quite closely with the design figure provided by the MoMo project for
Darkhan. Using a design year of 2042 and a predicted effective population equivalent (PE) of
80,000 at an average contribution rate of just over 250 litres/capita per day, their average design
flow is 21,200 cum/day. The MoMo report makes the point – which should be reiterated here – that
MoMo Integrated Water Resource Management for Central Asia Model Region for Mongolia, Final Project Report, Ulaanbaatar
September 2009,
Source: Milojevic, Nikola, Klaus-Jochen Sympher, Matthias Schütz, and Martin Wolf, MoMo Technical Report No 6 Integrated
Wastewater Management in Central Asia – MoMo Model Region, 2011.
52
12,555
2,930
8,499
2,398
21,585
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
these projections are the best possible with the information available, but that system flexibility is
important as there is a high degree of uncertainty in the projections.
187
It is considered highly improbable that the ger areas will ever be fully connected to the sewerage
network, for the reasons set out above in section 3.4.3. However to provide an indication of the
possible impact on wastewater flows of sewer connections being extended into the ger areas,
projections have been made on the basis that there would be a progressive and accelerating rate
of connections – in sequence with the increase in water use as a result of the introduction of mains
water supply connections as presented in table 3.4 above. The resulting projections are shown in
table 3.6 below. As in the case of water supply projections, the impact is minimal in the short- to
medium-term, but by 2040 when the ger areas would be fully sewered, the increase in wastewater
flows would be of the order of 10% of total.
Table 3.6: Wastewater Projections Where Ger Residents Obtain Household Sewer
Connections
Year
Wasewater Projections cum/day
From core residential area
Additional from hot water
From Ger Areas
From Industrial Area
Exfiltration
Total Wastewater Flow cum/day
-
2012
2013
2015
2020
2025
2030
2035
2040
5,227
1,464
3,105
1,469 8,326
5,287
1,480
3,105
1,481 8,392
5,587
1,534
234
3,416
1,580 9,190
6,842
1,789
451
4,099
1,782 11,398
8,240
2,052
756
4,918
1,977 13,989
9,909
2,350
1,139
5,902
2,179 17,120
11,252
2,625
1,727
7,082
2,306 20,381
53
12,555
2,930
2,293
8,499
2,398
23,878
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
4 WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPTIONS
ANALYSIS
4.1
Framework for Technology Evaluation and Selection
188
A three-stage process has been adopted for the evaluation of potential wastewater treatment
options for Darkhan, and selection of the preferred approach. In the first stage, a broad range of
treatment options is considered against a set of criteria covering the operational characteristics and
likely costs (capital and operational) of systems of the required treatment capacity operating under
Darkhan environmental and socio-economic conditions. During the first stage evaluation, most
options have been eliminated from further consideration as a result of: (i) their unsuitability for
operation under Darkhan conditions; (ii) high levels of operational risk; and/or (iii) high capital or
operational cost.
189
In the second-stage evaluation, those technologies which appear to provide the most cost effective
solution to wastewater treatment were subjected to further scrutiny with a view to identifying an
optimal treatment solution for Darkhan conditions. To this shortlist were added two technologies
recommended for further consideration by the MCUD Technical Committee for Water and
Wastewater Infrastructure.
190
In the third-stage evaluation, two possible approaches (using some of the existing structures, or
constructing an entirely new facility), and three technologies (step-feed activated sludge,
sequencing batch reactor and intehrated fixed-film activated sludge) were evaluated and a
preferred option was selected.
4.2
191
192
First-stage Options Evaluation
Based on broad international practice in wastewater treatment technologies in cold and temperate
climates, a long-list of possible treatment technologies was drawn up for first-stage evaluation.
This list excluded a number of technologies which are in use in more temperate climates but which
would not function in the extreme cold experienced during the long and deep winters in Darkhan, or
are excluded for other operational reasons, such as only being suitable for low wastewater
volumes. The systems excluded from further consideration at this stage are:
i.
The trickling filter variety of biofilm systems: Such systems are better suited to lower flow rates
and would likely become inoperable due to freezing during the deep winter unless covered,
ii.
Extended aeration systems involving long retention times in aeration basins (such as Aerated
Lagoons): Operational problems are likely due to freezing in quiescent parts of the lagoons
during deep winter conditions unless units are covered, which would become prohibitively
expensive for the large reactor areas involved (and necessitated by surface aeration).
iii.
Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Process: Insufficient experience at full scale operation and
not suitable for use in cold climates due to sensitivity of anaerobic process to low temperature
(obligate anaerobic methane-forming bacteria which are necessary to avoid odour associated
with the intermediate products of anaerobic treatment cease to function at about 15 deg C).
The systems which are considered in the first stage evaluation are those which could have
application under operating conditions experienced in Darkhan. These are:
i.
Waste Stablisation Ponds (facultative and maturation ponds in series)
ii.
Constructed or Managed Wetlands
iii.
Extended aeration oxidation ditch (or Carrousel) extended aeration systems
54
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
iv.
Conventional or modified (e.g. Anoxic/Oxic) activated sludge process systems
v.
Sequencing Batch Reactor systems
vi.
Membrane bioreactor and reverse osmosis technologies
vii. Biofilm systems – submerged and part-submerged (such as rotating biological contactors)
193
These systems are evaluated against a range of criteria to determine which are likely to offer the
best solution under Darkhan conditions in terms of costs and operating efficiency. The criteria
used in the evaluation are:
i.
Experience of operation of similar wastewater treatment technologies elsewhere in Mongolia,
both positive and negative; and also whether featuring in consideration as a potential process
for adoption by other urban communities in Mongolia;
ii.
Experience of operation elsewhere in the region, or under similar climatic, economic and
technical environments as Darkhan, and at similar flow rates
iii.
Likely biological treatment performance in removal of BOD5, COD and SS.
iv.
Likely nutrient removal efficiency – particularly nitrogen and phosphorous removal
v.
Likely treatment efficiency in removal of bacterial indicator organisms
vi.
Shock-loading resilience: ability to handle fluctuation in influent volume and composition particularly to chemical agents likely to be present in (pre-treated) industrial wastewaters.
vii. Approximate land requirement and ability to be accommodated within the footprint of the
existing plant (thus avoiding land acquisition and resettlement issues);
viii. Approximate capital costs for civil works equipment and related plant costs;
ix.
Likely energy requirements for operation;
x.
Possible energy recovery opportunities – such as through bio-gas from sludge digestion;
xi.
Likely operational and maintenance costs;
xii. Sludge volume and handling characteristics;
xiii. Operational complexity: need for sophisticated real-time IT-based management systems,
number and complexity of moving parts and exposure of appurtenances;
xiv. Potential for odour or noise nuisance, or provision of a favourable environment for insect or
disease vector breeding;
xv. Aesthetic considerations: ability of plant to fit well with surroundings;
xvi. Resilience to harsh winter operating conditions;
xvii. Expansion potential: ability of plant capacity to be increased on a modular basis as flow rates
increase; and
xviii. General observations and result of evaluation: overall summary of evaluation and assessment
of suitability for further consideration.
55
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
194
The evaluation is summarised at Table 4.1.
eliminated:
Final Report – September 2014
Based on this evaluation, other outliers can be
i.
Waste stabilisation ponds systems and constructed wetlands offer simple, cheap, robust and
resilient processes for wastewater treatment but: (i) use large areas of land; (ii) would function
poorly in winter and early spring; (iii) risk odour and insect vector breeding; and (iv) offer only
poor nutrient removal performance.
ii.
At the other end of the spectrum, membrane bio-rectors and reverse osmosis plants: (i) are
expensive to construct and very expensive to operate and maintain; (ii) involve complex
operational systems; (iii) do not have a history of successful use in environments similar to
that of Darkhan; and (iv) offer very high quality effluents – but unnecessarily higher quality
than is required for discharge to the Kharaa River.
iii.
Biofilm technologies vary widely and are eliminated from further consideration as stand-alone
systems because: (i) there is not an established biofilm technology which has been used in
Mongolia or is widely used elsewhere in the region; and (ii) the ability of biofilm systems to
operate under cold winter conditions or respond to shock loadings is not well established.
However, they continue to be considered in combination with activated sludge technologies.
56
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Table 4.1: Comparative Treatment Data for Treatment Processes51
Waste Stabilization
(Oxidation) Ponds
Constructed Wetlands
Extended Aeration:
Oxidation Ditch (Carrousel)
Conventional or Modified
A/O Activated Sludge
Extensive (small systems)
Few (small systems)
No
Yes
Extensive
Some (small systems)
Some (but not in very cold
climates)
BOD5, COD & SS Removal (%)
75-85
75-90
NH4, P Nutrient Removal (%)
Small
Small
Log 2-4
Log 2-4
Handling hydraulic and organic
load fluctuations
Good
Land Requirement
(approx.m2/cum/day)
40.0
Item
Use elsewhere in Mongolia
Use in cold climates
Faecal Coliforms Removal
(orders)
Total Capital Cost (US$/cum/day)
Power Requirement (kWh/cum
treated)
Opportunities for energy recovery
Total O&M Cost (US$/ cum)
Sludge production and handling.
Operational Complexity
Characteristics
Potential odour, insect and vector
Nuisance.
Membrane Bioreactor &
Reverse Osmosis
Biofilm Technology
(submerged or exposed)
Several (small systems for
private companies)
No
No
Extensive
Several (developed
environments)
Few (small systems)
Some (small systems)
75-85
90-95
90-95
95-98
75-90
Moderate
Moderate to High
High
High
Moderate
Log 2-3
Log 1-3
Log 1-3
Log >4
Log 1-3
Good
Fair
Fair to Good
Good
Good
Fair to Good
25.0
2.0
1.0
0.75
0.25
0.75
Sequencing Batch Reactor
150
300
900
800
800
1,200
700
Minimal
Minimal
1.3
1.0
0.9
1.5
0.5
Low
Moderate
Moderate
High
High
Moderate
Moderate
0.05
0.05
0.4
0.35
0.4
0.8
0.4
Low/Easy
Low/Easy
Moderate/ Easy
Moderate/ Hard
Moderate/ Hard
Moderate/ Hard
Moderate/ Hard
Simple
Simple
Moderate Skill/Complexity
Moderate/Skilled/Complex
Highly Skilled/Complex
Highly Skilled/Complex
Moderate Skill/Complexity
Yes:
Yes
Moderate
Minor
Least
Least
Moderate
Aesthetics with surroundings
No
No
No
Fair
Best suited
Best suited
Best suited
Winter operational resilience
OK but poor performance
OK but poor performance
Moderate
Good
Good
Good
Moderate
Possible
Difficult
Difficult
Moderate
Simple
Simple
Moderate
Already used in Mongolia (at a
small scale) and in region.
Good performance and
adaptable, but requires
relatively sophisticated
operating system
High capital and operating
costs and requires complex
operational controls. High
level of treatment performance
not necessary in Darkhan
May have application but little
experience in region or in cold
climates. RBC can be effective
but better suited to smaller
plants.
Potential for modular expansion
General observation and
evaluation result
51
Area required very large to
accommodate cold periods &
nuisance during spring thaw –
not a practical solution for
Darkhan
Area required very large to
accommodate cold periods.
More widely used for smaller
communities – not a practical
solution for Darkhan
Possible option but no
Mongolian experience,
susceptibility to very cold
conditions and poorer nutrient
removal than other options
Already used in Mongolia and
in region, performance good
except nutrient removal in
conventional plants.
Modifications can improve
nutrient removal
This data is taken from a wide range of sources and as such is approximate, particularly the cost information which is purely indicative, and based on an assumed medium-sized facility (say
10,000 cm/day capacity). The purpose is to help narrow the options down to those two or three treatment technologies most appropriate for the situation in Darkhan
57
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
4.3
Final Report – September 2014
Second-stage Options Evaluation
195
This first stage process leaves three basic technologies which are considered to offer the best
options for application in Darkhan: (i) the activated sludge process in its various forms – modified in
accordance with the specific treatment requirements; (iii) the sequencing batch reactor system; and
(iii) the oxidation ditch or Carrousel extended aeration system. In addition, the Membrane Biorector (MBR) and Moving-bed Bio-reactor (MBBR) were further considered at the request of the
MCUD Technical Committee on Water and Wastewater Infrastructure, which evaluated the
consultant’s preliminary recommendations. The Committee requested that the consultant look
again at these options. Each of the systems is described in terms of its operational parameters,
and an evaluation is carried using a combination of quantitative and qualitative criteria. The
detailed analysis is presented in Appendix K, and a summary of findings is presented below.
196
The oxidation ditch is included at this stage, largely because it is understood to be the preferred
technology for the CWWTP extension in Ulaanbaatar, and as a result has also been considered for
the new treatment plant and Nisekh. However, it is considered that this system does not represent
as good an alternative for Darkhan as either the modified activated sludge or SBR technologies, or
other systems which use elements of these two. While from a technical point of view, the system
would be able to achieve the required treated effluent quality standards, there are process
disadvantages when compared to the modified ASP, SBR and related systems, under the
operating conditions experienced in Darkhan. As an extended aeration system, the oxidation ditch
aerobically stabilises the activated sludge. This has the advantage that no additional and
separated sludge stabilization is required, but has the disadvantages that; (i) the extended aeration
systems means that about 25% more energy is used than in either conventional activated sludge
or SBR systems; and (ii) the aeration tank volumes required are about 4- 5 times those required by
either the modified activated sludge or SBR systems.
197
A further disadvantage of the oxidation ditch system when operating in cold climates is that since
the aeration takes place at the surface, the aeration tank depth cannot exceed approximately
3.50m. This combination of large volume requirement and restriction on depth means a very large
footprint and thus equally large exposed liquid surface area, leading to rapid cooling of the liquor in
winter and thus the risk of freezing. The only way to maintain the required temperature in these
circumstances is to enclose the reactor – at a very high capital cost.
198
A further consideration is the option for some energy recovery through anaerobic sludge digestion
– an option which is not open in the case of an extended aeration system – and the benefits from
dewatering an anaerobically digested (as opposed to aerobically digested) sludge. Under optimal
conditions, provided that anaerobic sludge stabilization follows the activated sludge process, about
60% of the total energy required for the operation of the entire WWTP can potentially be recovered
and utilized to defray energy costs52. Furthermore, during the anaerobic digestion process the
sludge quantity is reduced by about 30% which in turn reduces the cost for dewatering and final
disposal. Additionally, anaerobically digested sludge can be much more efficiently dewatered than
aerobic sludge, which consequently reduces the final disposal cost still further.
199
Further detailed analysis of the potential for use of the MBR system reinforced the original
conclusion. The analysis indicated that while the degree of treatment achieved can be very high,
the system suffers from the following disadvantages under Mongolian conditions:
52
i.
Where there are occasional system failures - for instance due to power cuts - the micro filters
become clogged and require constant cleaning resulting in high maintenance costs.
ii.
The membrane cartridges need to be changed often, are imported, and are consequently very
expensive.
iii.
To operate micro filters, vacuum pumps are required and these are considerably more
expensive to operate than using secondary sedimentation tanks for clarification.
This is a theoretical figure, and there is some doubt as to whether the low levels of BOD found in Darkhan wastewater will
support an anaerobic digestion and bio-gas recovery investment – this will be investigated further during the TA.
58
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
200
The MBBR system is similar to the IFAS, except in that floatable media are used rather than fixed
media. A disadvantage of the use of floatable media is that the ability of biomass to cling to the
media is reduced, thus in turn reducing the intensity of biomass activity. Thus the IFAS is
considered preferable to the similar MBBR system, and the MBBR system is excluded from further
consideration.
201
These factors combine to eliminate the oxidation ditch (or Carrousel) option, MBR and MMBR
systems from further consideration. Consequently, the treatment systems which are evaluated in
greater detail in stage three of the evaluation are:
i.
Option 1: The rehabilitation of (parts of) the existing activated sludge system to provide
enhanced operation and treatment using a modified activated sludge technology (IFAS);
ii.
Option 2: A new modified activated sludge system adopting the step-feed activated sludge
process to promote nutrient reduction;
iii.
Option 3: A new sequencing batch reactor system; and
iv.
Option 4: A new modified activated sludge treatment plant adopting IFAS technology.
202
In general, activated sludge systems do not provide a high level of nutrient removal, but the stepfeed ASP, IFAS and SBR processes are designed to improve the nutrient removal performance of
the system, so this should not constitute a problem in achieving the required discharge standards.
203
Each of these systems produces a well mineralised sludge which can be readily dewatered, or
offers the possibility for anaerobic digestion and thus energy recovery. However, in view of the low
sludge volumes and problems encountered in maintaining temperatures sufficient for sludge
digestion in winter, this approach is not recommended at this stage. Also, while the addition of
anaerobic digestion to generate bio-gas as a resource to reduce energy should be beneficial, there
is doubt as to the applicability and efficiency of biogas digesters under Mongolian conditions where
relatively high water consumption (150 l/c/d) and low organic loads (27 g/c/d) lead to low BOD 5 and
SS concentrations in raw sewage (BOD5 90-95mg/l, SS ~150mg/l).
4.4
204
Third-stage Options Evaluation
Based on the second stage evaluation, four options emerged as those most suitable for application
in the city. These are discussed and evaluated below, and summarised in Table 4.2 below. In
addition, Appendix S provides a lifetime cost analysis comparing each of the preferred treatment
options.
4.4.1
Option 1: Rehabilitation of Existing Activated Sludge Plant
205
The existing WWTP is generally in a poor state of repair. Virtually all mechanical units are beyond
their economic life and many of the structures are beyond economic repair. Investigations were
conducted on the main structural units which showed that while some elements are structurally
sound, and can be rehabilitated, others are not capable of economic rehabilitation. This
information is presented in Appendix L, which also provides unit cost estimates for the
rehabilitation of structurally sound elements, and reconstruction of those which are beyond
rehabilitation.
206
However, some of the units are still structurally sound, and the significant over-design of the
existing plant (50,000 cum/day as against actual flows averaging < 10,000 cum/day) means that
the more sound units could be rehabilitated and used as part of a renewed modified activated
sludge treatment plant using IFAS technology. A suggested design has been made for this
renewal and conversion, and this is set out in Appendix K. This would require surface treatments
to the clarifier units and a major reconstruction of the aeration tank, plus complete replacement of
mechanical and electrical equipment. This approach would generate savings in capital works over
a brand new plant.
59
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
207
Final Report – September 2014
There would be some complications in adopting the rehabilitation approach. The first would be the
arrangements which would need to be made during the re-construction of those units which would
be used as part of the new operating system. An advantage of the construction of a new plant
would be that operation of the old plant would continue while the new plant was constructed. In the
case of rehabilitation, additional costs would be incurrent in redirecting wastewater to a temporary
treatment facility (probably other elements of the existing plant which are currently unused) to be
used during the re-construction. A further disadvantage would be that because of its configuration,
the rehabilitated plant would not lend itself to modular expansion as easily and cost-effectively as a
new plant. However, again, use can be made of existing structures which would be surplus to
requirements in the first stage of development.
4.4.2
Option 2: New Modified Activated Sludge Plant (Step-feed activated sludge)
208
The design of a proposed new activated sludge step-feed process WWTP for Darkhan has largely
followed the adopted for the Nisekh WWTP in Ulaanbaatar53. The advantages of the step-feed
ASP technology are that it provides a high level of treatment without the same level of operational
complexities inherent in SBR system. Furthermore, raw sludge and excess activated sludge can
be used to produce energy through sludge digestion which is both environmentally-friendly and can
provide energy through the bio-gas produced which offsets some of the energy costs of operation
209
The potential disadvantages of the system are that when extending the capacity of the WWTP
there will be a need for additional primary and secondary sedimentation tanks, aeration tanks and
other basins, which will add to the cost of modular capacity enhancement. It will also require
increases to the number of sewage pipelines and other interconnecting pipework and
appurtenances. The existing plant does not lend itself to conversion to a step-feed activated
sludge process as well as it does to the IFAS system
4.4.3
Option 3: New Sequencing Batch Reactor Plant
210
The SBR effectively carries out the series of treatment processes involved in the activated sludge
process in a single reactor. Its primary benefits are: (i) the amount of excess sludge is reduced,
which in turn reduce sludge-handing problems; (ii) because all of the operations are carried out in a
single tank, the reactor footprint can be minimized; and (iii) the operation of the system is fullyautomated. This means that the aeration device has a timing unit which varies aeration intensity
and duration in accordance with the characteristics of the incoming wastewater. This means that
there is no need to plan for peak capacity loadings and operation is flexible and operates with
optimal efficiency at any inflow level and concentration within the maximum design flow.
211
However, there are also a number of disadvantages with the SBR system. A higher level of
sophistication is required because the timed phases in the bioreactor are controlled with an
automatic timing unit. Consistent with the automated nature of the process, there is a higher level
of maintenance associated with more automated switches, valves and shut offs. Under Mongolian
(and certainly Darkhan) conditions there is the potential of higher cost of operation and
maintenance of automated facilities, higher risk of sub-optimal operation, and a higher risk of
breakdown. The system is not robust to long operational interruptions and with a power-cut
induced break in flow rate for, say 6-8 hours during anaerobic conditions and with low water
temperatures (say 10°C) there may be long-term damage to the microbiological population which
can seriously damage operation performance and take a long time to correct. There is also
increased risk of freezing during the quiescent phase of operation.
212
There are also issues of constructability. The SBR requires good quality heat-insulation and
extensive use of polypropylene which may add to material cost, to lead times for construction
materials, and to the period for construction required under Mongolian conditions.
53
Environmentally Sound City Development in Ulaanbaatar, Feasibility Study Report, Final Version, Gitec and Mongol Erdem,
Ulaanbaatar August 2011.
60
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
4.4.4
Final Report – September 2014
Option 4: The Hybrid: Modified Bioreactor & Activated Sludge Plant – the
Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge (IFAS) system
213
The IFAS system is widely used in Russia and in other locations in China and Europe, but is not as
well known internationally as either the modified step-feed ASP or SBR. Its advantages are that it
both reduces the volume of sludge and improves the final purification result as a result of the
progression of microbiological processes (the IFAS). The system can be adapted to more or less
automated control, and the reactors can be united into a single construction block, thus reducing
the total reactor volume and area, thus in turn reducing operational complexities and costs. It can
also operate on more of a modular step-feed arrangement to provide additional operational
flexibility.
214
The main disadvantages of the IFAS system are that since all treatment functions are in separate
tanks, it occupies more space than the SBR system, although has a similar footprint to the stepfeed ASP. In addition, while the operation is partially automated, the absence of a fully automated
system for managing aeration time means that operational costs are marginally higher than for the
SBR system at the flow rates anticipated in Darkhan. However, it offers a more robust treatment
system which does not rely so heavily on automated controls as do the SBR and step feed ASP
systems.
4.5
Evaluation Results – the Optimal Technical Solution
215
The options analysis does not present a clear “winner” in terms of the qualitative and quantitative
evaluations. The rehabilitation of the existing treatment plants as a modified ASP using IFAS
technology is the cheapest option in capital cost terms, but potentially presents more challenges in
terms of: (i) dealing with the period of construction (further costs will need to be added to provide
for treatment during reconstruction); and (ii) providing a system which is suitable for straightforward
and cost-effective modular expansion. A further consideration is that the reduced construction
requirements in terms of concrete and other materials will reduce the carbon footprint in the short
term (i.e. of the construction), but additional energy requirements over the new SBR plant optimally
operated offsets this saving in the longer-term. A further advantage of reusing elements of the
existing WWTP is that the new plant can be constructed within the footprint of the existing plant.
216
Based on this analysis, there is little between the other three new systems in terms of cost and
performance. The step-feed activated sludge is slightly more expensive and has slightly higher
operational cost than the other two systems. However, it comes closest to the “tried and tested”
conventional activated sludge process in terms of operation, and thus offers some security that it
can be successfully operated under Mongolian conditions.
217
The other two systems provide solutions which emerge as the most cost effective, (assuming that
the rehabilitation of the existing plant is disregarded) with little to choose between them. The SBR
technology is finding increasing application in many parts of the world – but was considered and
rejected under the extensive studies looking at systems for: (i) Nisekh in Ulaanbaatar; (ii) the
extension of the Ulaanbaatar CWWTP, and (iii) the Orkhon WWTP extension. It works well when
the automated systems work well and the level of supervision is high. But is it reasonable to
assume this is likely in the Darkhan situation? This presents an addition level of operational risk
over options which have more in common with the more familiar conventional ASP system.
218
The version of the IFAS system knows as the “3-sludge” system which is proposed, has emerged
from Russian experience, is widely used in Russia, and variations are adopted in China, and in
Europe, Japan and Saudi Arabia. This option was not considered at all in the evaluations of
potential treatment plants for Ulaanbaatar and Orkhon mentioned in the previous paragraph. There
is limited experience of the system outside Russia, and although some elements of the system
have been successfully introduced to a small plant in Mongolia (at Zunmod) it is relatively untried in
