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Unit 4 Cellular energy study guide answers (1)

Cell Energy Study Guide
Photosynthesis Review
Match the terms below with the correct description
Light-independent reactions
Light-dependant reactions (LIGHT
a. __Light Dependent Reaction_energy-capturing portion of
photosynthesis that takes place in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts
and cannot proceed without solar energy, it produces ATP and NADPH
b. ______Chlorophyll___green pigment that absorbs solar energy and is
important in photosynthesis
c. ___Chloroplast_______________ membrane-bounded organelle with
chlorophyll – containing membranous thylakoids; where photosynthesis
takes place
d. __________Photosynthesis________Process usually occurring within
chloroplasts whereby chlorophyll traps solar energy and carbon
dioxide is reduced to a carbohydrate.
e. _Light independent Reactions_____Synthesis portion of photosynthesis
that takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts and does not directly
require solar energy; it uses the products of the light dependant
reactions to reduce carbon dioxide to a carbohydrate
Answer the following questions
1. Explain the difference between autotrophs and heterotrophs. Give two
examples of each.
Autotrophs make their own food (glucose) – Tree, fern, flowering plants,
algae, some photosynthetic bacteria
Heterotrophs must go get and Eat their food to obtain glucose
Dogs, fish, frogs, bears, humans, flies, mushrooms
2. Draw a picture of a molecule of ATP and an ADP molecule (make sure
to KNOW the differences between these models). ALSO, Label:
adenosine, ribose, and phosphate groups. Also show the chemical bond
that would be broken if energy needed to be released.
3. Explain why chloroplasts are green. What is the function of chlorophyll?
Chlorophyll inside of the chloroplasts of plant cells absorb all colors of light
accept green. Green light is reflected at your eyes, so you see green.
Chlorophyll is a pigment that absorbs the energy from sunlight. Chlorophyll
is found in thylakoids which is where the light dependent reactions of
photosynthesis take place
4. What is NADPH? What is the difference between NADP+, NADPH, ADP,
and ATP? How does ATP turn into ADP+P? NADPH is the molecule that is
formed when NADP+ picks up the Hydrogen (taken off the water plants
take in) and carries it to the Calvin’s cycle (light INDEPENDENT reactions)
ATP is the energy molecule made in Cell respiration- in photosynthesis ATP
is used to power the Calvin’s cycle (remember the battery of
photosynthesis). ATP has three phosphates. When the bond between two
of those phosphates are broken, energy is released and ATP (Adenosine
TRI phosphate) becomes ADP + p (Adenosine DI phosphate) ADP then
goes back to the Light reactions where solar energy is used to bond ADP
and the P back together to form ATP again. The cycle then repeats. See
your chloroplast flip diagram to visualize this process
5. Write the chemical equation for the process of photosynthesis.
6. What are the reactants and products of Light Reaction? Where in the
chloroplast do they occur?
Reactants: Sunlight, Water, NADP+ ADP+p
Products: Oxygen -O2 , ATP, NADPH
Location: Thylakoids inside the chloroplast of plant cells
7. What are the reactants and products of Dark Reaction? Where in the
chloroplast do they occur? AKA CALVIN”S CYCLE AND LIGHT
Reactants: Co2 - Carbon Dioxide, ATP, NADPH
Products: Glucose -C6H12O6, ADP + p, NADP+
Location: Stroma (cytoplasm of the chloroplasts)
8.Describe steps of Light-Dependent reactions. See diagram in your IAN
9.What is Light-Independent Reaction often called?
Calvin’s cycle (used to also be called Dark reactions but we do not say
that anymore because this can occur with or without light)
10.Where does the Carbon Dioxide come from? What will happen to it
and what will it eventually become? It comes from the atmosphere
(animals breathe out carbon dioxide, decaying plants and animals
release it, and burning fossil fuels) It will be broken down in the Calvin’s
cycle and combined with the hydrogen (taken from the water in the Light
reactions) to make Glucose -C6H12O6
11.How many molecules of high-energy sugars are produced as a result of
one Calvin Cycle? 1 molecule of glucose is produced in EACH Calvin
12.What happens to water, CO2, and sunlight in photosynthesis, meaning
what is created from these reactants? Glucose is made, and Oxygen O2
Cellular Respiration
1. Write the overall reaction for cellular respiration.
36 ATP is made
2. What are the 3 phases of the cellular respiration process? Where does
each occur in the cell? How much ATP is produced in each? What are
the reactants and products in each stage?
Krebs’s cycle
(AKA: Citric
Acid cycle)
transport chain
Cytoplasm of
space of the
2 pyruvic acids
2 pyruvic
Citric acid
Oxygen and
Water and
(on the
membrane) of
Remember GIANTS KILL ELVES and 2-2-32
3. How many ATP are produced in cell respiration from one glucose
4. In