Mongolia and elsewhere. Consequently, its adoption could pose a high risk. However, ultimately it
is a variation on the activated sludge process with some benefits over the step-feed ASP process
in terms of the amount of interconnecting pipework, valves and number of inspection chambers,
and provides simpler operation than the SBR. The basic principles of the IFAS and related MBBR
technology are widely applied elsewhere globally.
61
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Table 4.2 Detailed Evaluation of Shortlisted Treatment Methods
Modification and
Rehabilitation of existing
Activated Sludge Plant as
IFAS system
New modified Step-feed
process Activated Sludge
Plant
Standard Sequencing
Batch Reactor System
(as recommended by
MoMo)
Integrated Fixed-film
Activated Sludge
Process (IFAS)
Item
Evaluation Criteria
1
Estimated total capital costs
(Capital works, equipment and other
costs) for a plant treating 20,000
cum/day in US$ million
12.25
19.30
16.35
16.70
2
Estimated annual operational cost
(Power, staff, chemicals and other)
in US$ million per annum
0.592
0.631
0.541
0.567
3
Estimated total economic lifetime
costs over 25 years in MNT per M3
treated
5,931
7,844
7,426
7,324
4
Financial lifetime cost in MNT per
M3 treated
2,087
2,329
2,168
2,372
5
Economic Internal Rate of Return
(EIRR)
13.0%
4.8%
6.2%
6.5%
6
Financial Internal Rate of Return
(FIRR)
2.4%
1.0%
1.8%
0.7%
7
Operational simplicity or
complexity, e.g. need for PC-based
SCADA control system, number of
moving parts and complexity and
exposure of appurtenances
Operation would be
streamlined to use only one
stream of primary and
secondary clarifiers which
would be converted to bioreactors in accordance with
the IFAS system. Other
elements would remain
unused. There would still
be an assortment of external
reactor connections etc.
which would be exposed
and thus present continued
The opportunity exists to
minimise the need for
external pipework by
planning the configuration
of reactors to minimise
number of structures. The
process is complex and
requires a degree of
automated control,
although treatment is
reasonably robust in cases
where control is not as
finely managed (is sub-
The system is reasonably
compact and so does not
involve a great deal of
external pipework. The
system works in an
automatic mode and is
controlled by a relatively
complex PC-based SCADA
system. There is a risk of
automatic system failure, in
which case the effluent
quality is likely to be
significantly adversely
The system is modification
of conventional ASP with
additional steps and can be
configured so as to
minimise external
pipework. The system can
operate in either an
automated or a manual
mode. Since the timing of
phases is not as critical as
in other options, treatment
efficiency can be
maintained in cases where
62
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Item
Evaluation Criteria
Modification and
Rehabilitation of existing
Activated Sludge Plant as
IFAS system
New modified Step-feed
process Activated Sludge
Plant
Standard Sequencing
Batch Reactor System
(as recommended by
MoMo)
Integrated Fixed-film
Activated Sludge
Process (IFAS)
operational risk.
optimal).
affected. Backup systems
are needed
operational controls are not
so carefully managed
8
Successful operation proven
elsewhere in Mongolia, or at least in
the region, and in similar climatic,
economic and technical
environments, and similar flow rates
The existing plant works
reasonably well, and is
based on a technology used
elsewhere in Mongolia (e.g.
Erdenet and Ulaanbaatar)
which has provided a
reasonable level of
treatment when operated
well, although low levels of
nutrient removal. It is
considered that the plant
could be adapted to operate
under a modified activated
sludge process – the IFAS
process – well, but this may
present an operational risk
in its reuse of structures.
No step-feed ASPs working
on Mongolia, but there are
a number of modified
activated sludge processes
operating with significant
variation in treatment
efficiency. Team visited
WWTPs at Sukhbaatar in
Selenge and Zunmod in
Tov where a modified
activated sludge systems
were operating: the first
not well, but the second
providing a high level of
treatment. Thus due to
variability in operation and
not design issues.
The SBR pilot plant at the
Darkhan treatment plant
was said to be working
well, but the performance
results are not available
with Us Suvag. Some
operational problems with
the pilot were experienced
during winter. While widely
used in more economically
advanced and warmer
environments, SBRs have
yet to find widespread use
in the region, or in
Mongolia (except for
relatively small private
plants)
The IFAS system is widely
used in Russia in its “3sludge” form, but is not well
known in this form
elsewhere. It is a
modification of an activated
sludge-type process which
is widely adopted
elsewhere and has been
adopted in Mongolia for
smaller plants. Some
elements included in plants
at Sukhbataar and
Zunmod.
9
Probable treatment efficiency (BOD,
COD, SS & NH4 removal) in climatic
extremes likely to be experienced in
Darkhan
BOD=10.0mg/l
COD=20mg/l
SS=10.0mg/l
NH4=0.4mg/l
BOD=20.0mg/l
COD=50mg/l
SS=50.0mg/l
NH4=6.0mg/l
BOD=20mg/l
COD=50mg/l
SS=50mg/l
NH4=6.0mg/l
BOD=6.0mg/l
COD=15mg/l
SS=6.0mg/l
NH4=0.4mg/l
10
Sludge handling characteristics –
minimisation of sludge problems
If operated as a IFAS
system the dry sludge
produced is about one half
of that produced from the
activated sludge process.
Sludge volumes produced
from this process are less
than for conventional ASP
but relatively high.
The volume of dry sludge
produced from the system
is about two thirds of that
produced from the
conventional ASP.
The volume of dry sludge
produced from the system
is about one half of that
produced from the
conventional ASP.
11
Shock-loading resilience –
particularly to chemical agents
likely to be present in (pre-treated)
industrial wastewaters
The system is robust in
treating wastewaters with
variable characteristics
provided they meet with the
The system is robust in
treating wastewaters with
variable characteristics
provided they meet with the
The system has the benefit
that it can adjust the
intensity of treatment to
deal with variability in
The system is robust in
treating wastewaters with
variable characteristics
provided they meet with the
63
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Item
Evaluation Criteria
Modification and
Rehabilitation of existing
Activated Sludge Plant as
IFAS system
New modified Step-feed
process Activated Sludge
Plant
Standard Sequencing
Batch Reactor System
(as recommended by
MoMo)
Integrated Fixed-film
Activated Sludge
Process (IFAS)
standards for discharge to
public sewers
standards for discharge to
public sewers
inflow characteristics.
standards for discharge to
public sewers
12
Energy efficiency, (construction and
operational phases and
opportunities for energy recovery
(e.g. methane biogas recovery)
Energy saving on
construction. Annual
electricity consumption
amounts to about US$
0.123 mil.
Annual electricity
consumption amounts to
about US$ 0.127 mil.
Annual electricity
consumption amounts to
about US$ 0.122 mil.
Annual electricity
consumption amounts to
about US$ 0.123 mil.
13
Suitability for incremental
expansion
Would be more difficult to
extend than a new plant as
the configuration is dictated
by the existing structures,
but could just use additional
disused elements of existing
plant on rehabilitation.
Relatively easily extended
by the construction of
additional parallel
treatment streams if
designed for modular
expansion, although
pipework complexity.
Relatively easily extended
by the construction of
additional parallel
treatment streams if
designed for modular
expansion.
Relatively easily extended
by the construction of
additional parallel
treatment streams if
designed for modular
expansion.
14
Operational resilience in extreme
winter climate
The existence of significant
underground pipeline
networks increases the risk
of freezing and interruption
to treatment in extreme
conditions, but OK in past.
There is a moderate
amount of underground
pipework which risks
operational problems in
winter, but not if well
located.
Minimal interconnecting
pipework but pilot plant at
Darkhan suffered freezing
problems in the winter, but
these may have been due
to small size
System minimises the need
for interconnecting
pipework.
15
Likely creation of odour or other
nuisance
No odour if working
properly.
No odour if working
properly.
No odour if working
properly.
No odour if working
properly.
16
Constructability
Complicated by the need to
rehabilitate existing
structures
Relatively straightforward,
although more complex
than IFAS
Straightforward for
structural elements, less so
for mechanical equipment
and controls
Relatively straightforward
17
Suitability for risk reduction through
D&B or DBOT modality
Nature of works required
would not lend it to DBOT
modality easily due to rehab
of structures.
Would be suitable for
DBOT-type modality
(although design now
separate)
Would be suitable for
DBOT-type modality
(although design now
separate)
Would be suitable for
DBOT-type modality
(although design now
separate)
18
Major Risks associated with each
 Extensive use of existing
 Susceptible to
 Operational complexity
 Relatively untried
64
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Item
Evaluation Criteria
option:
Modification and
Rehabilitation of existing
Activated Sludge Plant as
IFAS system
structures increases risk
of structural failure of
basins & reactors
 Use of existing
configuration of
structures means that
new WWTP cannot adopt
optimal layout
 Inter-connecting
pipework increases risk
of winter freezing
 Incremental development
relatively difficult but
inexpensive if using
existing structures
New modified Step-feed
process Activated Sludge
Plant
reductions in treatment
efficiency under high or
low loading rates.
 Configuration of
structures and
interconnecting
pipework means that
new WWTP cannot
readily be extended.
 Extensive interconnecting pipework
increases risk of winter
freezing
Standard Sequencing
Batch Reactor System
(as recommended by
MoMo)
increases risks of
operational failure or
treatment problems
 Treatment efficiency
susceptible to wide
variations in flow unless
large balancing tank in
front of reactor
 External experts
required for the
maintenance of
sophisticated technical
equipment
 Step-feed process adds
to complexity and cost
 Flexibility in arranging
phases requires
sophisticated computerbased control system,
demanding extensive
external support and
training of the operating
staff on commissioning:
high cost & risk of failure
 Need for interim
treatment arrangements
during construction (use
of other existing plant
structures)
 Contractors or suppliers
my limit warranty period
based on use of existing
structures
Integrated Fixed-film
Activated Sludge
Process (IFAS)
technology increases
operational risks,
although based on welltried principles
 Need for optimal
treatment conditions
requires the use of
relatively sophisticated
computer-based control
system.
19
Risks associated with contracting
out works
Contractors may be
reluctant to undertake
works, or to guarantee
works, because of doubts
on viability of structures
Well known system and
should attract wide interest
from contractors
Well known system and
should attract wide interest
from contractors
Relatively less well known
process could restrict
international contractor
interest and
responsiveness
20
View of Expert Technical Committee
on Water and Wastewater Treatment
and Steering Committee
Existing structures should
be used where possible if
certified by competent
This process is well
understood but could be
developed further based on
This system may face
operational problems as
not used before at this
This system is preferred as
it is relatively simple
modification of ASP and
65
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Item
21
Evaluation Criteria
View of experts from ADB’s RSDD
Modification and
Rehabilitation of existing
Activated Sludge Plant as
IFAS system
New modified Step-feed
process Activated Sludge
Plant
authorities
Mongolian experience and
conditions.
scale in Mongolia
thus the most suitable for
Mongolian conditions
There is value to reusing
existing structure and
providing new plant within
existing plant footprint.
Step-feed arrangement
relatively costly in terms of
both capital and operating
costs.
Concern that operational
complexity could
compromise performance
Not well known but
technology appears sound
as based on ASP
technology.
Full extent of damage to
structures can only be fully
assessed once the whole
facility is emptied.
New facility optimises new
technology and minimizes
risk, but creates potentiall
more negative impacts due
to footprint and need to
deal with decommissioned
existing structures
In-situ partial demolition and
reconstruction on same
footprint an option but adds
risks, complexity and
potentially costs.
Standard Sequencing
Batch Reactor System
(as recommended by
MoMo)
New facility optimises new
technology and minimizes
risk, but creates potentiall
more negative impacts due
to footprint and need to
deal with decommissioned
existing structures
Integrated Fixed-film
Activated Sludge
Process (IFAS)
New facility optimises new
technology and minimizes
risk, but creates potentiall
more negative impacts due
to footprint and need to
deal with decommissioned
existing structures
66
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
4.6
219
Cost Estimates for Options
Base capital and operating costs for the options considered are provided in Tables 4.3 and 4.4
below. These base capital and operational costs were used to calculate the total costs (including
all add-on costs) used in Table 4.2 above.
Table 4.3: Treatment Plant Base Capital Costs in US$ million
Item
Capital Cost Item
Modification and
Rehabilitation of existing
Activated Sludge Plant as
"three sludges" system
1 Site Preparation
2 Earthworks
3 Main pump station rehabiliation -works
4 Main pump station rehabiliation -equipment
5 Civil works construction
6 Treatment Mechanical Equipment
7 Electrical equipment & control panels
8 automatic control of sewage disposal system
9 Interconnecting pipe works
10 Commissioning & adjustment works
11 Project management and supervision costs
12 Miscellaneous items
Sub-total
13 Contingencies
Grand Total
0.015
0.050
0.050
0.370
1.200
6.200
0.280
0.172
0.100
0.150
0.040
0.600
9.227
1.384
10.611
New modified Step-feed
process Activated Sludge
Plant
0.015
0.470
0.050
0.370
6.640
5.744
0.350
0.172
0.500
0.150
0.040
0.600
15.101
2.265
17.366
Standard Sequencing
Batch Reactor System
(as recommended by
MoMo)
Modified Batch
Reactor Activated
Sludge Process (three
sludges system)
0.015
0.470
0.050
0.370
4.000
6.245
0.280
0.172
0.250
0.150
0.040
0.600
12.642
1.896
14.538
0.015
0.470
0.050
0.370
4.320
6.200
0.280
0.172
0.250
0.150
0.040
0.600
12.917
1.938
14.855
Table 4.4: Annual Operational Costs for Treatment System Options
Item
Operating Cost Item
Modification and Rehabilitation New modified Step-feed
of existing Activated Sludge
process Activated Sludge
Plant as "three sludges" system Plant
Standard Sequencing
Batch Reactor System (as
recommended by MoMo)
Modified Batch Reactor
Activated Sludge Process
(three sludges system)
1
Staff costs
0.185
0.200
0.180
0.185
2
Energy (power) costs
0.123
0.127
0.122
0.123
3
Chemical dosing costs
0.054
0.054
0.054
0.054
4
Heating and other services
0.150
0.170
0.110
0.130
5
Laboratory and monitoring costs
0.030
0.030
0.030
0.030
6
Other operational costs
0.050
0.050
0.045
0.045
Total Annual Operating Cost
0.592
0.631
0.541
0.567
4.7
4.7.1
Process Evaluation: Conclusions and Recommendation
Evaluation Conclusions
220
All treatment options would potentially provide a level of treatment of Darkhan wastewater
adequate to satisfy Mongolian wastewater discharge standards.
221
There is a strong rationale for reusing elements of the existing WWTP and upgrading the system
technology and equipment within these reactors, if it can be proven that the existing structures can
be rehabilitated to guarantee at least 30 years of service life. The Mongolian Government’s
expertise agency54 and a private sector company specialising in structural rehabilitation 55 have
both advised that rehabilitation is possible. However, the true condition of the structure cannot be
known until the facility is completely emptied. Whichever option is selected, the reactor should be
covered to avoid freezing.
54
55
See appendix xx
See Appendix I
67
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
222
Final Report – September 2014
Costs: the overall costs (and lifetime costs) do not differ widely, although reuse of elements of the
existing plant does provide significant cost saving on capital works (approximately US$ 4 million),
and makes little difference on operational cost.
i.
In economic and financial lifetime cost terms, the rehabilitation of the existing plant as an IFAS
system is the cheapest.
ii.
The reuse of the existing structures for the IFAS system generates the highest EIRR (13%)
and the new IFAS systems the second highest EIRR (6.5%).
iii.
The reuse of the existing structures for the IFAS also generates the highest FIRR (2.4%) while
the new SBR system generates the second best FIRR (1.8%).
223
Despite some advantages in operational costs, the adoption of the new SBR is considered risky
since an SBR at this scale has not been operated under similar conditions in Asia, or elsewhere in
the world, and the operation is complex.
224
The step-feed activated sludge process has the advantage of being a modification of systems
already operational in Mongolia, but is relatively expensive to construct and operate.
225
The IFAS system is also a modification of the Activated Sludge Process already operating in
Mongolia with configuration and operational adjustments to improve nitrification/de-nitrification and
reduce excess sludge volumes.
226
There is some benefit to constructing a new system in that the existing system can operate until
the new system is ready to be brought on-stream, but this is offset by: (i) the fact that the existing
system can be rehabilitated while other currently unused stream of the existing plant are used to
continue treatment; and (ii) the reconstruction of the new facility within the existing WWTP footprint.
4.7.2
227
Evaluation Recommendations
The recommendation is that of the consultants based on: (i) the technical review summarised
above; (ii) the views of the Technical Committee; and (iii) the views of other experts in the field:
i.
Based on the fact that the existing structures have been certified by the Mongolian Expert
Agency to be sound, and with rehabilitation to be capable of giving at least 30 years of life, the
new WWTP should use the existing structures, redeveloped and strengthened where
necessary, and modified to provide an IFAS system approach.
ii.
If for any reason there is a requirement to adopt a completely new plant on a new site, then
the recommended technical solution is a new treatment plant adjacent and to the south of the
administration buildings of the existing plant, and adopting the IFAS system.
iii.
In view of the fact that the IFAS system is effectively a stepped modification of the activated
sludge process which combines activated sludge and fixed film technology, and offers a
flexible solution, it is further recommended that the ToR for the detailed design consultants
specify that the consultants should provide a design based on the IFAS approach, and
optimised for conditions in Darkhan. The ToR should also require that the design consultants
provide designs and specifications which would attract broad international interest in tendering
for the construction, supply, installation, commissioning and operational advice for the plant.
iv.
Specific assurances should be included in the contract documentation to ensure that the
works are guaranteed by the contractor, despite them involving the rehabilitation of existing
structures. It will be the responsibility of the contractor to ensure that the rehabilitated
structures provide the specified design life.
v.
The contractor (or consortium) carrying out the construction and installation works should
provide operational assistance over an extended period (at least 3 years) in order to train Us
Suvag operators or their plant operation contractors.
68
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
4.8
228
Final Report – September 2014
Government Consideration of Recommendations
The client group has reviewed the evaluation prepared by the consultants, and has been informed
of the arguments set out above on a number of occasions. In addition the consultants have made
presentations to both the Darkan Uul aimag Government and Us Suvag on the treatment system
evaluation and the options under consideration. The conclusions and recommendation of this
group have been as set out below:
i.
In its meeting held in December of 2013, the MCUD Project Steering Committee concluded
that a separate meeting involving MCUD, academia, technical experts and specialists, and Us
Suvag should be convened on 27th January 2014 to select the preferred technology for the
WWTP.
ii.
The expert group met and a presentation was made by the consultant team. However, the
group recommended that the MCUD Technical Committee on Water and Wastewater
Infrastructure should consider the options and make a recommendation.
iii.
On 20th February 2014 a meeting of the MCUD Technical Committee on Water and
Wastewater Infrastructure recommended: (i) that the consultants look again at the MBBR and
MBR options for treatment; (ii) that the existing structures of the WWTP should be
rehabilitated if proved to be feasible; and (iii) that a modified ASP technology – such as the
IFAS system - should be adopted which is proven suitable for Mongolian conditions.
iv.
At the MCUD Steering Committee meeting held on Wednesday April 2nd 2014 it was
concluded that: (i) the proposed design capacity of 20,000 cum/day should be reviewed and
confirmed by the consultants based on projections of future wastewater generation rates; (ii)
that the most appropriate and up-to-date technology should be used for the plant; (iii) that the
committee supported the adoption of the modified activated sludge process (the three sludge
or Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge (IFAS) process) for the Darkhan WWTP, and that
the existing structures should be used where feasible, and where consistent with the treatment
plant adopting the most modern treatment approaches.
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
5 THE INVESTMENT PROJECT
229
The work carried out during the preparation of this Draft Final Report has enabled the team time to
identify the preferred approach to the investment project, and confirm project components. The
proposed project has been reviewed by: (i) the Project Steering Committee of MCUD; (ii) the
MCUD Technical Committee on Water and Wastewater Infrastructure; and (iii) the Darkhan Uul
Government. All have supported and endorsed the approach adopted and selection of treatment
technology and project components.
Project Rationale
5.1
230
The rationale for the project is threefold:
i.
firstly, the existing wastewater management system is under strain, and performance in the
sector is compromised by obsolete facilities and equipment; this puts the system at risk of
failure;
ii.
secondly, the city is identified by Government as a model industrial city and the target of future
industrial investment. Industries are often heavy users of water and thus producers of large
volumes of wastewater; lack of adequate wastewater facilities could compromise this
investment, and thus the city’s role as a modern industrial centre;
iii.
thirdly, the Kharaa river presents a sensitive ecosystem and is a source of replenishment for
Lake Baikal – a UNESCO world heritage site. Even when functioning well, the current
treatment plant does not satisfy discharge standards for nutrients, leading to elevated nutrient
levels in the river and consequent algal blooms.
Project Impact and Outcome
5.2
231
The Design and Monitoring Framework (DMF) presented at Appendix J sets out the project impact,
outcome, outputs and inputs, and specifies the performance indicators and means of verification,
and the key risks and assumptions.
5.2.1
232
The goals of the project are: (i) to make a significant and measurable contribution to improving the
urban environment of Darkhan city; and (ii) to improve the water quality of the Kharaa River to
meet international river quality standards.
5.2.2
233
Project Outcomes
The intended outcomes from the project will be improved management and treatment of both
industrial and domestic wastewaters delivered through more efficient and effective technology,
processes and procedures.
5.2.3
234
Project Goals
Project Outputs
The project outputs will be:
i.
A new and more efficient wastewater treatment plant constructed and operating at the location
of the existing plant, and providing optimal energy recovery and sludge handling capacity.
ii.
Rehabilitation and equipment replacement at pump stations, and replacement of critical
sections of the sewer network which have failed.
iii.
Enhanced wastewater management and treatment capacities developed in Us Suvag staff.
70
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
iv.
Optimal and sustainable operational arrangements for the wastewater management and
treatment system established.
v.
Efficient and effective project execution and implementation.
5.2.4
235
Final Report – September 2014
Project Inputs
Investment funding from the Asian Development Bank in the amount of US$ 18.5 million
equivalent, with balance of funds required from Government of Mongolia, to fund: (i) a new
wastewater treatment plant, rehabilitating and re-utilising some of the structures of the existing
plant; (ii) replacement of pumps and critical repairs to the pump stations and sewerage network;
(iii) support to institutional reform and capacity development for Us Suvag; and (iv) support to
project management and operation.
5.2.5
Special Features
236
Wastewater treatment plants are complex systems which rely on a series of sensitive physical,
biological and (sometimes) chemical processes to achieve optimal treatment results. While this
technical assistance has evaluated the possible treatment options and selected the most
appropriate systems for Darkhan, the specific design of the treatment plant, and the way in which it
is operated, will need to respond precisely to the conditions in Darkhan and the nature of the
wastewater, and the way in which this will change over time with the addition of new generators of
effluent.
237
The processes of design, construction and operation of the plant are intimately linked, and equally,
there are a large number of ways to achieve the optimal result. The design and procurement
process for the treatment facility needs to recognise this fact, and innovative mechanism need to
be developed to ensure that design, construction and operational phases are integrated is such a
way as to optimise the opportunities for the best and most efficient system to be selected.
238
This also relates to risk. The traditional procurement modality which involves tender-designtender-construct-operate exposes the owner (in this case the aimag government and Us Suvag) to
all the project risk. If there are contract overruns as a result of design issues exposed during
construction, the aimag Government or Us Suvag will have to bear all the additional costs. Equally,
if there are system problems exposed during operation beyond the normal contract liability period,
the aimag Government or Us Suvag will bear the additional costs. The project needs to seek an
improved basis under which to procure required design, construction and operational support
services, and should examine alternative options for management of the assets created under the
project.
239
There needs to be a mechanism which can allow the designers and constructers of the plant to
take a measure of responsibility for its performance. Equally the operational and maintenance
arrangements need to be capable of operating the plant optimally – as specified in the design and
allowed for by faithful construction and equipment fabrication, and installation according to the
design and specifications.
5.3
5.3.1
The Proposed Project
Project Description
240
To achieve the objectives outlined above, and in accordance with the options evaluation, the
Project will comprise three parts: (i) Part A: priority wastewater management improvements; (ii)
Part B: institutional reform and capacity development; and (iii) Part C: project management
support. The project parts are as described below:
241
Part A: Environmental improvements through new and upgraded wastewater infrastructure and
improved and more efficient treatment capacity in Darkhan. This will include two components:
Component A1 is the construction of a new wastewater treatment plant at the same site as the
existing WWTP in northern Old Darkan. Component A2 involves the replacement of three elements
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
of the sewerage system and the rehabilitation of the intermediate sewage pumping stations at the
industrial estate and in Old Darkhan.
242
Component (A1): Wastewater Treatment Plant. A new central wastewater treatment plant
(CWWTP) for Darkhan adopting IFAS technology, will treat all wastewater from residential areas in
New and Old Darkhan and all wastewater (un-treated, and where necessary, pre-treated) from the
Darkhan industrial area. The new WWTP will be constructed within the same footprint of the
existing WWTP (see Figure 5.1) except that it will occupy a smaller area, reusing only some of the
structural elements of the existing plant. The new WWTP will have the following characteristics:
i.
First Phase treatment capacity: 16,000 cum per day (in two streams of bioreactors with one
standby stream) with capability to extend to 20,000 cum per day (approximately 150,000
population equivalent at Darkhan flow rates). Modular design to allow ready addition of further
treatment streams as wastewater flows increase (a cost efficient approach). The new modules
may utilise additional elements of the existing plant as increasing flow rates justify their
reconstruction or replacement.
ii.
The wastewater treatment system improvement and reconstruction will comprise:
iii.

renovation of the existing inlet works and pump station, and replacement of screening
equipment (2 streams) and duty (2 no.) and standby (1 no.) pumping sets;

complete reconstruction of preliminary treatment works (replacement of sand and grit
settling and grease removal structures, and installation of new sand elevators and venturi
flume flow measurement equipment);

complete rehabilitation and reconstruction of the existing northern-most primary clarifier
including removal of all redundant equipment and structural elements, and reconstruction
(as necessary) and lining of the structure and equipping with mixers to function as an
equalisation basin;

demolition and complete reconstruction on the same site of the existing northernmost two
sections of the ASP biological treatment reactor to make way for reactors to provide an
integrated fixed film activated sludge process which will combine the features of activated
sludge and fixed biofilm technologies in a series of reactor tanks. The tanks will be
arranged in three parallel streams to facilitate operational flexibility, with two operational
and one standby stream;

complete rehabilitation and reconstruction of the existing northern-most secondary
clarifier including removal of all redundant equipment and structural elements and
reconstruction (as necessary) and lining of the structure and equipping with mixers to
function as a sludge settling and thickening tank, and installation of new sludge pumps;

installation of new blowers in the existing blower building and addition of sludge
coagulation equipment and a sludge filter press, and necessary ventilation equipment;
and,

rehabilitation of pipework and structural elements of the existing sludge drying beds and
oxidation ponds to provide tertiary treatment, provision of ultraviolet disinfection
equipment and rehabilitation of the exiting outfall sewer to the Kharaa river.
In view of doubts about the viability of waste sludge from the system being digested to
produce bio-gas to offset energy costs, it is proposed that the filter press be introduced to
reduce sludge volume prior to discharge to sludge drying beds. The biological process will
produce a well-mineralised sludge which will be dewatered using the filter press from which it
will be conveyed to the sludge drying beds. The dried sludge can ultimately be reused as
organic fertilizer. In addition, the maturation ponds have the potential to be used for fish
72
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
farming, and the final effluent produced will exceed the Mongolian standard for discharge to
waterways.
243
A layout for the proposed treatment configuration is provided at Figure 5.2 which highlights in blue
those elements which will be rehabilitated and used as an IFAS system. The arrangements for
maintaining treatment capacity during rehabilitation and reconstruction of the new plant will involve
temporary use of the other treatment units which are currently not utilised. The process and
sequencing for this is provided at Appendix C.
244
Component (A2): Infrastructure Replacement/Rehabilitation.
Replacement and/or
rehabilitation of critical elements of the existing sewer network, pumps and ancillary facilities which
are currently broken or beyond their useful economic life, located at various points within the city
network. All works will follow existing pipeline alignments, or be located at existing facilities (e.g.
pump stations). The priority sub-projects comprise:
245
246
i.
Tertiary sewers at primary “new” south pumping station: 1,400m x 1 m dia.;
ii.
Tertiary sewers at old Darkhan hospital No. 2: 300m x 0.3 m dia.;
iii.
Bypass main at secondary pumping station: 100m x 0.8 m dia.; and
iv.
Repair works, now duty and standby pumps, and 6Kw power distribution networks at both
primary “new” and secondary pumping stations. (details of pump station rehabilitation works
and equipment replacements are provided at Appendix M)
Component B: Institutional reform and capacity development of Darkhan Us Suvag The
project will provide support to Us Suvag to assist in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of
the organisation and its ability to manage the wastewater treatment plant. Components will
include:
i.
Strengthening the institutional structure
ii.
Management and technical training in systems operation, facilities management etc.
iii.
Development of job descriptions and career development guidelines
iv.
Reform to the tariff structure
v.
Support to management on contracting out as a way to improve efficiency.
Component C: Project management support to the project executing and implementing
agencies (MCUD and Darkhan-Uul aimag/Us Suvag)
i.
Support in establishment of Project Implementation Unit
ii.
Project design and pre-construction support in detailed design/employers requirements
iii.
Project management support in procurement, tender evaluation and contract management
5.3.2
247
Project Base Costs
Base capital costs are as follows in Tables 5.1 5.2 and 5.3 below. Table 1 shows the base cost for
the IFAS system using some rehabilitated units of the existing facility. For comparison, the capital
costs for all four treatment options are provided in Table 5.3 below, although since Option 1 has
now been selected as the preferred option, this option is highlighted.
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Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Table 5.1: Treatment Plant Base Capital Costs in US$ million
Costs for Three Streams of IFAS Design Flow 20,000 cum/day
Capital Cost Item
Site Preparation
Base Cost
US$
0.018
Earthworks
0.016
Civil Works - Concreting and Lining
1.492
Blowers, Pumps and Media
6.487
Electrical equipment & control panels
0.340
Automatic Control System
0.200
Interconnecting pipe works
0.120
Centralized heat supply of sewage treatment plants, (1500 m)
Rehabilitation of Sludge Drying Beds and Oxidation Ponds
0.674
Start-up and Adjustment Works
0.150
Other Ancillary Items
0.600
0.600
10.697
Total
Table 5.2: Capital Cost for Critical Sewer System Improvements
Item
Capital Cost Item
1
Re-development of the primary sewage pumping station at
the south industrial zone (pumping station № 1)
2
Reconstruction of secondary pump station in Old Darkhan
(pumping station № 2)
3
Trunk sewer to Primary sewage pumping station D = 800
mm, L=1400m
4
Secondary sewer near the Second Hospital D=250mm,
L=600m
5
Overflow Input pipe to secondary sewage pumping station No.
2, D= 1m; L=100.0m
6
Miscellaneous Items
Expenditure category
Cost in US$ million
Civil Works
0.100
Pumps and electrical control equipment
Civil Works
Pumps and electrical control equipment
Civil Works
0.320
0.020
0.400
0.548
Civil works
0.035
0.044
Civil works
Gates, valves etc. equipment
0.020
Sub-total
Contingencies
7
1.907
Total Estmated Costs
2.193
0.286
Table 5.3: Project Base Capital Costs in US$ Million
Components
Option 1
A.1. WWTP Construction
10.679
A.2. Rehabilitation and Renovation of Existing Facilities
1.349
B. Institutional development & capacity building
1.566
C. Start-up, Project Management & Supervision
0.992
Total A, B & C
14.584
Physical Contingency
1.154
Price Contingency
1.562
Contingencies
2.716
Project Cost
17.300
Project Cost, MNT million
29,237
Option 2
18.262
1.349
1.566
0.992
22.168
1.761
3.869
5.630
27.798
46,978
Option 3
15.924
1.349
1.566
0.992
19.830
1.574
3.069
4.643
24.473
41,359
Option 4
15.225
1.349
1.566
0.992
19.131
1.518
2.865
4.383
23.513
39,738
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
5.3.3
Final Report – September 2014
Project Operation and Maintenance
248
The operation and maintenance arrangements for the proposed new treatment plant will be
determined following: (i) the detailed assessment of the structure, skills and capability of Us Suvag
wastewater management staff and systems; (ii) determination of the treatment system to be
constructed in Darkhan, and its operational and maintenance characteristics and requirements;
and (iii) the modality for project procurement and possible opportunities for outsourcing.
249
The estimated operational and maintenance costs for the four treatment system options under
consideration are shown in Table 4.5 below.
Table 5.4: Annual Operational Costs for Treatment System
250
Although the pump station at the treatment plant itself will fall under the operational arrangements
to be adopted for the treatment plant, the sewer network, and associated primary and secondary
pump stations, will remain under the direct operational responsibility of Us Suvag.
75
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Figure 5.1 Location and Approximate Footprint of Proposed New WWTP
Area currently covered by maturation
ponds and sludge drying beds: 120 ha.
Existing Mechanical Plant
Location and Footprint: 3 ha.
New Plant Location and
Approximate Footprint: 2 ha.
New Plant Location and
Approximate Footprint: 2 ha.
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
Figure 5.2 Treatment Plant Layout as new Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge Plant
77
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
5.3.4
Implementation Schedule
Figure 4.2: Implementation Schedule for Modified Bioreactor/Activated Sludge process (3 sludges system) - Base Costs US$M
2014
Description
Q. I
Q. II
Q. III
2015
Q. IY
Q. I
Q. II
2016
Q.III
Q. IY
Q. I
Q. II
Q.III
2017
Q. IY
Q. I
Q. II
Q. III
2018
Q. IY
Q. I
Q. II
Q. III
Processing, approval and and loan
negotiations and signing
Satisty Loan preconditions, recruitm ent
and estabilishm ent of PIU
Preparation and tender of design contract
Design and contract docum ents
preparation and tender for w orks &
equipm ent procurem ent
Supply and storage of im ported
equipm ent for WWTP
Supply and storage of im ported
equipm ent for Pum p Stations
Repair and reconstruction of the
secondary pum p station
Repair and reconstruction of pum ping
station of South industrial zone
Supply of industrial sew age to the sew age
pum ping station D = 800 m m , L=1400m
Partial renovation of pressure m ain
dow nstream of South industrial zone
sew age pum p station D = 500 m m ,
L=3,200m
$ 0.40
$ 6.75
$ 0.42
$ 0.42
$ 0.42
$ 0.548
$ 0.032
Centralized heat supply of sew age
treatm ent plants, L=3000m
$ 0.69
Sew er pipe near the second Center of
health protection D=250m m , L=600m
$0.035
Input pipe to the sew age pum ping station
No. 2, L=200.0m
Construction of sew age treatm ent plant
and equipm ent intsallation. Q = 20,000
m 3/day
$ 0.022
$ 5.18
Installation of autom atic control system
for WWTP
$ 0.2
Training for operation and m aintenance of
WWTP
$ 0.02
Com m issioning and adjustm ent of WWTP
w orks
$ 0.15
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
6 PROJECT ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL
FEASIBILITY ASSESSMENT
6.1
6.1.1
Economic Analysis
Introduction
251
The project will support improvement of the city’s wastewater management, its central wastewater
treatment plant (WWTP), sewer system, and pumping stations. The city’s WWTP, and the sanitary
sewer system and pumping stations, were built in 1965, and partially updated and expanded in
1987. They are in urgent need of structural rehabilitation and technological retrofitting. Breakdowns
of the current system cause untreated water to discharge into the groundwater and the Kharaa
River. Without the project, the existing WWTP would further rapidly deteriorate and fail, as the
remaining life of the facility has been estimated at just 2 years. Moreover, anticipated urban and
industrial growth could not be served by wastewater management services. The project will directly
benefit more than 53,700 residents (66% of the urban population) and with the expanded sewer
system the beneficiary population will further increase to 62,400 residents (70%) by 2030.
Indirectly, more than 68,900 residents (75%) will benefit from the project by 2040. The expected
project benefits include savings from improved plumbing and services, reduced health and medical
costs, addressed environmental concerns, and savings from costs of mitigating overflows polluting
the Kharaa River. The project will also support institutional development, training, project
management, and policy dialogue to ensure economic and financial sustainability.
252
The project economic analysis follows Asian Development Bank guidelines 56 and assesses
economic viability of the least cost alternative using standard cost-benefit analysis. The main
viability parameters applied are the economic internal rate of return (EIRR) and economic net
present value. The project is economically feasible when EIRR exceeds the economic opportunity
cost of capital (EOCC) at 12%. The project is also tested for robustness under adverse economic
conditions including cost overruns, decrease in benefits, and delay in implementation. The analysis
has been undertaken at constant mid-2013 price levels, and assesses the project effects over a
20-year period. Details of project economic analysis are provided in Appendix T.
6.1.2
Project Economic Rationale, Goals, and Strategies
253
Government intervention for project financing is required to ensure that urban and industrial
development in Darkhan is not hindered by deteriorating wastewater management facilities. The
water and wastewater utility company, Darkhan Us Suvag (DUS), has experienced operational
losses for the past several years. Main causes for losses are dilapidated facilities and networks,
operational and management inefficiencies, and tariffs below cost recovery. Without external
support, DUS cannot respond to need for improved and expanded system which in turn will affect
the economy. Users are willing to pay higher tariffs for the benefits of improved services and
approval for tariffs increases is pending.57.
254
The project is designed to (i) increase efficiency and effectiveness of the WWTP,
(ii) enhance
cost recovery through increased efficiency and expanded demand-based services delivery, (iii)
ensure economic sustainability through cost-based and affordable tariffs,
(iv) safeguard
public health by reducing incidence of water- and vector-borne diseases, and
(v) stimulate
economic activity. The project is considered high priority, timely, and well-integrated with other
investment activities in the city and in the region, e.g., Cities Development Initiative for Asia
initiatives. Improved efforts at cost recovery and operation and maintenance (O&M) positively
impact on willingness to pay (WTP) of existing and potential customers.
56
57
ADB, 1999, Handbook for the Economic Analysis of Water Supply Projects; ADB, 1998, Guidelines for the
Economic Analysis of Water Supply Projects. Manila.
The tariff application submitted in 2013 is expected to be implemented in 2014 upon approval by the National
Water Supply Regulatory Commission and the Competition and Consumer Rights Agency.
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
255
Final Report – September 2014
To ensure sustainability of the project and overall operation of DUS, in addition to tariff increases,
there is a need for the Darkhan-Uul Aimag government (DAG) to provide counterpart funding for
capital investment needs during construction, and subsidize unforeseen O&M costs that may result
in net losses during operation.58 These subsidies will need to be assured by DAG to DUS. The
DAG will need to source additional transfers from higher government (provincial and/or national
level) through its annual budget for infrastructure support.
6.1.3
Project Alternatives and Least Cost Analysis
256
A range of technical alternatives has been developed, compared, and evaluated. Four options
emerged as most technically and financially feasible and most suitable for Darkhan: (i) Option 1:
Rehabilitation of existing activated sludge plant (ASP) with integrated fixed-film activated sludge
technology; (ii) Option 2: New step-feed ASP; (iii) Option 3: New sequencing batch reactor plant;
and (iv) Option 4: Hybrid, modified bioreactor and ASP, integrated fixed film activated sludge
system.
257
Based on an engineering assessment, no clear “best option” in terms of qualitative and quantitative
advantages was identified. All options potentially provide a level of wastewater treatment adequate
to satisfy Mongolian wastewater discharge standards. The lifetime costs of the four options do not
differ widely, and O&M costs only differ marginally. However, the reuse of structural elements of
the existing plant did provide savings in capital cost.
258
In determining the least cost alternative among the technical options, the average incremental
economic cost (AIEC) approach is adopted. In the analysis, AIEC calculates the present value of
incremental investment and O&M costs against the present value of incremental wastewater
production (output) to arrive at the cost per cubic meter (MNT/m3) of the project alternative. Costs
and output are based on with- and without-project scenarios, and discounted using the economic
discount rate at 12%. The least cost alternative is Option 1, the selected solution with combined
capital and operating costs (lifetime cost) at MNT 35,664 million and the resulting AIEC at MNT
5,931/m3. Table 6.1 presents the least cost analysis results.
Table 6.1. Least Cost Analysis of Technical Options1
Item
Unit
Option1
Option2
Option3
Capital and O&M Costs
MNT mill
35,664
47,165
44,650
3
Demand
m million
6.013
6.013
6.013
AIEC
MNT/m3
5,931
7,844
7,426
Option4
44,037
6.013
7,324
AIEC = average incremental economic cost, m 3 = cubic meter, MNT/m3 = cost per cubic meter, O&M =
operation and maintenance.
1/
Calculated in equivalent net present value (NPV).
Source: Consultant estimates.
6.1.4
259
58
Cost and Benefit Analysis
Economic costs. Project demand and cost are based on with- and without-project scenarios,
assessed over a 25-year period. Economic costs are in constant December 2013 prices, converted
from financial costs using domestic price numeraire. The financial investment cost is converted into
economic cost by excluding taxes and duties, as well as price contingencies, and using conversion
factors where appropriate. The financial O&M cost of the proposed physical works, including staff
salaries and other recurrent costs, are converted to economic costs by excluding effects of
inflation, taxes and duties, and other transfer payments using shadow pricing. Capital and O&M
costs are distributed into traded and non-traded components, and skilled and unskilled labor. The
shadow wage rate factor assumed in the analysis is 0.8 for unskilled labor and 1.0 for skilled labor,
and 1.03 shadow exchange rate factor for traded goods. Unskilled labor comprises 30% of total
labor requirement.
The Linked Document on Financial Analysis discusses the fiscal impact analysis and finds that the project fund
requirements (O&M costs and project debt service) to be between 0.4% and 3.3% of the total revenue. Fiscal risk
is considered to be moderate.
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
260
Economic benefits. Project economic benefits arise from non-incremental and incremental
wastewater generation estimated at 80% of water consumption. Non-incremental wastewater
consists of wastewater from the existing collection system. As DUS implements programmed
improvements and additions to the existing water supply system, supplies to existing consumers
are augmented and excess volume made available to new consumers. In the without-project
scenario, the existing WWTP will not have the capacity to handle augmented supplies from the
planned expansion of the water supply system. These additional supplies comprise incremental
water, later processed through the sewerage system to be collected as incremental wastewater.
261
Currently, DUS reports average domestic water consumption comprising residential, institutional,
and commercial entities at 120 liters per capita per day (lcd). Industrial consumption is at 12 cubic
meters per day per establishment. Based on engineering estimates on non-connected population,
domestic consumption averages 80 lcd. Wastewater generation is at 80% of these volumes, which
for purposes of the analysis is assumed in the without-project situation. In establishing nonincremental and incremental wastewater, the with- and without-project situation is compared and
analyzed. Table 6.2 presents the per capita wastewater projection for connected and nonconnected users under the with- and without-project situation.
Table 6.2. Incremental and Non-incremental Demand
Particulars
Unit
2012
2015
2020
2025
2030
Without project
Connected Population
no.
38,077
39,371 39,371 39,371 39,371
Domestic
lcd
89
96
96
96
96
Industrial
m3d
9
9
9
9
9
Non-connected population
no.
11,207 14,365 17,106 19,987 23,015
Consump per cap/unit
lcd
60
64
64
64
64
Industrial
m3d
9
9
9
9
9
With project
Connected population
no.
38,077 39,371 39,371 39,371 39,371
Domestic
Lcd
89
102
107
112
118
Industrial
m3d
9
9
9
9
9
New consumers
no.
14,365 17,106 19,987 23,015
Domestic
lcd
60
102
107
112
118
Industrial
m3d
9
9
9
9
9
Non-incremental
Connected population
Domestic
lcd
89
96
96
96
96
Industrial
m3d
9
9
9
9
9
Incremental
Connected population
Domestic
lcd
6
11
17
22
Industrial
m3d
New consumers (from Non-connected population)
Domestic
lcd
60
102
107
112
118
Industrial
m3d
9
9
9
9
9
2035
2040
39,371
96
9
26,197
64
9
39,371
96
9
29,542
64
9
39,371
120
9
26,197
120
9
39,371
120
9
29,542
120
9
96
9
96
9
24
24
120
9
120
9
lcd = liters per capital per day; m3d = cubic meters per day.
Source: Consultant estimates.
262
The analysis assumes that non-connected population will eventually connect to the system once
improvements are in place. Wastewater from these new connections are treated in the analysis as
incremental volume. Non-incremental demand derives from existing connected population.
Additional or incremental wastewater is generated from existing connections as a result of
augmented supplies and general economic development and improved well-being.
263
Economic benefits are estimated using the WTP approach. A survey was conducted in Darkhan to
determine consumer WTP for expected project benefits including savings from improved plumbing
and services, reduced health and medical costs, addressed environmental concerns, and savings
from costs of mitigating overflows polluting the Kharaa River. The survey reveals that 80% of
respondents are satisfied with current sewerage service, however they are largely unaware of
81
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
sanitation issues in their communities. The mean WTP, from the household survey, for wastewater
treatment services is calculated at MNT1,076 per cubic meter 59.
264
The non-incremental benefits are valued using the economic supply price. The value of
incremental benefits is obtained by multiplying incremental volume by the WTP or demand price.
265
EIRR and Sensitivity Analysis. The cost and benefit streams are established using the
assumptions described above, discounted at EOCC at 12%. The proposed project is economically
viable with EIRR at 13.0%, exceeding the EOCC. The economic net present value is calculated to
be MNT 1,241 million.
266
The survey also explored potential benefits of improved environment of the Kharaa River and
wastewater reuse. Of the residents, 83% are concerned about environmental degradation of the
Kharaa River and 64% support reuse of grey water, with 41% willing to reuse grey water to flush
toilets. About 68% indicated that they are willing to pay an average of MNT 15,100 for
improvements that would allow bathing and other recreational activities in the river. There was also
an average WTP of MNT 10,000 for reuse of water for industries and households. The levels of
WTP for potential benefits indicate that net economic benefits, and thus EIRR, are higher.
267
The resulting EIRR is tested for sensitivity to adverse economic conditions, including (i) increase
in economic capital cost by 10%, (ii) increase in economic O&M cost by 10%,
(iii) decrease in
benefits by 10%, (iv) ) combined increase in costs and decrease in benefits by 10%, and (v) oneyear delay in project implementation. The results show that the project remains robust despite 10%
cost overruns, but falling below the EOCC with a decrease in benefits and delay in implementation.
Combined cost overruns and decrease in benefits result in 7.5% EIRR, with ENPV at minus MNT
6,738 million. Switching values measure the changes in costs and benefits under the same
scenarios with EIRR set at 12% and ENPV at zero. The sensitivity indicators reflect the changes in
EIRR and ENPV relative to the changes in the variables. The high value of an indicator represents
high sensitivity to the variable. Table 6.3 presents the discounted cash flow analysis.
59
The WTP value was estimated using maximum, mean and median averages. The mean average at MNT 1,076 per
cubic meter was used in the analysis. The specific question asked of sample households is: Assume that the
improvement of WTTP of Darkhan city would require your household to pay following amount of additional tax per
year (during five years), assuming that other households also pay their fair share: Set 1 Respondents: 10.0 thousand
MNT; Set 2 Respondents: 15.0 thousand MNT; Set 3 Respondents: 20.0 thousand MNT; Set 4 Respondents: 25.0
thousand MNT; Set 5 Respondents: 30.0 thousand MNT.
82
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Table 6.3: Economic Internal Rate of Return and Sensitivity Analysis (MNT million, in constant 2014 prices)
Year
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
Total
4,130
4,202
4,276
4,352
4,429
5,157
5,249
5,342
5,438
5,535
5,800
5,902
6,006
6,113
6,222
7,077
7,177
7,278
7,381
7,485
7,591
7,681
7,773
7,866
7,960
8,055
EIRR
ENPV
36,868
Sensitivity Indicator EIRR
Sensitivity Indicator ENPV
Switching Value EIRR
Switching Value ENPV
Incrementl
Value
Non-incrmtal
Value
Total
Capital
O&M
Base
Case
Cap Cost+
10%
2,629
2,701
2,774
2,848
2,924
3,502
3,594
3,688
3,784
3,882
3,982
4,084
4,189
4,295
4,404
5,169
5,267
5,367
5,469
5,572
5,677
5,767
5,859
5,952
6,046
6,141
1,501
1,501
1,502
1,503
1,504
1,656
1,655
1,654
1,654
1,653
1,817
1,818
1,818
1,818
1,818
1,909
1,910
1,911
1,912
1,913
1,914
1,914
1,914
1,914
1,914
1,914
4,785
12,529
10,951
8,633
3,463
2,026
2,080
2,137
2,195
2,254
2,316
2,384
2,455
2,529
2,604
2,682
2,759
2,838
2,919
3,002
3,088
3,173
3,261
3,352
3,444
3,539
3,036
10,728
9,096
6,723
1,496
-
1,749
1,801
1,855
1,910
1,967
2,026
2,080
2,137
2,195
2,254
2,316
2,384
2,455
2,529
2,604
2,682
2,759
2,838
2,919
3,002
3,088
3,173
3,261
3,352
3,444
3,539
(655)
(8,327)
(6,675)
(4,281)
965
3,132
3,169
3,206
3,243
3,281
3,484
3,517
3,551
3,584
3,618
4,396
4,418
4,440
4,462
4,483
4,504
4,508
4,511
4,514
4,516
4,516
( 959)
(9,400)
(7,584)
(4,953)
816
3,132
3,169
3,206
3,243
3,281
3,484
3,517
3,551
3,584
3,618
4,396
4,418
4,440
4,462
4,483
4,504
4,508
4,511
4,514
4,516
4,516
25,277
11,592
35,664
20,409
15,255
13.0%
1,204
11.4%
(836)
16.27
16.94
0.06
0.06
O&M Cost+
10%
Benefit10%
(830)
(8,507)
(6,860)
(4,472)
769
2,929
2,960
2,992
3,024
3,055
3,253
3,279
3,305
3,331
3,357
4,128
4,142
4,157
4,170
4,183
4,195
4,191
4,185
4,179
4,171
4,162
(1,068)
(8,747)
(7,102)
(4,716)
522
2,616
2,644
2,671
2,699
2,727
2,904
2,927
2,950
2,973
2,995
3,688
3,701
3,713
3,724
3,735
3,745
3,740
3,734
3,727
3,720
3,710
11.7%
(321)
12.64
12.67
0.08
0.08
10.0%
(2,482)
30.38
30.61
0.03
0.03
Costs+, Bene10%
Delay
by 1-year
(1,547)
(10,000)
(8,197)
(5,580)
176
2,413
2,436
2,458
2,480
2,502
2,673
2,689
2,705
2,720
2,735
3,420
3,425
3,429
3,432
3,434
3,436
3,422
3,408
3,392
3,375
3,357
(4,785)
(8,400)
(6,749)
(4,357)
888
2,403
3,077
3,112
3,148
3,184
3,220
3,415
3,447
3,478
3,509
3,540
4,319
4,339
4,359
4,379
4,397
4,418
4,420
4,421
4,421
4,420
7.5%
(6,775)
55.23
66.25
0.02
0.02
9.9%
(3,083)
95.42
108.96
0.10
0.01
83
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
6.2
6.2.1
268
Final Report – September 2014
Financial Analysis
Introduction
Financial analysis was conducted for the Darkhan Wastewater Management Project following ADB
guidelines60 including: (i) project financial viability analysis; (ii) assessment of affordability and
willingness to pay; (iii) assessment of operational and financial strength of the operator, Darkhan
Us Suvag (DUS), the city’s utility company; and (iv) fiscal impact assessment of Darkhan UulAimag government (DAG), the implementing agency and end-borrower of the loan, to ensure
capacity for timely provision of counterpart funds, debt servicing and operating and maintenance
(O&M) costs. Details of the analysis are provided in Appendix T.
6.2.2
Financial Viability Analysis
269
Assumptions. Financial projection covers 25 years to compute the required annual revenues to
ensure the cumulative cash flow would meet cash operating costs, depreciation, and debt service.
Cost streams to calculate FIRR comprise capital investment and O&M costs. Capital costs include
the project costs for the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), pump stations and sewer pipe
rehabilitation. O&M costs include personnel salaries, cost of chemicals and agents, utilities,
maintenance, administration and overheads. Revenues come from wastewater treatment fees.
Demand projections are based on growth of population connected to the sewer network, estimated
at 45,000 in 2013 growing at an average of 1.04% annually. Daily per capita water use is estimated
at 125-150 liters and Industrial water consumption was assessed based on actual and projected
use. Wastewater generation is assumed at 80% of water consumption. Income tax is assumed at
10%. Foreign exchange rate used in the analysis is MNT 1,690 to $1.00. Inflation rates applied are:
for foreign, -1.6% in 2013, 2.3% in 2014, 2.4% in 2015, and 1.4% in 2016 onwards; for local, 9.5%
in 2013, 10% in 2014, and 8% in 2015 onwards.
270
Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC). If the financial internal rate of return (FIRR) exceeds
the WACC, the project is deemed financially viable. The nominal interest rates applied are: (i) ADBADF loan 2.0% per annum, (ii) ADB-OCR61 loan 3.18% per annum, and (iii) Government
contribution 15% based on prevailing commercial bank rates, representing the opportunity cost of
capital. Foreign inflation is at 1.4% for ADB loan, and local inflation at 9% for the government
contribution. The interest rates are computed on after-tax basis, resulting in a WACC in real terms
of 1.41%. The project capital investment amounts to MNT 34,957, of which MNT 31,268 million will
be financed by ADB, and MNT 3,689 by the government. Table 6.4 presents the WACC
calculation.
Amount
Weighting
Nominal cost
Tax rate
Tax-adjusted nominal cost
Inflation rate
Real cost
Real WACC
Table 6.4. Weighted Average Cost of Capital
Unit
Total Cost
ADF Loan
OCR Loan
34,957
15,333
MNT million
15,935
%Total
100.0%
43.8%
45.6%
2.0%
3.18%
10%
10%
1.8%
2.9%
1.4%
1.4%
7.3%
0.4%
1.4%
1.41%
0.17%
0.66%
Government
3,689
10.6%
15.0%
0%
15.0%
9.0%
5.5%
0.58%
ADF = Asian Development Fund; OCR = Ordinary Capital Resources; MOF = Ministry of Finance.
Source: Consultant estimates
271
Cost recovery. DUS has been operating at a loss in three of the past four years, incurring a net
loss of MNT 717 million ($0.42 million) at the end of 2012 and at the end of 2013 the deficit was
expected to reach MNT 374 million. DAG provides budget support for cost recovery, in part from
60 ADB 1999, Handbook for the Economic Analysis of Water Supply Projects. ADB. 2005, Financial Management and
Analysis of Projects. ADB 2009, Financial Due Diligence: A Methodology Note.
61 LIBOR-based, using US dollar fixed-swap rate at 2.58% p.a., plus ADB spread at 0.50% and premium at 0.10% .
84
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
national government transfers. It is estimated that DAG will need to provide an estimated MNT 374
million to cover losses expected at end-2013. With timely and appropriately set tariffs starting 2015
there will be no further operational subsidy required from DAG.
272
Tariffs. Current water and wastewater tariffs differentiate between domestic and non-domestic
customers. In 2013, over 90% of connections in Darkhan were metered and it is expected to be
100% in 2014. At full operation of the project in 2017, all current tariffs will be volumetric, in line
with national policy. Current tariffs are categorized based on domestic and non-domestic type
connections and uniformly applied across Darkhan City. Since October 2010 water and wastewater
tariffs remained at the same levels. The proposed WWTP project will entail increases in O&M costs
due to larger treatment volume and debt service obligations. To recover costs, tariffs need to be
adjusted and an application to approve tariff increases was submitted to the various agencies
including MOF, National Water Source Regulatory Committee (NWSRC) for final approval by the
Competition and Consumer Rights Agency (CCRA). The tariff adjustment is anticipated to be
approved in 2014. Approval is needed to cover losses from previous years. To attain financial selfsufficiency for the project in the coming years, it is necessary to increase domestic and nondomestic wastewater tariffs by 20% in 2015, 10% in 2020 and 2025, and 5% in 2030 and 2035. To
ensure profitability for overall operations, water supply tariffs should likewise be adjusted by 30%
every three years starting 2015. Table 6.5 presents the tariff schedule.
Table 6.5. Schedule of Anticipated Tariff Increases, MNT per m3
Wastewater
2011-14
2015-19
2020-24
2025-29
2030-34
Domestic
700
840
924
1,016
1,067
Non-domestic
1,179
1,414
1,556
1,711
1,797
Average Effective
880
1,061
1,179
1,311
1,392
% Increase
20
10
10
5
Water
2011-14
2015-17
2018-20
2021-23
2024-26
Domestic
650
845
1,098
1,428
1,856
Non-domestic
1,200
1,560
2,028
2,636
3,427
Average Effective
788
1,029
1,349
1,768
2,318
% Increase
30
30
30
30
2035
1,121
1,887
1,484
5
2027-29
2,413
4,456
3,038
30
Source: Consultant estimates, based on DUS projections.
273
FIRR and Sensitivity Analysis. Based on the discounted cash flow analysis, the FIRR for the
proposed WWTP project is 2.4% exceeding the WACC (at 1.41%) with a financial net present
value of MNT 4,920 million over the period. Hence the project is financially viable. Sensitivity tests
are performed to determine the effects on project viability under adverse conditions. Project
remains robust even with a 10% capital cost increase. However, the project becomes infeasible
under other sensitivity scenarios, including a one-year delay in implementation. Table 6.6 shows
the FIRR and sensitivity analysis results. Details of analysis is presented in Table 6.7.
FIRR
FNPV, in MNT million
Table 6.6. FIRR and Sensitivity Analysis Results
Base
Cap Cost
O&M Cost
Revenue Rev +, CostsCase
+20%
+20%
-20%
20%
2.4%
1.8%
1.7%
1.0%
(0.3%)
4,920
1,869
1,478
(2,065)
(8,678)
Delay by
1-year
1.3%
(802)
Source: Consultant estimates.
85
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Table 6.7. Details of FIRR and Sensitivity Analysis
Costs
Year
Revenue
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
FIRR
FNPV
Sensitivity Indicator
FIRR
FNPV
Switching Value
FIRR
FNPV
Capital
O&M
660
769
881
996
1,115
1,636
1,763
1,895
2,031
2,171
2,820
2,997
3,181
3,370
3,565
4,092
4,309
4,533
4,763
5,000
5,644
5,905
6,175
6,453
6,738
7,033
3,216
11,189
9,381
6,860
1,509
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
536
645
750
851
950
1,047
1,136
1,224
1,310
1,394
1,477
1,564
1,650
1,736
1,822
1,908
1,992
2,075
2,160
2,244
2,329
2,413
2,498
2,584
2,671
2,759
69,848
30,508
34,420
Base
Case
(3,091)
(11,065)
(9,250)
(6,716)
(1,344)
589
627
671
721
777
1,342
1,433
1,530
1,634
1,743
2,184
2,318
2,457
2,604
2,756
3,314
3,492
3,677
3,868
4,067
4,274
2.4%
4,920
Cap Cost +
10%
(3,413)
(12,184)
(10,188)
(7,402)
(1,494)
589
627
671
721
777
1,342
1,433
1,530
1,634
1,743
2,184
2,318
2,457
2,604
2,756
3,314
3,492
3,677
3,868
4,067
4,274
1.8%
1,869
Net Inflow (Outflow)
O&M Cost +
Revenue 10%
10%
(3,145)
(3,157)
(11,129)
(11,142)
(9,325)
(9,338)
(6,801)
(6,815)
(1,439)
(1,455)
484
426
513
451
549
482
590
518
637
560
1,195
1,060
1,277
1,133
1,365
1,212
1,460
1,297
1,561
1,387
1,993
1,775
2,119
1,887
2,250
2,004
2,388
2,127
2,532
2,256
3,081
2,750
3,251
2,901
3,427
3,059
3,610
3,223
3,800
3,393
3,998
3,570
1.7%
1.0%
1,478
(2,065)
Costs+, Benefits10%
(3,532)
(12,325)
(10,351)
(7,586)
(1,701)
321
337
359
387
420
913
977
1,047
1,123
1,205
1,584
1,688
1,797
1,911
2,032
2,517
2,660
2,809
2,965
3,126
3,294
-0.3%
(8,678)
Delay
by 1-year
(3,752)
(11,173)
(9,362)
(6,831)
(1,463)
69
500
540
585
637
693
1,256
1,347
1,444
1,548
1,657
2,101
2,234
2,373
2,519
2,671
3,230
3,407
3,591
3,781
3,979
1.3%
(802)
6.41
6.20
6.93
7.00
14.49
14.20
28.10
27.64
16.53
16.51
0.16
0.16
0.14
0.14
0.07
0.07
0.04
0.04
0.06
0.06
86
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
6.2.3
274
Affordability and Willingness to Pay
The affordability analysis examined the levels of water and wastewater expenditures against total
average household incomes. A field survey conducted in January 2014 and DUS statistics
provided the average household size as 4 persons, household water consumption, and household
incomes. Table 6.8 shows the summary affordability analysis for both average- and low-income
households for the periods following the proposed adjustments of wastewater and water tariffs.
Table 6.8. Affordability Analysis
Unit
2015
2018
2020
Average Household
Average HH income a
Average HH sewerage bill
Income spent for sewerage
Average HH water bill
Income spent for water
Combined spending
Low-income Household b
Average HH income
Average HH sewerage bill
Income spent for sewerage
Average HH water bill
Income spent for water
Combined spending
MNT
MNT/mo
MNT/m
rate
rate
MNT
MNT/m
MNT/m
MNT/m
rate
2021
2024
2025
732,335
10,125
1.4%
8,956
1.2%
2.6%
790,922
10,5230
1.3%
14,147
1.8%
3.1%
854,196
11,874
1.4%
15,615
1.8%
3.2%
854,196
11,992
1.4%
21,162
2.5%
3.9%
854,196
12,353
1.4%
30,613
3.6%
5.0%
913,990
13,723
1.5%
31,568
3.5%
5.0%
322,904
6,750
2.1%
5,970
1.8%
3.9%
348,737
7,015
2.0%
9,431
2.7%
4.7%
376,636
7,916
2.1%
10,410
2.8%
4.9%
376,636
7,995
2.1%
14,108
3.7%
5.9%
376,636
8,235
2.2%
20,408
5.4%
7.6%
403,000
9,148
2.3%
21,046
5.2%
7.5%
Source: Consultant estimates.
275
The average household spends between 1.3% and 1.5% of total household income on average for
wastewater services over the period and between 1.2% and 3.6% for water and wastewater
combined. An internationally accepted rule for wastewater tariff affordability is around or below 23% of household average income. Accepted affordability levels for combined water and wastewater
tariff are 6-8% of household income. Hence the proposed tariffs are deemed affordable for average
households.
276
Low-income households with 44% of average income will spend between 2.0% and 2.3% for
wastewater and between 3.9% and 7.6% for combined water and wastewater of the average
income. Hence the proposed tariffs are deemed affordable for low-income households.
277
Based on survey results, the mean willingness to pay (WTP) for a wastewater service fee of
apartment dwellers in Darkhan is MNT 1,076/m3 ($0.64/m3). If WTP amount were an estimate of
actual tariff requirements for cost recovery, then the proposed tariffs shown in Table 2 matches
consumer expectations for benefits of improved service.
6.2.4
Operational and Financial Strength of Darkhan Us Suvag
278
Past Financial Performance. The past financial management of the operator of the project
facilities DUS was assessed to determine its performance in terms of services delivery, profitability
and financial strength for the period of 2009 to 2012. DUS uses the accounting system required by
the government which is based on the accrual method, following international accounting
standards. DUS systems are almost completely computerized.
279
Profit and Loss. Wastewater service revenues grew at a compounded average growth rate
(CAGR) of 4.1%, and water supply revenues grew at 11.5%. In 2012 the O&M cost for water
supply increased without the benefit of a tariff increase, and DAG provided a subsidy to cover. The
2012 increase in other revenue reflected the infusion as mainly interest income. However, the
subsidy was insufficient to cover the debt burden, which increased by 352% from MNT 183 million
in 2011 to MNT 827 million in 2012 which resulted in a net loss of MNT 717 million. In 2013, O&M
cost for water and wastewater increased by 15%, and the 32% increase in revenue failed to cover
the deficit and the DAG subsidy provided was less than in 2012. DUS applied for tariff increase in
2013 and approval remains pending.
87
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
280
Balance Sheets. DUS fixed assets reflected the magnitude of system expansion of 270% between
2010 and 2011. The improvements were funded by capital infusion from several short-term
commercial loans amounting to MNT 1,540 million with interest rates of between 1.0 to 1.8% per
month, payable in 3-12 months. The current ratio (current assets to current liabilities) averages 2.0.
Current assets comprise 73% receivables, 3% cash, and 24% inventories and other current assets.
Current liabilities comprise 47% short-term loans, 31% payables and 22% other current payables.
281
Financial Projections. Detailed financial projections are prepared to assess the impact of the
proposed WWTP project on DUS overall operations. Pro-forma statements are utilized to reflect
financial profitability, funds availability and financial position. The projections are in nominal terms,
covering a 25-year period, and follow ADB guidelines.
282
The main financial viability parameters include (i) operating ratio, which should be less than or
equal to unity when the project becomes fully operational, (ii) debt service coverage ratio (DSCR),
at minimum 1.5 average during the loan period, and (iii) tariff affordability, generally acceptable at
maximum 6-8% for water and wastewater. Cost recovery is analysed at different levels: the
projections determine the tariff levels needed to cover O&M costs and debt servicing from the
project and if feasible, depreciation and re-investment margins.
283
Generally, the indicators show a satisfactory forecast for operations starting 2015, with annual net
profits resulting from appropriate tariffs based on cost recovery. The tariff increases during the
period are limited to ensure affordability for the low-income households, and are deemed sufficient,
if implemented as planned. Cash will have accumulated to MNT 889 million by 2025 and all
expenditures will be fully covered. Return on net fixed assets at 8% average compares with
industry average which is 8% for most utilities. The proposed tariffs are structured to fully recover
O&M cost plus debt servicing and depreciation, while ensuring affordability. The operating ratio for
combined O&M for water and wastewater reflects satisfactory compliance of the conditions.
Minimum debt coverage is attained during the loan period, averaging 1.6, higher than the
acceptable industry level at 1.5. Debt to equity and to assets is within acceptable levels at 30% on
average.
6.2.5
Fiscal Impact Assessment of the Project on Darkhan Uul-Aimag Government
284
Historic Revenue and Expenditure. The performance of DAG as end-borrower was analysed to
determine its financial capacity to provide counterpart funds during implementation, and O&M and
debt service during operation. Revenue and expenditure statements in the period of 2009 to 2012
and financial projections until 2030 were carried out to assess financial performance including
capital structure, internal funds generation to support current operations, debt service capacity, and
ability to finance O&M of the project after completion. Central government transfers comprised 88%
of total revenues, and non-tax revenue comprised 12%. 78% of revenues were allocated for the
operations budget, Fiscal expenditures include employee salaries (32%), goods and services
(31%), programs and events (17%), fixed asset utilization (18%), and transfers to Soums, social
welfare, rent and other expenses (2%). The average growth rate for revenue during the period was
33%, and 32 % for expenditures.
285
Results of Fiscal Impact Assessment. Financial projections were prepared based on DAG
historic revenue and expenditure growth patterns of between 20% and 25% annually between
2009 and 2013. Table 6.9 summarizes the effects of project cash requirements on DAG
operations.
Table 6.9. Project Fund Requirements as Percentage of Revenue, in MNT million
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2025
2030
Total Revenues
16,009 20,811 27,055
35,171 45,723 61,726 192,892 565,114
Total Expenditures
15,123 18,148 22,140
27,675 35,147 48,503 178,240 548,014
Project Counterpart
360
1,306
1,079
780
164
% Total expenditures
2.4
7.2
4.9
2.8
0.5
% Total Revenues
2.3
6.3
4.0
2.2
0.4
Project O&M Cost
293
2,269
5,694
% Total Revenues
0.5
1.2
1.0
88
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Project Debt Service
% Total Revenues
Total Funds required
% Total Revenues
2015
360
2.3
2016
1,306
6.3
2017
1,079
4.0
2018
780
2.2
2019
164
0.4
2020
2,021
3.3
2,314
3.7
2025
2,021
1.0
4,290
2.2
2030
2,021
0.4
7,715
1.4
Source: Consultant estimates.
286
As a percentage of annual revenues during the loan grace period from 2015 to 2019, the annual
DAG counterpart funds are estimated at between 0.5% and 7.2% of total annual fiscal
expenditures, and slightly lower at between 0.4% and 6.3% of total annual fiscal revenue. After
project construction, wastewater O&M cost is projected to be between 0.5% and 1.2% of total fiscal
revenue. Project debt service is forecasted to be between 0.4% and 3.3% of total revenue,
averaging 0.8% over the debt payment period. Combining all project fund requirements, the
percentage to total annual fiscal revenue comprises between 0.4% and 6.3% 62. These findings
indicate that the fiscal risk is moderate as fiscal revenue is expected to continue to grow with the
country’s and the local economic and industrial development estimated at 20% annually, as
promoted and supported by the central government.
6.2.6
287
Conclusions
The project is financially viable and sustainable. The DAG assures to provide the subsidies
required to cover O&M costs and debt service, when necessity arises, as well as to cover past
losses. Based on the fiscal impact analysis, the DAG has the financial capacity to provide these
subsidies. The anticipated tariff increases will further ensure the project’s financial sustainability.
However, the financial action plan needs to be implemented, by the DAG, including: (i)
implementing tariff increases as suggested, and (ii) assuring sufficient budget allocation to provide
timely counterpart funding, (iii) allocating and disbursing from the budget the O&M subsidies
needed to recover net losses and ensure O&M sustainability, and (iv) ensuring affordability
assessments and social mitigation measures, including public awareness campaigns, consultation
and participation plan and subsidies programs for the poor and vulnerable are carried out prior to
increasing tariffs for water and wastewater services.
62
Based on generally accepted criteria employed by the World Bank, the counterpart contributions are considered
affordable to the municipality if the required annual amount does not exceed 15–20% of projected annual
construction budget. As this is difficult to assess with available municipal construction budget data, the annual
contribution is compared with overall annual municipal expenditure and also as a share of special infrastructure
projects funded by the government. In the case of debt service, the acceptable standard is that debt service
payments associated with the project should not exceed an average 2.5% of municipal revenues.
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
6.3
6.3.1
Final Report – September 2014
Financial Management and Procurement Assessments
Financial Management Assessment
288
The purpose of the FMA is to analyse the financial management capacity of the executing agency
(EA) and the implementing agency (IA) or unit that will be directly involved in handling and
coordinating project finances. For the proposed WWTP development project for the Darkahn-Uul
PUSO (Us Suvag), the MCUD, which is the same EA managing the existing Urban Development
Sector Project (UDSP), will continue in its role as EA for the new Investment Project which falls
within the overall scope of L2301-MON. The same PMU at MCUD is seen as continuing as the
project manager and overseer of all project-related activities, including major procurement and
funds management. As discussed in the section on project implementation arrangements, the PMU
will establish a project implementing unit (PIU) at the project site in Darkhan Uul at the Aimag with
involvement at the PUSO (Us Suvag) level.
289
Following on from the implementation experience under Loan 2301-MON at Erdenet (mainly in
water and basic urban services at ger areas), the PUSO entered into a sub-loan agreement (SLA)
and on-lending agreement (OLA) with Erdenet Aimag. The Aimag has shown sufficient capability
to manage project funds. Initial institutional assessment of Us Suvag reveals that the PUSO has
the capacity to implement the WWTP project, with some assistance from MCUD and technical
assistance under the loan. As such, FMA was administered to Us Suvag management, particularly
the Accounting Department, to further assess PUSO financial management systems and practices.
290
FMA was previously administered to MCUD as part of the original Urban Development Sector
Project (UDSP) preparation. The results of the assessment rated MCUD as low risk and
experienced at project financial management of foreign-assisted projects. ADB experience under
UDSP has enhanced the organization’s capability in project management and in providing direction
to attain project objectives. FMAQ has been re-administered to MCUD to update previous findings
and information. The results of the assessment are given in Table 6.10. The accomplished FMAQ
is presented in Appendix U.
Table 6.10: MCUD FMA Summary Results
Particulars
Risk Rating
Conclusions
A. Implementing
Low
MCUD is a line ministry and has five main departments including the
Department of Finance, Investment and Cooperation. Its experience
Unit
as current EA for UDSP makes it the natural choice to continue as EA
for the UDSP Additional Financing.
B. Fund Flow
Arrangements
Low
MCUD is knowledgeable and experienced as EA in managing ADB
loan and grant projects. MCUD coordinates with MOF and designated
commercial banks for all local and foreign project transactions
supported by external assistance.
C. Staffing
Low
MCUD is sufficiently staffed with experienced personnel. Any required
new PMU accountants and finance staff will be selected in
accordance with the ADB Guidelines and trained accordingly.
D. Accounting
Policies and
Procedures
Low
MCUD accounting policy is based on the Accounting Standard of
Mongolia (ASM). A manual for the accounting procedures is available
to the staff of PMU and MCUD accounting department. The PMU
financial management manual is updated annually and satisfies the
requirements of the MOF and ADB.
E. Internal Audit
Moderate
MCUD does not have an internal audit unit.
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
Particulars
F. External Audit
Risk Rating
Low
Conclusions
MCUD and its PMU are audited on an annual basis by independent
external auditors, the Government Audit Commission under the
Ministry of Finance and the State Audit Office at Aimag on an annual
basis. The audit is done in accordance with international standards of
auditing (ISA) and complies with the requirements of ADB and MOF.
G. Reporting and
Monitoring
Low
MCUD and its PMU reporting complies with MOF requirements. PMU
progress reports, including financial reports, conform to and are
regularly submitted to ADB
Low to
Moderate
MCUD uses the MAKS accounting software for internal and project
operations, as well as financial reporting, but the systems are not
linked in a joint information network. Linking the MCUD, the PMU, and
the PIUs in one information network will improve effectiveness of the
information exchange.
H. Information
Systems
291
FMA of Darkhan Uul Aimag: The Darkhan Uul Aimag has project implementation experience and
is guided by accounting, budget and financing laws in project transactions. Aimag follows IAS and
ISA and state accounting standards and has capability to satisfactorily record all transactions and
balances, support the preparation of regular and reliable financial statements and financial
monitoring reports, safeguard the assets, and subject these to auditing arrangements acceptable to
ADB. The FMA finds Aimag to comply with the minimum financial management requirements of
ADB as potential IA, with a rating of low to average risk. The summary FMA results are given in
Table 6.11. The accomplished FMAQ is provided in Appendix U.
Table 6.11: Darkhan Uul Aimag FMA Summary Results
Particulars
A. Implementing
Unit
Risk Rating
Low
B. Fund Flow
Arrangements
Low to
Average
The Aimag has knowledge of and working experience in ADB funding
arrangement and closely coordinated with MOF in project transactions.
No problems were reported regarding counterpart fund transfers
through existing budget processes. Aimag does not currently have
capacity to manage forex risk. Existing reporting system needs
upgrading to enable Aimag to track project proceeds from sources and
contributors to final beneficiaries.
Averagee to
High
The Aimag needs additional staff to fill in vacant accounting positions.
Existing staff complement requires training on ADB procedures to
ensure smooth workflow.
D. Accounting
Policies and
Procedures
Low
E. Internal Audit
Average
Aimag follows ASM based on international accounting standards.
Accounting follows the accrual basis and uses the accounting policy
and procedures of budget organizations. Accounting and budget
manuals are updated regularly. There are existing controls for
collections, timely deposits and recording these. Regional and national
offices participated in project implementation and controls and
procedures were in place for funds use and project reporting and
monitoring.
There is no internal audit unit.
C. Staffing
Conclusions
The Aimag Government has experience as IA during implementation
of ADB Loan project on renovation of engineering network of the 2 nd
Micro District.
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Final Report – September 2014
Particulars
F. External Audit
Risk Rating
Low
Conclusions
Aimag is audited annually by independent external auditors, the
General Auditor of Aimag and the State Audit Office. The audit is in
accordance with international standards for auditing (ISA) and
complies with the requirements of MOF. Auditor recommendations are
implemented.
G. Reporting and
Monitoring
Low
Aimag follows international accounting standards and prepares
necessary financial statements and other financial reports on quarterly
basis. Reporting complies with the MOF requirements and used
regularly by management.
Low to
Average
Accounting and financial management systems are computerized.
Aimag uses automated accounting software, Acqulous, which may be
adapted to include local project operations and reporting requirements.
H. Information
Systems
292
FMA of Us Suvag PUSO: Following from the implementation experience under Loan 2301-MON
at Erdenet (mainly in water and basic urban services at ger areas), the PUSO entered into a subloan agreement (SLA) and on-lending agreement (OLA) with Erdenet Aimag. Erdenet Aimag has
shown sufficient capability to manage project funds. Initial institutional assessment of Us Suvag
reveals that the PUSO has the capacity to implement the WWTP project, with some assistance
under the loan. As such, FMA was administered to Us Suvag management, particularly the
Accounting Department, to further assess PUSO financial management systems and practices. Us
Suvag financial staff are found to have sufficient work experience backed by appropriate education
and training in accountancy, and with commensurable training in ADB financial management
procedures, will be able to efficiently and satisfactorily handle project funds management tasks.
FMA rates PUSO as low to average risk as IA. The results of the Us Suvag FMA, including a risk
assessment are reflected in Table 6.12. The accomplished FMAQ is provided in Appendix U.
Table 6.12: Us Suvag FMA Summary Results
Particulars
Risk Rating
Conclusions
A. Implementing
Low to
Us Suvag is a locally-owned joint stock company that has recent
Unit
Moderate
experience in implementing JICA funded projects.
B. Fund Flow
Arrangements
Low to
Moderate
The company has knowledge of and working experience in JICA funds
flow arrangements. For the project, Us Suvag coordinates with MOF
and designated commercial bank for all project transactions. The
company did not experience any problems regarding project fund
transfers.
C. Staffing
Moderate
Us Suvag is staffed with experienced technical personnel of
appropriate educational background to undertake assigned tasks. The
accounting department is insufficiently staffed with only the company
accountant as head, assisted by a budget and project engineer.
Positions for required accounting staff have not been filled. For the
project, accountants will be selected in accordance with the ADB
Guidelines and trained accordingly.
D. Accounting
Policies and
Procedures
Low
The company accounting policies and procedures are based on the
Accounting Standard of Mongolia (ASM) that follows international
accounting standards (IAS). Accounting follows the accrual basis. A
manual for the accounting procedures is available to the accounting
staff. The financial management manual is updated annually and
satisfies the requirements of the Ministry of Finance (MOF).
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
Particulars
E. Internal Audit
Risk Rating
Moderate
F. External Audit
Low
Us Suvag is audited annually by independent external auditors, the
Government Audit Commission under the Ministry of Finance and the
State Audit Office. The audit is in accordance with international
standards for auditing (ISA) and complies with the requirements of
MOF. Auditor recommendations are implemented.
G. Reporting and
Monitoring
Low
Us Suvag reporting complies with the reporting requirements of the
MOF and the State Tax Department. Financial statements are
prepared quarterly, and used by management in decision-making.
Low to
Moderate
The company uses accounting software for local project operations,
and for financial reporting, but the systems are not linked in a joint
information network.
H. Information
Systems
6.3.2
293
Conclusions
The company does not have an internal audit unit.
Procurement Capacity Assessment
Procurement Capacity Assessment of MCUD: PCA has been conducted to determine EA
capacity to manage project procurement activities. MCUD-PMU has been involved in procurement
contracts under L2301, making it ideal implementing unit to manage the same for the loan project.
The PCA rates the EA procurement capacity as low to average. Table 6.13 summarizes the
findings of the assessment. Standard PCA questionnaire used as assessment tool is given in
Appendix U.
Table 6.13: MCUD PCA Summary Results
Particulars
Risk Rating
Conclusions
A. Agency
Low to
By law, MCUD can enter into contracts. PMU is sufficiently staffed for the
project. Staff are hired full-time. Senior and professional staff have
Resources
Average
average experience in project procurement, with support staff needing
some training in complex procurement tasks. Staff have high educational
background with IT-literacy high among management and technical staff;
fair among support staff. PMU office is adequately equipped and secure;
computers, back-up power, storage and consumables are in good order.
There is no procurement training program within EA; where and when
available, staff are sent to enhance specific skills.
B. Procurement
Low
PMU has 3-year experience in procurement using ADB guidelines. For
goods and works, MCUD and ADB identify requirements; for consulting,
Processes
including drafting and managing bids documentation, MCUD. Bid
opening is public; late bids not accepted; and no bids rejected at
opening. Minutes are taken during pre-negotiations and bid openings,
and distributed to bidders free of charge. Bid evaluation is by ad-hoc
committee, whose final evaluation is not subject to further approvals. EOI
is advertised for works over MNT 10 B, and goods over MNT 100 M.
Selection criteria include experience, financial capacity and personnel
qualification. Selected firm has 7-14 days to negotiate. MCUD does not
have specific unit for, nor the capacity to provide on-site contract
management. MCUD has processes for cargo collection, clearance and
receiving at entry ports. For ICB contracts, MCUD appoints counterpart
to undertake day-to-day contract administration.
C. Records
Average
Centralized database is missing; procurement and contract filing is
outdated (kept in metal cabinet) although secure from theft, tampering
Keeping
and fire. All bid proposals including advertisements and contractual
correspondence are stored in individual files but corresponding invoices
are kept separately. Although records are cross-referenced, having them
93
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Particulars
294
Risk Rating
Final Report – September 2014
Conclusions
together cuts time searching. Records are kept a maximum of five years
only to avoid taking too much storage space.
PCA finds MCUD-PMU as low to average risk as implementing unit to accommodate all
procurement activities under the proposed Additional Financing project to develop Darkhan
WWTP. The agency has sufficient resources, experience and processes in place to undertake the
procurement TOR. Some elements need enhancement, such as (i) improving support staff
knowledge at specific procurement tasks, (ii) developing IT central database to enhance data
transfer and security, and (iii) establishing contracts management and monitoring unit both at PMU
and field levels.
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
7 ENVIRONMENTAL SAFEGUARDS AND DUE
DILIGENCE
7.1
ADB and Domestic Environmental Due Diligence
295
Environmental categorization: Based on ADB’s Rapid Environmental Assessment checklists the
project is classified as environmental category “B”, requiring an IEE. The IEE report provided at
Appendix N is prepared in accordance with ADB’s Safeguard Policy Statement (2009).
296
The Mongolian EIA process is set out in local law. The domestic EIA requirements will be met for
this project. A request for a General EIA was issued to the Ministry of Environment and Green
Development (MEGD) in September 2013. A detailed EIA was undertaken by a Mongolian
company in February and March 2014.
7.2
IEE Key Findings
297
Environmental Policies. Mongolia has a comprehensive policy and legal framework for
environmental assessment and management. It has policies, legislation and strategies in place to
manage the protected areas such as national parks, to satisfy its international obligations, and to
protect the quality of the environment for the health and well-being of its citizens63.
298
The EIA requirements of Mongolia are regulated by the Law on EIA (1998, amended 2002 64 and
amended 2012). The terms of the law apply to all new projects, as well as rehabilitation and
expansion of existing industrial, service or construction activities and projects that use natural
resources.
299
The purpose of the EIA law is environmental protection, the prevention of ecological imbalance, the
regulation of natural resource use, the assessment of environmental impacts of projects and
procedures for decision-making regarding the implementation of projects. Under this law, the
project was subject to a Detailed EIA.
300
Baseline Environmental Conditions: The physical, biological, socioeconomic, and cultural
resources in the project area have been examined and the baseline environmental conditions
determined. This allows assessment of the direct, indirect, cumulative and induced environmental
impacts on and risks to these resources. In order to develop an environmental baseline, site visits
were undertaken which identified potential receptors in the project area which may be impacted on
by the project. The receptors are given in Table 7.1: Potentially Affected Receptors and
Resources in Component Sites.
Table 7.1: Potentially Affected Receptors and Resources in Component Sites
Component Site
Component A1 - Central WWTP
Component (A2): Infrastructure
Replacement/Rehabilitation
63
64
Affected Receptor/Resources and Distance (meters)
Soil / Ground - contamination and erosion
Water - Kharaa River from effluent
WWTP operators/staff - noise and dust
Air - dust
Waste disposal site
Resource use - materials and energy
Sewer Replacement at old Darkhan hospital
Socio-Economic- Street sellers outside hospital / market and two
businesses in apartment blocks (3 m and 20 m)
Residents - apartment blocks (20 m)
UNDP. 2008. Institutional Structures for Environmental Management in Mongolia. Ulaanbaatar and Wellington.
Law of Mongolia on Environmental Impact Assessments (1998, amended in 2002). Unofficial translation available from
http://cdm-mongolia.com.
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Component Site
Final Report – September 2014
Affected Receptor/Resources and Distance (meters)
Social services - School (5 m), Hospital (15 m)
Cultural Resources - Temple (100 m
Soil / Ground - contamination and erosion
Health and Safety - community
Waste disposal site
Resource use - materials and energy
Sewer Replacement & Power Distribution at Secondary Pumping
Station
Soil / Ground - contamination and erosion
Water - Kharaa River from effluent
Air - dust
Residents - gers (130 m from pipe, 30 m from pumping station)
Socio-Economic - pastureland
Health and Safety - community
Waste disposal site
Resource use - materials and energy
New south pumping station
Soil / Ground - contamination and erosion
Socio-Economic - pastureland
Air - dust
Residents - ger (50 m)
Health and Safety - pumping station caretaker
Waste disposal site
Resource use - materials and energy
Source: ADB Study Team
301
Climate: The Kharaa river basin climate is characterized as a dry winter continental climate. Mean
annual temperatures are around 0 °C with long cold winters; mean monthly temperatures in
January range from -20 to -25 °C with minimum temperatures reaching - 40 °C). The summer
season is short and warm, with average temperatures for July exceeding 15 °C65. The Kharaa
river is continuously covered with ice between November and March.
302
Soil: Soils in the project area to be dominated by (i) fluvisols - typically found on flat land
associated with flood plains, (ii) Kastanozems - are humus-rich soils that were originally covered
with early-maturing native grassland vegetation, which produces a characteristic brown surface
layer, found in relatively dry climatic zones 66. Around the city, where the ground is not covered with
vegetation or paved such as in unpaved ger areas, dry friable soils are visible, with gulleying
caused by stormwater flow on slopes. A Detailed EIA undertaken for the project included soil
sampling at six locations in the project area. The analysis confirmed that two samples are of
alluvial soil, three are of sandy dark brown soil and one is a dark brown soil. The Detailed EIA also
concludes that all the samples tested for chemical contamination meet the relevant Mongolian
National Standard.
303
Precipitation: Specific rainfall data for Darkhan Uul, showing that the project area receives about
320 mm of precipitation annually, of which over 90% occurs in summer months67. However,
precipitation patterns in Mongolia are showing evidence of change. Between 1940 and 2008,
evidence shows an increasing trend of winter precipitation and a decreasing incidence of summer
rainfall.68 Although for Mongolia, over the longer term, climate models predict that summer rain will
increase.
304
Water Resources: Surface water resources in the project area are dominated by the Kharaa river.
The existing WWTP is approximately 1.5 km from the river. In between the river and the WWTP is
65
66
67
68
MoMo (2009). Integrated Water Resources Management for Central Asia: Model Region Mongolia (MoMo) Case Study in the
Kharaa River Basin Final Project Report
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization
Environ LLC (2014) A Detailed Environmental Impact Assessment Report for Expansion Project of Central Treatment Plant in
Darkhan-Uul Province [sic].
Mongolia 2nd National Communication for UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
96
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
a water body which is a flooded borrow pit, currently used for sand extraction, according to maps
held by the aimag Land Administration.
305
The Kharaa River Basin is part of the larger Selenge river catchment, shown in Error! Reference
source not found.7.1.
Figure 7. 1: Selenge River Basin
Source: MoMo69
306
The Kharaa river is 362 km long and has a mean long-term annual discharge (1990-2008) of 12.1
m3 s-1, measured at the Buren Tolgoi, 23 km from Darkhan city. In the lower end of the drainage
basin, in which the project is based, the river flows naturally and is channelized in only a limited
number of locations and therefore the river meanders and the floodplain meadow still serves its
natural function.
307
Groundwater: Groundwater resources are abstracted and monitored by Us Suvag. Groundwater
is located primarily along the river channel and flood plain. The depth to groundwater fluctuates
with the season and averages at 3 m. There are 18 groundwater abstraction boreholes in the
aimag along the Kharaa river valley and about 5 km upstream of Darkhan city, of which currently
around five are used for meeting the water use requirements 70; the current total residential and
industrial demand (of about 18,000 cum/day but up to 23,000 cum/day) can be provided from just 5
or 6 production wells. The remainder of the boreholes can be bought into operation by Us Suvag if
needed. The wells are located along the Kharaa river and are approximately 70 m deep
308
The Detailed EIA undertaken for the project presents water quality data for the Kharaa river. The
data and a comparison with the Mongolian National Standard are presented in Table 7.2: Kharaa
River Water Quality The table shows that for the data given, the parameters of ammonia (NH4)
and the Biological Oxygen Demand did not meet the standard.
69
MoMo (2009). Integrated Water Resources Management for Central Asia: Model Region Mongolia (MoMo) Case Study in the
Kharaa River Basin Final Project Report
70
Meeting Ms Sarangerel, Us Suvag Laboratory 26. 09. 2013
97
Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Table 7.2: Kharaa River Water Quality
Parameter
Kharaa bridge
(mg/l)
PH
Solute О2
NH4
NO2
NO3
P
BOD5
8.12
9.63
0.2
0.009
0.029
0.043
2.39
Kharaa- Darkhan
Meteorological
Office (mg/l)
8.14
9.67
1.02
0.019
1.22
0.061
3.02
Mongolian
National
Standard (mg/l)
6.5-8.5
6.00
0.50
0.02
9.00
0.100
3.00
Standard is Met


×



×
Source: Environ LLC. Detailed EIA
309
Land use: The WWTP is shown to be in a clear industrial area according to maps
provided by the aimag Land Administration. The maps show that the nearest ger housing,
or hashaa (plot of land) is approximately 650 m from the WWTP.
Figure 7.2: Aimag Land Administration Maps, Darkhan City
Key: A -Industrial areas. B - Brick Factory. C: Aggregate extraction. D: Hashaa area
Source: aimag Land Administration: Land Allocation
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
310
Flooding: The Kharaa river does not regularly flood. The most significant flood in recent years
was in 1973 when flows of 722 m 3/second in Kharaa river. Also in January 2006 high rainfall led to
the Kharaa river flooding and flowing at 65.9 m 3/sec71. However, during intense rainfall events,
specific areas of the city are subject to temporary flooding, primarily caused by blocked stormwater
channels. The channels are blocked with sediment and solid waste. Flooding is exacerbated by
the lack of connections to the storm water drainage system; most areas of the city, apart from main
roads, have no stormwater flow management72. Areas liable to this flooding include old Darkhan's
market area, the micro-district in between old and new Darkhan and ger areas built on the flood
plain of the Kharaa river, to the west of the railway. The flooding generally lasts for one to two
days after a prolonged intense rainfall event.
311
Air Quality: An environmental assessment undertaken by the Meteorological Office for the
National Committee on Reducing Air Pollution 73 concludes that the main cause of air pollution in
Darkhan is the power station. This is leading to higher than expected outputs of pollutants such as
NOx and SOx. The 2011 Human Development Report for Mongolia noted that air quality issues are
significant in urban areas. The report made a policy recommendation specifically to reduced the
vulnerability of urban residents to urban air pollution in a number of urban areas including Darkhan
by improving energy use industries. Annual average SO2 & NOx data for Darkhan soum against
the National Standard MNS 5919:2008 show that air quality parameters do not meet national
standards on average.
312
Physical Cultural Resources: The only observed cultural site in the project area is the Old
Darkhan Buddhist temple. The temple is not a heritage site and has multiple entrances, the closest
being approximately 100 m from component A2, sewer pipeline replacement at Darkhan hospital.
313
Flora and Fauna: The Detailed EIA74 for the project confirmed that although approximately 20
species of bird are indicated as using the area around the project site, none of the species are on
the IUCN red list and those that are present, such as crows and sparrows, are familiar with habitats
which have been degraded by human activities. The Detailed EIA also includes information on a
number of rodents which are common in Mongolia, such as the house mouse (Mus musculus) and
Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) however the study also concludes that the presence of
these mammals cannot be confirmed but the habitat is already greatly disturbed by human
activities therefore any species which are present are likely to be those which tolerate disturbance
and do not need a habitat with a high ecological value.
314
WWTP Technology Alternatives: The treatment technologies proposed have been the subject of
intensive analysis, based on both international and Mongolian experience of wastewater treatment
under condition similar to those found in Darkhan. Wastewater treatment plants are complex
systems which rely on a series of sensitive physical, biological and (sometimes) chemical
processes to achieve optimal treatment results. Given the context of the Darkhan WWTP, the
technology alternatives evaluated as part of the Technical Assistance are narrowed to:
i.
Option 1. rehabilitation of the existing WWTP as a modified activated sludge process;
ii.
Option 2: construction of a step-feed activated sludge system;
iii. Option 3: construction of a sequencing batch reactor; and
iv. Option 4: construction of an Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge (IFAS) Plant
315
71
72
73
74
In terms of environmental risks, there is little between the options considered as all, if operated
correctly, will offer adequate performance. In terms of costs, the step-feed activated sludge is
slightly more expensive and has slightly higher operational cost than the other two systems.
http://air.president.mn/en/
MoMo (2009). Integrated Water Resources Management for Central Asia: Model Region Mongolia (MoMo) Case Study in the
Kharaa River Basin Final Project Report
http://air.president.mn/en/
Environ LLC (2014) A Detailed Environmental Impact Assessment Report for Expansion Project of Central Treatment Plant in
Darkhan-Uul Province [sic]
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Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Following a series of discussions and workshops, the final technology choice is IFAS which where
possible, will be housed within the existing structures .
7.3
316
Environmental Impacts and Mitigation
A screening process is undertaken which identifies the residual impact i.e. the impact on a receptor
after mitigation. This is key to the assessment of impacts and demonstrates the importance of the
implementation of EMP mitigation measures. Error! Reference source not found.7.3 shows the
matrix used during the screening process to anticipate the Potential and Residual Impact
Significance.
Table 7.3: Potential Impact Significance
Receptor Sensitivity
& Importance
Magnitude of Impact
LOW
MEDIUM
HIGH
LOW
Low
Low
Medium
MEDIUM
Low
Medium
High
HIGH
Medium
High
High
317
The screening process showed that following mitigation, related to project design (design phase),
the most significant impacts are the temporary economic displacement of around 5 street vendors
and the need for ensuring continuity of relocation sewage treatment. The majority of impacts will
arise during the construction phase. The most significant impacts may arise from hazardous waste
arisings and noise and dust arising from excavations which at one project site, is outside a school
and a hospital. In the operation phase, with mitigation, including comprehensive training for the
WWTP operators, it is anticipated that the environmental benefits of the project will be significant.
318
The project will have a number of positive environmental benefits:
i.
Environmental Sustainability & Energy: It is possible that at times of low flow and with
an increase in housing and industry, the impacts on the river arising from the current
WWTP would become more significant with time and the environmental sustainability will
be compromised. This is increasingly likely as the outdated waste water treatment
technology becomes progressively more unreliable with age. Therefore the project will
seek to improve the environmental sustainability of the WWTP.
Environmental
sustainability will also be improved through the use of more energy efficient technologies.
The current WWTP is inefficient, wasting valuable energy resources. The introduction of
efficient modern technology, such as improved sewage pumps, will mean significant
energy savings, associated with which are savings in carbon emissions and resource
use.
ii.
Industrial Development: Darkhan is considered an industrial city in Mongolia, and the
potential attraction of additional industries to the city, will increase the likelihood that
industrial wastewater volumes will increase. Current and future industries will benefit
from the WWTP as their effluent will be able to be treated centrally in the WWTP,
following pre-treatment if needed.
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
iii.
319
Final Report – September 2014
Community Health and Safety: The project will help to ensure that the safety of the
community is not impacted upon by the potential health impacts associated with leaking
sewer pipes, particularly when they are above ground, such as the emergency sewer
pipe near the Secondary Pumping Station (Component A2). Component A2 will also
include the installation of a cover on the inspection chamber which is currently covered
only partially and temporarily, yet is outside a school entrance.
Mitigation Measures: Before construction starts, the contractor is required to develop a number of
documents which will guide the construction process in order to reduce the likelihood of adverse
environmental impacts:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
Water Protection Management Plan
Soil Erosion Management Plan
Aggregate, Borrow Pits and Spoil Management Plan.
Spill Management Plan
Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Waste Management Plan
Health and Safety Management Plan (HSMP).
320
Mitigation of impacts on soil: The impacts on soil will be mitigated through a number of
measures which will control the impacts in relation to (a) soil erosion, through managing slopes, cut
faces and re-vegetation; (b) soil contamination through managing use and storage of potentially
polluting materials; (c) borrow pits through appropriate siting and restoration.
321
Mitigation of impacts on air quality: Humans are the receptor most sensitive to dust. The
mitigation measures to protect sensitive receptors from air quality issues include (a) management
of stockpiles to reduce dust (b) good construction site practices to suppress dust (c) covering
materials during transport (d) siting plant for production of concrete or pavement surfaces away
from receptors.
322
Mitigation of impacts on surface and groundwater: In general the project will improve the
quality of the surface. Potential impacts may occur through accidental release of pollutants
therefore mitigation measures include (a) Adequate WWTP capacity to be maintained at all times
(b) controlled storage and management of all chemicals and wastes (c) spill management plan to
be developed.
323
Mitigation of impacts from solid and liquid waste and resource use: The potential impacts
arising from solid and liquid waste production and disposal will be mitigated through a number of
activities including (a) application of the waste hierarchy at all times (b) appropriate storage and
containment of wastes including potential PCB wastes and PCB containing equipment which may
be present in old transformers in the pumping stations; this will require a specific PCB assessment
and management plan.
324
Mitigation of impacts from construction noise: Although noise can never be entirely eliminated,
the potential noise impacts will be mitigated through measures which include (a) Source control:
Maintaining all equipment in good working order (b) siting noise generating activities such as
concrete mixing away from receptors (c) operating within reasonable times and in consultation with
affected people.
325
Mitigation of impacts on Community Health and Safety: Potential impacts may arise at any
construction sites, therefore the focus will be on clear signage, using machinery only in day light
and where possible keeping members of the public out of construction areas.
326
Mitigation of impacts on Occupational Health and Safety: The civil works contractors will
implement adequate precautions to protect the health and safety of construction workers and will
appoint an Environment Health and Safety Officer (EHSO) to develop, implement and supervise a
Health and Safety Management Plan (HSMP), as well as ensure that the requirements of the EMP
are implemented.
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327
Potential indirect impacts - Traffic during Construction: When the WWTP and related
infrastructure is constructed, indirect impacts will result in potential longer journey times around the
important market area in Old Darkhan. This will be mitigated through consulting with relevant
aimag officers on the timing of the road excavation, and signage to warn motorists of when the
road closures may be needed.
328
Consultations during Project Preparation: Consultations with potentially affected people and
key experts were undertaken during the project preparation. In general the public support the
project as many of the residents, particularly in ger areas, recognize the need for improved
sanitation including an effective WWTP.
329
Consultations with experts provided baseline data for the project as well as advice and opinions on
specific aspects of the project including technology issues and the Grievance Redress Mechanism.
As a result, the project proposes a robust Grievance Redress Mechanism which has been
approved by the Darkhan Uul aimag authorities.
7.4
Conclusion
330
The findings of this IEE show that the project will not have any significant, long term or irreversible
impacts on the physical, biological or socio-economic environment. The project will have short
term impacts during construction which can be mitigated to an acceptable level through mitigation
measures which seek to reduce the potential for harm to the environment and human health.
These measures relate primarily to implementing good construction practice as well as meeting the
particular needs of the project area through consultation with affected people. Good practice
through comprehensive training and appropriate technological design will also contribute
significantly to reducing the operational impacts of the project.
331
The project will have significant positive environmental benefits. It will lead to improved water
quality in the Kharaa river as the effluent quality from the WWTP will be significantly improved over
the long term. In addition the use of modern technology and replacement of the outdated and
broken equipment will lead to better sludge management which will benefit the environment and
the residents of the city.
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8 SOCIAL SAFEGUARDS DUE DILIGENCE
332
An assessment of the socio-economic conditions of the beneficiary community, and of the likely
impacts of the project was carried out as part of the project preparation work. The social
assessment is based on analysis of secondary data, and on primary data obtained through: (i) a
household socio-economic survey of beneficiaries; (ii) extensive focus-group discussions with
project stakeholders; and (iii) interviews with key informants.
8.1
Poverty Reduction and Social Strategy (PRSS)
333
The Poverty Reduction and Social Strategy also includes: (i) a Social Action Development Plan
(SADP): (ii) a Consultation and Participation Plan (CPP); and (iii) a Stakeholder Communication
Plan (SCP). During the development of the PRSS, links were established to the national poverty
reduction strategy and Country Partnership Strategy. A poverty assessment and social analysis
were carried out to determine project benefits, gender and development issues, participation and
empowerment concerns, and social risks and vulnerabilities, based on the results of the household
socio-economic survey conducted. This work also identified: (i) mitigating measurements to avoid
negative socio-economic impacts; and (ii) resource requirements.
334
The following surveys and data collection activities were conducted to inform the development of
the social strategies and plans: (i) a household socio-economic survey of ger area and apartment
area households of Darkhan city (The Survey Report is included as Appendix V); (ii) in-depth
interviews with project-related stakeholders; (iii) focus group discussion among project
beneficiaries; and (iv) data collection and analysis of secondary information such as: national and
local-level statistical data and survey reports conducted previously. The Poverty Reduction and
Social Strategy (PRSS) is provided as Appendix W.
8.1.1
Main Findings and Emphasis of the PRSS
335
Links to the National Poverty Reduction Strategy and Country Partnership Strategy: The project is
aligned with national strategies, such as Long-term National Development Strategies (consistent
with achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)), and “Regional Development Concept
of Mongolia”, “Mid-Term Strategy of Regions”, and “Law on Management and Coordination of the
Regional Development” of 2001 and 2003. According to the regional development concept of
Mongolia, Darkhan city is a pillar center of the Central Region of Mongolia. The focus of the project
on wastewater treatment and wastewater management improvement for Darkhan city is aligned
with the Mongolian Government Action Plan for 2012-2016 approved by the Parliament of
Mongolia on 2012. This identified Darkhan city as priority industrial center in the framework target
of “Employed Mongolians for sufficient income”. It is also in line with the Action Plan for 2012-2016
of the Governor of Darkhan-Uul Aimag.
336
Poverty Incidence in Darkhan-Uul aimag and Darkhan city: The poverty measure of headcount
ratio, which simply counts all the people below a poverty line, was 26.0 percent in 2011, which had
decreased by 3.6 points compared to 2003. 75 This means that 26.0 percent of the total population
or over one quarter of Darkhan city population lived below the poverty line in 2011. This is slightly
lower when compared to average poverty headcount ratio of the whole of Darkhan-Uul aimag and
of the Central region76.
337
The minimum standard of living (poverty threshold) in Darkhan-Uul aimag was pegged at 117,500
tugrugs per capita per month as of 1st April 201277. With the average size of the household at 4,
the minimum standard of living (MSL) per household on a monthly basis is 470,000 tugrugs or
5,640,000 per year. The results of the household socio-economic survey suggest that the poverty
75
76
77
“Millennium Development Goals and Poverty Map 2011: Region, Aimag, Soum and District Level Results” Harold Coulombe and
Gereltuya Altankhuayag. National Statistical Office and UNDP, 2012.
The other aimag centers with lower poverty incidence are: Dornogovi – Sainshand (15.9%), Umnugobi – Dalanzadgad (11.9%),
Bulgan – Bulgan (22.3%), Bayan-Ugii – Ulgii (17.8%), and Uvs – Ulaangom (16.6%).
http://www.infomongolia.com/ct/ci/3743/56/MinimumStandardofLivingwasrenewed.
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
incidence in the Darkhan city is currently 26.5%, where the poor earn an average monthly income
of 3,642,642 tugrugs, way below the MSL for Darkhan-Uul aimag. For ger area households,
poverty incidence is recoded at 44.0%, while it is 9.0% for apartment area households.
8.1.2
338
Projects will impact household income and wellbeing of Darkhan city residents through the
following mechanisms which provide the benefits of the project:
i.
Effectiveness of the Water Supply and Sanitation Company (Darkhan Us Suvag JSC):
The operating loss of the Darkhan Us Suvag JSC increases year by year. Sustainable service
provision requires both improved management and tariff increase. Price increases for services
provided by public utilities will increase household expenditure and thus impact negatively on
household welfare.
ii.
Extension of business activities: The current status of sanitation services influences
business activities of both private and public enterprises. Due to deficiencies in the sewerage
system, pipes fill up and blockage of wastewater flows is a regular occurrence. Consequently,
almost every business unit needs to employ a plumber or pay for this service privately to solve
frequent wastewater blockage issues. Improvement of the sanitation service will save these
additional costs to businesses, and provide the opportunity to spend this cost for extension of
their business.
iii.
Improvement of health condition: Inefficient operation of sanitation services causes water
and soil pollution, and increases the probability of water-based diarrhoeal diseases. The
project will help save costs currently paid by households to treat water-borne and waterrelated diseases to doctors and public health centres.
iv.
Pleasant environment for residents: Frequent wastewater flooding outside and in the
basement of the apartment blocks and other buildings creates unpleasant and unhygienic
conditions for neighbourhood residents. The project will help address this issue and thus
create improved conditions for recreation, playing and walking, and of the immediate living
environment.
v.
Improvement of the Kharaa river ecology: The existing dilapidated and dated equipment
cause frequent and significant overflows polluting the Kharaa river basin with negative
environmental impacts in terms of water pollution and negative impact on aquatics life.
8.1.3
339
78
Gender and Development:
The Project is classified as having some gender elements78 (SGE) which resulted in significant
efforts being made on gender issues during project preparation. At the outset of project
implementation, the following measures should be taken: (i) incorporate gender concerns into the
planning, design, and implementation of improvements to sanitation and wastewater management
services; (ii) organize awareness campaigns among women of the impacted households on the
importance of the project and provide training on the correct maintenance of sanitation facilities;
and (iii) strengthen participation of women in project implementation.
8.1.4
340
Project benefits:
Participation and Empowerment:
The following conclusions can be drawn from the results of the household surveys in respect of
participation and empowerment issues:
i.
Participation of residents in community activities is low, but they want to participate more in
them.
ii.
Participation of entrepreneurs and business in the process of project planning and
implementation is crucial.
http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/guidelines-gender-mainstreaming-categories-adb-projects.pdf
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
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iii.
Willingness to pay for improved service can be enhanced if public awareness of wastewater
issues is increased.
iv.
There should be active and leading participation of the Apartment Owners Associations in the
project planning and implementation process.
v.
There needs to be organizational or institutional reform and regulation among participants in
the sanitation service.
vi.
Residents worry about environmental issues, and especially pollution of the Kharaa River, and
are prepared to help to solve this problem.
vii. Residents have very little knowledge and information about the water supply and sanitation
services of Darkhan city, and have not realized that there are problems.
8.1.5
Social Risks and Vulnerabilities
341
Affordability of Improved Service Tariff: Improvements to the WWTP will demand a significant
amount of investment. To recover this investment cost will require an increase in tariff for the
service. This could have a detrimental impact on the quality of life and welfare of households, and
on operational costs of businesses. According to the WTP analysis, or Probit analysis, conducted
on the survey results, the mean WTP for waste water treatment service per cubic meter was
estimated in 1,076 MNT (vas a vis the current charge of 700 MNT).
342
Weak Public Awareness and Participation: According to the household socio-economic survey
result, 80.0 percent of apartment area residents interviewed are satisfied with their current
sanitation situation, while none of the ger area residents surveyed is satisfied with their current
sanitation situation. Apartment residents don’t realized that there are problems with the wastewater
system, although other implementing parties realize that there are many issues associated with the
provision of sanitation services in Darkhan city. There needs to be a well-designed and wellpublicized public awareness campaign, and public relationship activities are required to increase
public awareness. These activities should cover not only understanding of the importance of the
project, but also education to customers on how to properly use and work with sanitation facilities.
343
There will also be other social risks, such as from Unfair Labor Practices and Health Risks.
8.1.6
344
Mitigating Measures: Social Action Development Plan
A Social Development Action Plan (SADP) was prepared which specifies the key activities required
to mitigate the identified social risks and issues raised by the Project. A summary matrix is
attached as Appendix X of the attached PRSS Appendix V. The proposed mitigating measures for
the identified social impacts and risks are:
i.
Establishing Community Engagement Work: Community Engagement Work should be
carried out at the following three levels:

Residents’ community engagement works: For the apartment area residents, the main
stakeholders will be the Apartment Owners’ Associations. For the ger area households,
community engagement should be organised through bagh governors’ office and kheseg
leaders.

Business entrepreneurs’ engagement works: For business entrepreneurs, the main
stakeholders will be branches of Commerce and Industry Chamber, and Mongolian
Employers Federation of Darkhan-Uul aimag, as the main business representative
organizations.

Other civil societies or non-government organizations’ engagement works: Civil
societies will include non-government organizations for environment protection and for
urban development, and other NGOs with an interest in the sector.
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
345
ii.
Development and implementation of an intensive Information, Education and
Communication (IEC) Strategy: The overall stakeholder communications strategy (SCS) for
the project will involve the establishment of a system for information sharing and consultative
activities in line with the Program’s Consultation and Participation Plan and other social
mitigation plans. The Stakeholder Communication Strategy is presented as Appendix 3 of the
attached PRSS Appendix V. Aside from project details and mitigation plans, the IEC strategy
will also include a design for creating awareness and/or to promote behavioural changes
among the target sectors to include topics on: (i) health – the benefits of proper hygiene
practices; (ii) behavioural changes – recommendation on how to work with sanitation facilities
properly; (iii) environment – proper waste segregation at the households, and practice of the 3
Rs (reduce, reuse, and recycle) at the community level and among business entrepreneurs;
and (iv) introduction and use of non-pollutive technologies on sanitation.
iii.
Integrating Community Needs in Project Design: In the preparation and planning of the
proposed infrastructure projects, integration of gender-specific and other community needs wil
be mainstreamed into project design. The initial consultations will identify any design
recommendations from residents’ communities and business entrepreneurs. Any specific
recommendations on the design should be revisited and reconsidered during the detailed
engineering design stage.
iv.
Grievance Redress and Monitoring Mechanism: The implementing agency, the Darkhan
Us Suvag JSC, together with the resident and business community groups should track and
process complaints and assess the extent to which progress is being made to resolve them.
The monitoring and evaluation report database will include appropriate features for recording,
monitoring, and resolving of feedback from target beneficiaries and affected persons. The
Darkhan Us Suvag JSC should hire an independent or external reviewer of implementation of
the investments to be conducted annually, including feedback from those who have used the
facilities created.
v.
Mitigation of Risks on Labor: Activities during the construction stage should be closely
supervised by the implementing agency and community groups, and monitored by ADB to
comply with national and international labour regulations, such as ensuring that at least
minimum wages are paid, and ensuring safe working conditions for workers. The
representatives of community groups should also provide support in the monitoring of
construction activities and labour practices, based on core labour standards. This should in
particular include: disallowing all forms of forced or compulsory labour, child labor, and
discrimination in respect of employment and occupation.
vi.
Ethnic Minorities and Indigenous People: Based on initial research results, all community
members of Darkhan city are fully mainstreamed into the community and are highly unlikely to
experience marginalization. The numbers in minority ethnic groups are small and it can be
concluded are well-integrated into, and recognized as members of, the community. Thus, the
proposed project is not expected to have impacts on indigenous peoples or ethnic minorities
and as such is categorized as Category C under the Indigenous People’s Policy Framework of
the ADB. Thus no further action is required in this regard.
Resource Requirements: An indicative budget of US$ 50,000 is programmed for the
implementation of activities detailed above under “social mitigation activities” and included in the
Consultation and Participation Plan, Stakeholder Communication Strategy, and GAP, all of which
will be integrated under the CAP for the Project. The breakdown of total indicative cost is presented
in Appendix V.
8.2
346
Final Report – September 2014
Gender Action Plan (GAP):
As part of the GAP preparation, local gender and development policies, programs and institutions,
and gender issues were evaluated. Project benefits to women were evaluated, and a gender action
plan, and associated institutional arrangements, monitoring and evaluation system, and work plan
were developed. The GAP is included as Appendix W.
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
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347
A household socio-economic survey was conducted under the project preparation work, with a total
of two hundred (200) households in Darkhan city interviewed. The majority of the households were
headed by males (79.0%), with an average household size of 4. However, one of every five
households (21.0%) was headed by females. The survey found that among all households, 53
percent of family members who are mainly responsible for sanitation issues of households are
women. An awareness campaign needs to be implemented among main project beneficiaries, (the
female residents of apartments and ger areas) to implement the project successfully and to ensure
project sustainability and effectiveness. The project should organize public awareness campaigns
containing recommendations on how to work with sanitation facilities such as: what can or can’t be
thrown down the toilet, to use oil-solvent agents for washing dishes etc.
348
Women are mainly responsible for water-related tasks and other responsibilities associated with
household sanitation, health and hygiene, and should be consulted on appropriate design features.
The design of the sanitation infrastructure and services should respond to the specific and varying
needs of women and men, including physical amenities. The participation of women in community
affairs at the residents’ meeting was observed to be high, as shown by the number of women
attendees in the meeting of the Apartment Owners Associations. However, there are generally
more men chairmen in the Apartment Owners Associations. Equal involvement of women and men
in project activities will be assured through the community action planning and consultations
carried out throughout the implementation period of the project.
349
Addressing these gender concerns will entail close consultation and collaboration with women,
from project design, through implementation, and into project operation and monitoring and
evaluation. The general strategy proposed under the project is to ensure that the design features of
the infrastructure will be gender-responsive, appropriate, and affordable to the target users.
350
Focus group discussions with community representatives from apartment areas and ger areas
have identified the perceived gender impacts of the proposed wastewater improvement projects.
For improved sanitation, the anticipated impacts of the project include: (i) reduced time and energy
spent to solve sanitation-related issues, especially among women household members, thus more
time for other household tasks or time for productive income-generating work; and (ii) better
hygiene practices. The risk of women and children to infectious diseases and water-borne
diseases, and consequently the medical costs resulting from these diseases, will be reduced due
to improved performance of the wastewater management system. The improvement of the
sewerage system will also reduce the risk of spread of contagious or communicable diseases
brought about by improper collection, disposal, and treatment of domestic wastewater.
351
At the commencement of project implementation, measures should be taken to: (i) incorporate
gender concerns into the planning, design, and implementation of the proposed improvements to
wastewater services; (ii) organize awareness campaigns among women of impacted households
on the importance of the project; (iii) carry out training on proper maintenance of sanitation
facilities; and (iv) strengthen participation of women in project implementation. The executing
agency (EA) for the project will be MCUD and implementing agency (IA) will be Darkhan Us Suvag
JSC. Darkhan Us Suvag JSC may cooperate with the Social Development Division of Darkhan
Aimag Governor’s Office, Children and Family Development Division and related non-government
organizations and civil societies. The detailed work plan for the GAP is presented at Appendix W.
8.3
Community Action Plan (CAP)
352
Initial consultations and discussions were conducted with community representatives related to
project activities. The outcomes from these discussions were used for the development of a
community involvement action plan for the project. These discussions also informed the design
and implementation for the plan and determined the implementing arrangements, budgetary
estimates, and monitoring and evaluation methodology. The CAP is provided as Appendix X.
353
There is a need for active involvement of communities representing each group of stakeholders.
The goal of the Community Action Plan is to promote an inclusive waste water management
improvement of Darkhan city through active involvement of impacted community members.
Community involvement was mobilised during the project preparation stage and the CAP needs to
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
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sustain this level of activity during subsequent phases of the project to sustain the involvement of
the communities in the detailed design and implementation phases.
354
Inputs to the design of Project were gathered through Household socio-economic survey (for
apartment households and ger area households); focus group discussions with representatives of
apartment and ger area residents; and key informant interviews (or In-Depth Interviews) with key
stakeholders including representatives of implementing entities, government agencies, business
units and Apartment Owners Association.
8.4
Design and Monitoring Framework (DMF)
355
The design and monitoring framework (DMF) for the project has been developed to incorporate the
results and findings from the socio-economic surveys. The DMF is included as Appendix J. The
DMF is developed based on ADB’s guideline “Project Performance Management System:
Guidelines for Preparing a Design and Monitoring Framework”, July 2007 Second Edition, Asian
Development Bank. At the project level, the DMF also draws on the MfDR framework which is
based on a participatory approach to project design, and adapting this to the logical framework.79
356
The analytical and planning process used to develop the DMF used the following three data
collection methods to obtain the socio-economic baseline data: (i) Quantitative survey: Household
Socio-Economic Survey of Darkhan City; (ii) Qualitative surveys: Focus Group Discussions (FGDs)
about water supply and sanitation and wastewater management services among Darkhan city
residents and In-Depth Interviews (IDIs) with related stakeholders; and (iii) Desk Review: Data
collection and analysis on water supply and sanitation services and other related data from officials
and other statistical information and surveys carried out by other stakeholders.
357
Household Socio-Economic Survey: A total 200 households, of which 100 households each
were from ger areas and apartment areas were covered in the household socio-economic survey.
The purpose of the household socio-economic survey was to: (i) determine the socio-economic
status of project target households and their members; (ii) assess the current situation and
customers’ satisfaction with water supply and wastewater collection and treatment services; and
(iii) assess willingness and ability to pay for improved wastewater management services. The main
beneficiaries of the project are households living in apartments of the Darkhan city. Data collection
through the survey was conducted from 23rd January to 28th January of 2014.
358
Focus Group Discussion (FGD): One FGD was conducted on 24th January 2014 at the training
room of Darkhan Us Suvag JSC. A total 8 respondents, of which 4 respondents each were from
ger areas and apartment areas participated in the FGD.
359
In-Depth Interview (IDI): IDIs were conducted from 23th January to 27th January 2014. A total of
12 respondents were interviewed individually. Information on the respondents is provided in Annex
1 of Appendix XX. The content of the IDI was focused on analysis for development of the DMF.
8.5
360
Appendix U presents the Land Acquisition and Resettlement Plan (LARP) for the Project
Preparation Technical Assistance (PPTA) for the Preparation of a Wastewater Management
Project for Darkhan city under the Urban Sector Development Project for Mongolia (Loan 2301MON: UDSP ). The LARP has been prepared in accordance with applicable laws of Mongolia, the
Asian Development Bank's (ADB) 2009 Safeguard Policy Statement (SPS) and Land Acquisition
and Resettlement Framework (LARF) for the Loan 2301-MON: UDSP.
8.5.1
361
79
Land Acquisition and Resettlement Requirements and Plan
Project site and ROW
The project will improve the sewerage system of Darkhan city of Darkhan Uul aimag (Darkhan city)
through: (i) renewing the central treatment facility; (ii) renovation of pump station of Shine Omnod
industrial area and construction of 1.4km length sewerage pipeline which is planned to be
“Project Performance Management System: Guidelines for Preparing a Design and Monitoring Framework” July 2007, Second
Edition. Asian Development Bank.
108
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
constructed at the east side of the railway; (iii) renovation of 2nd pump station and 200m
sewerage pipeline, and (iv) 600 m length sewerage pipeline in 5th bag area. The sewerage system
will benefit around 80 000 residents Darkhan city. In order to minimize resettlement impact, the
right of way (ROW) of the pipelines, which traverse the project areas in various directions, will be
reduced to 5m in accordance with the Construction Standard and Rules of Mongolia for Water
Supply, External Networks and Structures BNBD 40-02-06 once the detailed design prepared.
8.5.2
362
Only some portions of the sewerage pipelines right-of-way will involve land acquisition and
resettlement; other portions will be constructed on either public land or possessed land by
Darkhan-Us Suvag agency. A total of 8 affected entities including two small enterprises, three
commercial entities and three state budget institutions will be affected by land acquisition and
resettlement. Of the 8 affected entities, 5 affected entities were enumerated in the socioeconomic
survey. 5 affected entities will lose a total of 2711.1m 2 of land and all these losses are partial, all
plots are possessed by the state institutions and private companies. No residential land or
structures will be affected by the project. Fences and gates totaling 112m in length and belonging
to 3 affected entities will need to be moved or replaced. Other affected structures include 2
entrance ways to the food shop and hair and beauty salon, speed bump and an advertisement
board.
8.5.3
363
Institutional Arrangements and Monitoring
The Working Group for land acquisition and resettlement will be established prior to
commencement of civil work which will be responsible for the implementation of the project RP.
With the support of the PIU, the WG assists and ensures resettlement safeguard compliance prior
to any resettlement, or the award of civil works contracts. Close coordination and commitment
between all stakeholders are facilitated by the participation of the WG members.
8.5.7
367
Consultation and Grievance Redress
Information, consultation and participation of APs are ensured through individual and public
meetings throughout the RP preparation and implementation process. To date one public meeting
to prepare the APs for resettlement was held in October 2013. A four-step grievance mechanism
with a clearly defined timeline of 5 weeks for each case has been established and a Grievance
Action Form initiating and tracking the grievance process for each complaint prepared.
8.5.6
366
Legal and Policy Framework
Land acquisition and resettlement by the government for projects in urban areas is based on
negotiation and contracts with affected persons according to the Civil Code of Mongolia. The ADB
SPS recognizes negotiated LAR as long as there are willing and free buyers and sellers and
eligibility and entitlements are clearly defined and agreed. All APs are eligible for entitlements, as
stipulated in the LARF for the Project, including owners, possessors, users, legalizable occupants,
non-titled occupants and lessees. The eviction of unlicensed APs is a violation of the ADB SPS.
The eligibility and entitlements for specific types of losses in the project are summarized in the
Entitlement Matrix in Table 5 of this RP.
8.5.5
365
Indigenous People and Gender Impact
Indigenous people, i.e. tribal communities existing outside the cultural and legal mainstream of
Mongolian society, are not present in the Darkhan city project site. Therefore, the ADB Policy on
Indigenous People will not be triggered by this subproject. Adverse differential gender impact by
the project on either men or women is not expected.
8.5.4
364
Scope of Resettlement Impact
Compensation Strategy and Budget
Losses of land and structures, as well as transaction and relocation costs for each AP are covered.
The budget for resettlement in the Darkhan city project is expected to amount to MNT 78,116,172
or USD 45,313.9 for compensation, administration and contingency costs as well as for monitoring
costs which will be funded from state government resources.
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9 INVESTMENT COST AND FINANCING PLAN
9.1
368
Investment Cost
The project cost components are prepared based on technical design concepts that considered
both existing and future demands in Darkhan Uul. Four technical options that combine new and
existing technologies are being considered for the project. Cost estimates have been prepared for
each based on available market price information, updated to suit local conditions. The cost
estimation for the proposed project components follows the calculation of the dynamic prime cost
as applied in ODA projects. The project cost components are discussed below.

Civil works. Includes the costs of the construction of fixed and temporary works, auxiliary works,
temporary buildings on site for living and construction management. Construction cost is based
on bill of quantities for conceptual design, other estimated quantities and appropriate construction
unit prices.

Materials and equipment. Includes the costs of planned equipment and materials, including
transportation cost from ports of production to the site, storage costs, and insurance fees.
Equipment costs are based on quantities, types and market prices at the time of project cost
preparation (Q3 2013).

Institutional reform and capacity building. Formal and on-the-job training to improve general and
financial management, including procurement capacity development at the levels of aimag and
PUSO, and capacity upgrade in MCUD, and appurtenant costs. Training and seminar costs
include costs for consultants, participants and all incidentals.

Project management support. Includes organization and project management costs, calculated
according to issued cost norms for project management and consulting services of construction
projects in Mongolia.

Start-up and adjustment works. Working capital required to initialize project operation. Funds are
provided for the administration and maintenance of the start-up phase. A set of tools and
materials have been included in the estimates.

Taxes and duties. Includes VAT and custom duties. VAT is calculated on current rate at 10%
based on Mongolian VAT Law. Duties on imported materials and equipment is calculated at 5%
per Mongolian law for customs and duties. All project taxes will form part of and paid by GOM
contribution to project financing (Refer to project financing and investment plan).

Physical contingencies: Covers physical adjustments for unforeseeable works during project
implementation. Physical contingencies are assumed at 5% for foreign cost components and
15% for local cost components.

Price contingencies. Covers allowance for price inflation during project implementation. Local
inflation rates applied in the evaluation are based on ADB published rates (Staff estimates): 2012,
15%, 2013, 9.5%, 2014, 10%, and 2015 onward, 8%. Foreign inflation conforms to the ADB and
World Bank projected indexes (October 2013): 2012 at 2.7%, 2013, -1.6%, 2014, 2.3%, 2015,
1%, and 2016 onward, 1.4%. Foreign exchange rate is $1.00:MNT 1,690 (as of end October
2013). The base price used is at MNT 1,520 (as of August 2013), adjusted to current rate.
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Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
369

Financial charge during implementation (FCDI). This refers to interest during construction (IDC)
and commitment charge, when required by specific loan terms80.

Other costs. Includes reinvestments for electro-mechanical equipment to be replaced during the
evaluation period 2014-30; and the residual value of the investment components still to be used
beyond the period have been incorporated in the financial and economic projections.
Replacements arising during operational period will be treated as capital expenditures to be
financed by Us Suvag using own resources and thus do not form part of the project investment
cost estimates.
Table 9.1 presents the total investment requirement amounting to MNT 34,920 million ($ 20.66
million).
Table 9.1 Project Cost Estimates
Item
A. Investment Cost
1. Wastewater Treatment Plant
2. Pumping Stations and Sewers
2.1. Pump Stations
2.2. Sewers
Subtotal (2)
3. Project Management Support and Capacity Development
3.1. PMS, Design and Capacity Development
3.2. PMU and PIU Support
Subtotal (3)
Subtotal (A)
B. Contingencies
1. Physical
2. Price
Sub-total (B)
C. Financing Charges During Implementation
1. Interest During Construction
2. Commitment Fees
Sub-total (C)
Total Project Cost (A+B+C)
Foreign
Currency
(MNT Million)
Local
Currency
Total
Cost
Foreign
Currency
($ Million)
Local
Currency
Total
Cost
% of
Total
Cost
20,573
4,774
25,347
12.17
2.83
15.00
73
1,480
711
2,191
164
474
638
1,645
1,184
2,829
0.88
0.42
1.30
0.10
0.28
0.38
0.97
0.70
1.67
5
3
8
2,002
736
2,738
25,502
222
82
304
5,717
2,224
818
3,042
31,219
1.18
0.44
1.62
15.09
0.13
0.05
0.18
3.38
1.32
0.48
1.80
18.47
6
2
9
89
765
1,492
2,257
171
118
289
937
1,609
2,546
0.45
0.88
1.34
0.10
0.07
0.17
0.55
0.95
1.51
3
5
7
1,104
88
1,192
28,951
6,006
1,104
88
1,192
34,957
0.65
0.05
0.71
17.13
3.55
0.65
0.05
0.71
20.68
3
0
3
100
-
Source: TA Consultant.
9.2
370
Financing Plan
The proposed improvement of the WWTP systems and the institutional development, start-up costs
and consulting services will be financed by a loan from the ADB of MNT 31,265 ($18.5 million) or
89% of total financing, and contribution from the Government of Mongolia of MNT 3,684 million
($2.18 million) or 11% of total. Table 9.2 presents the details of the financing plan.
80
These costs are calculated according ADB Technical Note on Preparation and Presentation of Cost estimates for Projects.
Following the main LA 2301 terms, where Asian Development Fund (ADF) was applied, commitment charge is waived in the project
cost estimation.
111
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Table 9.2 – Project Financing Plan, in $ million
ADB
Item
A. Investment Cost
1. Wastewater Treatment Plant
2. Pumping Stations and Sewers
2.1. Pump Stations
2.2. Sewers
Subtotal (2)
3. Project Management Support and Capacity Development
3.1. PMS, Design and Capacity Development
3.2. PMU and PIU Support
Subtotal (3)
Subtotal (A)
B. Contingencies
1. Physical
2. Price
Sub-total (B)
C. Financing Charges During Implementation
1. Interest During Construction
2. Commitment Fees
Sub-total (C)
Total Project Cost (A+B+C)
Source: TA Consultant.
Total
Cost
Amount
% Cost
Category
Darkhan Aimag
% Cost
Amount
Category
15.00
13.33
89
1.67
11
0.97
0.70
1.67
0.85
0.64
1.49
87
91
89
0.12
0.06
0.19
13
9
11
1.32
0.48
1.80
18.47
1.20
0.44
1.64
16.45
91
91
91
89
0.12
0.04
0.16
2.02
9
9
9
11
0.55
0.95
1.51
0.49
0.85
1.34
89
89
89
0.06
0.10
0.16
11
11
11
0.65
0.05
0.71
20.68
0.65
0.05
0.71
18.50
100
100
100
89
2.18
-
11
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Table 9.3 Project Financing Plan in MNT million
Category/Item
A.1. Wastewater Treatment Plant
Civil Works
Equipment
Resettlement
Environmental Monitoring
Taxes and Duties
Subtotal (A.1)
A.2. Infrastructure Rehabilitation/Replacement
Civil Works
Equipment
Resettlement
Environmental Monitoring
Taxes and Duties
Subtotal (A.2)
B. Institutional Reform & Capacity Development
Capacity Building (MCUD, Aimag/Us Suvag)
Taxes and Duties
Subtotal (B)
C. Project Management Support
Design and Supervision, PIU Establishment, Tendering
Taxes and Duties
Subtotal (C)
Total Base Cost (A+B+C)
D. Contingencies
Physical
Price
Subtotal (D)
E. Financial Charges During Implementation
Interest Charges and Fees
Subtotal (E)
Total Investment Cost (A+B+C+D+E)
ADB Loan
Amount Category %
Government
Amount Category %
Total
Investment
0%
0%
0%
0%
100%
13%
7,041
11,182
2,733
20,956
20%
32%
0%
0%
8%
60%
0%
0%
0%
0%
100%
13%
2,043
306
2,349
6%
0%
0%
0%
1%
7%
0%
100%
13%
2,452
368
2,820
7%
1%
8%
0%
100%
13%
13%
1,457
219
1,676
27,801
4%
1%
5%
80%
% Total
Investment
7,041
11,182
18,223
100%
100%
0%
0%
0%
87%
2,043
2,043
100%
0%
0%
0%
0%
87%
2,452
2,452
100%
0%
87%
1,457
1,457
24,174
100%
0%
87%
87%
2,733
2,733
306
306
368
368
219
219
3,626
2,224
3,705
5,929
100%
100%
100%
-
0%
0%
0%
2,224
3,705
5,929
6%
11%
17%
1,190
1,190
31,293
100%
100%
90%
3,626
0%
0%
10%
1,190
1,190
34,920
3%
3%
100%
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
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10
PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
ARRANGEMENTS
10.1 Approach to Project Execution and Implementation
371
The Ministry of Construction and Urban Development of the GOM will be the Executing Agency
(EA) of the Project, supported by the existing Project Management Unit (PMU) of the Urban Sector
Development Project for Mongolia (Loan 2301-MON) which will extend its existing responsibilities
to include the proposed Investment Project. The PMU will continue to be headed by a Project
Coordinator (PC). MCUD will be responsible for overall strategic guidance, technical supervision,
and execution of the Project and ensuring compliance with loan covenants. The state-level Project
Steering Committee (PSC) established for the Urban Sector Development Project for Mongolia
(Loan 2301-MON) will provide overall policy guidance on the project and will have full powers to
take decisions on matters relating to Project execution. The Project Coordinator is the Member
Secretary and the committee is chaired by the State secretary of MCUD. Members of the
committee include the Director MED, Director MOF, representatives of the Ministries of
Environment and Green Development and Industry and the aimag government of Darkhan-Uul.
Once the Project is made effective, the PSC will meet at regular intervals (at least once every 3
months) to review project performance and take decisions on major issues, such as, counterpart
funding, implementation bottlenecks, land disputes, special procurement, policy reforms, etc.
372
Implementation of the Urban Environmental Improvement Components (Parts A1 and A2) of the
project will be carried out by Us Suvag on behalf of the Darkhan-Uul aimag government with
assistance from MCUD. At the aimag level, MCUD will establish a Project Implementation Unit
(PIU) in Darkhan-Uul, headed by a senior engineer or technical specialist experienced in
environmental engineering, wastewater management construction and equipment installation as
the PIU Project Director. The Director will be responsible for the day-to-day implementation of the
respective physical works and equipment packages. Implementation of the institutional reform and
capacity development, and project management and implementation support parts of the project
(Parts B and C) will be managed by MCUD through the PMU and with assistance from the PMU
management support consultants.
373
During the project design period, the PMU, in discussion with MCUD, Darkhan-Uul aimag
government and Darkhan Us Suvag will determine the detailed arrangements for operation and
maintenance of assets created under the project. Through this process, agreement will be reached
on which activities will be retained by Us Suvag as those for which they are directly responsible,
and those for which they will retain an oversight, supervisory and management role, but which will
be contracted out. In addition, discussions will be held with the local community surrounding the
treatment plant to explore opportunities for members of the local community to be involved in
simple maintenance tasks for the treatment plant area (landscape maintenance, dried sludge reuse
or resale as fertilizer, and possibly fish farming in maturation ponds). This agreement will confirm
the roles and responsibilities during plant operational phase for:
374
i.
Darkhan-Uul aimag government
ii.
Darkhan Us Suvag
iii.
Contractor for construction and installation of the WWTP
iv.
A contracted private sector operator to manage overall plant operations
v.
Local community group for maintain site landscape
Figure 10.1 below indicates the proposed project management and implementation arrangements
and the flow of funding under the project. Further details of proposed execution and
implementation arrangements are provided at Appendix O.
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Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Figure 10.1: Basic Project Implementation Arrangements
115
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
10.2 ADB
375
The ADB will take the following roles in supporting execution and implementation of the project:
i.
The Mongolian National Resident Mission (MNRM): Will take responsibility for overall
supervision and administration of the loan project and review of contract documentation
requiring prior review, with assistance from ADB head office on review of contract
documentation relating to the wastewater treatment plant;
ii.
Mount supervision missions to include: a review of project progress against milestones, a
review of compliance with project assurances, and an assessment of compliance with due
diligence requirements;
iii.
Manages the proposed technical assistance for oversight and third party quality assurance of
the design, tender and construction of the WWTP.
10.3 GoM: MoF, MoED and MCUD
376
MCUD is the executing agency for the project through a PMU which it is recommended should be
the PMU currently responsible for the execution of the Urban Sector Loan 2301-MON. The PMU
and State Government ministries would be responsible for the following activities:
i.
PMU facilitates the process for MCUD to enter into a sub-project agreement with Darkhan-Uul
aimag for the Project;
ii.
PMU facilitates the process for MoF to enter into a sub-loan agreement with Darkan-Uul
aimag for the Project loan (or a portion of the loan as agreed between the State Government
(MoED and MoF) and Darkhan-Uul aimag;
iii.
MoED approves the investment and, in co-ordination with MoF, carries out ministerial
administration of the loan documentation;
iv.
MCUD through the PMU is responsible for overall execution and high-level supervision of part
A of the project (with a stronger role in implementation of Part A1 – the WWTP – of the
Project), and implementation of parts B and C of the project.
10.4 Darkan-uul Aimag
377
Darkan-Uul aimag is the implementing agency for the project. Through the office of the aimag
administrator carries out the following activities:
i.
In collaboration with Us Suvag and the PMU, creates a Project Implementation Unit (PIU) with
overall responsibility for project implementation;
ii.
Enters into a sub-project agreement with MCUD;
iii.
Enters into a sub-loan agreement with MoF:
iv.
Enters into an on-lending agreement with Darkhan Us Suvag;
v.
Monitors project implementation and ensures compliance with environmental, social and
resettlement due diligence requirements.
10.5 PUSO - Us Suvag
378
Us Suvag is ultimate operator of assets created under the project and is responsible for the
following:
116
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
i.
In collaboration with Darkhn-Uul aimag and the PMU, creates a Project Implementation Unit
(PIU) with overall responsibility for project implementation;
ii.
Enters into an on-lending agreement with Darkan-Uul aimag for project elements as agreed
between the two;
iii.
Through the PIU, takes primary responsibility for implementation of parts A1 and A2 of the
project;
iv.
Is the primary recipient of parts B and C of the Project
117
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
11
Final Report – September 2014
PROCUREMENT PLAN OUTLINE
11.1 Project Procurement Approach
379
Wastewater treatment plants rely on sensitive bio-chemical processes and can present operation
challenges, particularly in harsh climates such as Darkhan. Furthermore, the potential damage to
the environment of process failure is high. To reduce this risk, it was initially proposed to
investigate the possibility of the adoption of a design-build-operate-transfer (DBOT) modality for
procurement. It is understood that a set of standard contract documents for such modalities are
under formulation by the Government of Mongolia with the assistance of the ADB. Furthermore,
such an approach has recently been adopted by Government in the tender for the construction of a
new WWTP at Nisekh on the edge of Ulaanbaatar.
380
The “traditional” approach to wastewater treatment plant development involves a number of
separate procurement actions and contracts: (i) an engineering company carrying out design, (ii) a
separate construction company carrying out construction; (iii) probably a third company providing
equipment (preferably, but not always, in consortium with the civil works contractor); a fourth
company supervising construction, installation and commissioning (which may or may not be the
design engineer); and (v) the owner accepting and then operating the system. At the interface
between these actors there are frequently problems – and when things go wrong, money and time
has to be spent to apportion blame and damages. The government takes the full risk in this
eventuality.
381
This may: (i) increase costs; (ii) cause delay; and (iii) compromise plant operation, adversely
affecting treatment efficiency. This risk may be significantly mitigated, or even removed by the
adoption of a DBOT modality where one entity (a consortium leader) takes responsibility for
designing, constructing and operating the plant according to the employer’s requirements. In this
case, the employer (Darkan Us Suvag) is only looking to the designer, builder and operator to
achieve an approved quality of effluent within a set of operating requirements and for a given unit
cost – which could still be apportioned between capital and operating. Furthermore, since the
treatment plant will be subject to international tender, this would be governed by FDIC tender
procedures. Tendering according to FIDIC Yellow Book could allow tenderers to propose
alternative technologies to that proposed in the tender documents for consideration during the
design phase of the project.
382
Both the National Government (MCUD) and the Darkhan-Uul aimag government have expressed
support for this approach. However, the benefits of such a procurement modality must be offset
against possible disadvantages. These include: (i) the possibility that competition will be restricted
by the specification of performance which only a few suppliers of a particular treatment technology
are able to achieve; and (ii) the relatively strong regulatory environment and evaluation and
management capabilities, and need for strong analysis and understanding of commercial risk and
its attribution required to successfully complete such a transaction. It can be argued that the market
within Mongolia is not yet mature enough to entertain DBOT implementation options. As things
stand, obtaining the relevant approvals for designs and construction follows a rigid format with little
opportunity for variation and change. This reflects the historical legacy of the centrally–planned
approach to construction processes. If the usual trajectory for such changes is followed, it may be
some years before the market matures within Mongolia to entertain works of this nature being
completed under DBOT arrangements.
383
In view of the above, and the fact that the Government (MCUD) has elected to carry out the
detailed design services using their own funding, tender for the wastewater treatment plant will be
carried out under international competitive bidding rules to include construction, equipment supply
and operational assistance. Under the proposed procurement arrangements, tenderes will be
required to present detailed information on the specification of equipment to be supplied and
installed as part of the bid.
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Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
384
Procurement financed from the ADB loan will be carried out in accordance with ADB’s
Procurement Guidelines (February 2007, as amended from time to time). International competitive
bidding (ICB) will be applied to supply contracts estimated to cost $1 million or more. Supply
contracts with a value less than $1 million will follow national competitive bidding (NCB), and those
less than $100,000 will follow shopping procedures as reflected by particular circumstances of the
contract packages. ICB will be used for civil works contracts valued at $1 million or more. Civil
works contracts valued less than $1 million will be procured using NCB procedures. The selection
and engagement of contractors will be subject to ADB approval. Before commencement of NCB
procurement, ADB and the Borrower will review the Borrower’s procurement procedures to ensure
consistency with ADB requirements. Any necessary modifications or clarifications to the Borrower’s
procedures will be documented in the procurement plan. Any internationally tendered equipment
packages will include the necessary technical support for ensuring proper installation, testing,
commissioning, and training of operational staff as part of the related contracts. In accordance with
ADB requirements, foreign contractors may participate in bidding for NCB contracts.
385
The procurement plan is provided below in Table 11.1. It is suggested that the contracts are
bundled to the extent possible to reduce procurement risk and minimise the number of contracts –
thus simplifying project management and reducing risk for the client. This means that: (i) the large
contract for the wastewater treatment plant would include all civil works, equipment procurement
and installation, commissioning and operational assistance. For the rehabilitation of the pumping
stations, the supply of pumps and other equipment is rolled into the civil works contracts for the
pump station rehabilitation since this will ensure that the contractor takes full responsibility for
delivery and commissioning of a fully functional facility.
386
For packages tendered adopting NCB procedures, the first package will be previewed by the ADB.
Subsequent packages will be subject only to post-tender review by ADB.
387
The MCUD through the PMU will establish a Tender Evaluation Committee for the project
comprising a Chairman, secretary and members. Under the Procurement Law of Mongolia, in
order to ensure transparency in the procurement process, at least two members representing
related sectoral professional associations; the private sector; or non-governmental organization; a
citizen appointed by the respective Citizen’s Representative Khural; and an official from the
respective Governor’s Office shall be included on the tender evaluation panel. In addition a
representative from Us Suvag should be included since it will be they who eventually have to
accept the assets created and operate and maintain them.
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Final Report – September 2014
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Table 11.1: Procurement Plan
Bid
Package
No.
Contract
Description
Base Cost
($ million)
Method
Rehabilitation of existing units and configuration of existing treatment plant to
accept wastewater flow; rehabilitation of structures and reconfiguration to
IFAS treatment system; provision, installation and commissioning of all
equipment; and operational advice for 3 years
12.4
ICB
Pack. 1
Pump station repair works, new duty and standby pumps, and 6kw power
distribution networks at: (i) primary “new” pumping station at industrial
estate and (ii) secondary pumping station in old Darkhan
0.84
Pack.2
Tertiary sewers at: (i) primary “new” south pumping station: 1,400m x 1 m
dia.; and (ii) at old Darkhan hospital No. 2: 300m x 0.3 m dia.; and bypass
main at secondary pumping station: 100m x 0.8 m dia.;
Expected Date of
Advertisement
Prior
Review
(Y/N)
Procurement
Type
Part A: Civil Works and Equipment Procurement and Installation
Part A1
January 2015
Y
Works and
Equipment
NCB*
May 2015
N
Works and
Equipment
0.55
NCB*
May 2015
N
Works and
Equipment
Part A2
Part B: Organisational and Human Resource Development, and Institutional Reform
B1
Organizational and Human Resource Development (OHRD) and Capacity
Building support for Darkhan-Uul government and Us Suvag; support to Us
Suvag on institutional reform towards service delivery focus.
1.3
QCBS
March 2015
Y
Consulting
services
B2
Creation, Development and Support to Us Suvag on creation of a ger area
development support unit
0.26
QCBS
March 2015
Y
Consulting
services
July 2014
Y
Consulting
services
December 2014
Y
Consulting
services
Part C: Project Management Support
C1
Project management support and quality assurance during design and
tendering, and supervision support during construction and commissioning
of the WWTP
0.50
ICS
C2
Project Management Support to PMU and PIU on project management,
procurement and supervision, and pump station and sewer rehabilitation
design.
0.50
QCBS
Consulting
services
ICB = international competitive bidding, ICS = individual consultant selection; NCB = national competitive bidding, QCBS = quality- and cost-based selection; Y/N = yes/no.
First Package subject to prior review
C3
Project Benefit Monitoring and Evaluation (PBME)
0.10
QCS
March 2015
Y
120
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
12
Final Report – September 2014
RISK ASSESSMENT
12.1 Project Risks
388
The main risks to: (i) timely project execution; and (ii) realisation of anticipated project outcomes,
objectives are benefits are considered to be as follows:
i.
The technology adopted for the wastewater treatment plant: Darkhan provides a harsh
construction and operational environment for new and more sophisticated treatment
technologies. Poor choice of technology or poor quality construction and equipment
installation will compromise treatment system performance;
ii.
Limited procurement capacity compromises tendering: Darkhan-Uul aimag and Darkhan Us
Suvag have limited procurement capacity and no experience in procuring works and
equipment of this size and level of sophistication;
iii.
Insufficient project management skills and experience compromises project quality: DarkhanUul aimag and Darkhan Us Suvag have limited project management and supervision capacity
and no experience in managing and supervising procuring works and equipment of this size
and level of sophistication;
iv.
The operation of the wastewater treatment plant: Us Suvag is accustomed to operating a
simple Activated Sludge Plant and the new treatment system in more sophisticated
demanding greater operational skills. Poor operation will result in increased operational costs
and reduced treatment efficiency;
v.
Inefficient operation or overload of WWTP due to divergence in flow: Pace and nature of
development diverges from that projected resulting in greater or reduced wastewater flows
than projected and/or changes in quality of wastewater, leading to inefficient or overloaded
operation of WWTP;
vi.
Poor cost recovery compromises sustainability: Us Suvag is currently running at a loss and
this threatens securing an adequate operational budget for the new WWTP. Failure to
implement improved financial management will threaten WWTP operation.
12.2 Risk Mitigation
389
Mitigation for the above risks:
i.
Optimisation of design, equipment specification and treatment operation under Darkhan
conditions will be ensured by providing a wastewater management specialist through technical
assistance during design of WWTP by Government to quality assure the detailed design
consultants and provide top management supervision and third party quality assurance
through construction, commissioning and early stages of operation.
ii.
Project procurement and management risks will be addressed by: (i) project execution
arrangements which involve the MCUD in procuring the WWTP (with involvement of Darkhan
Uul aimag and Darkhan Us Suvag); and (ii) provision of technical assistance to the PMU and
PIU in procurement, project management and supervision.
iii.
To ensure that Us Suvag is capable of operating the new WWTP, the construction contract will
include a period of operational assistance and training to operational staff, and/or operation
could be contracted out under a management contract for the Plant.
iv.
To mitigate risks from shock loadings or over- or under-loading, the plant is designed to
balance shock pollution loads (through the balancing tank) and the biological reactor is divided
121
Darkhan Wastewater Management Project Preparation
Final Report – September 2014
into three streams, each with a design loading of about 8,000 cum/day. Under higher loading
conditions three stream can be operated, or under lower operating conditions two or even one
stream. In addition, Us Suvag will be strengthened in order to enforce national discharge
standards for industries disposing of their effluent into the public sewer.
v.
To ensure sufficient resources remain available for optimal operation of the sewage treatment
plant, technical assistance will be provided to assist Us Suvag in the development and
implementation of an institutional strengthening and reform road map and action plan for
improved financial management and cost recovery.
122
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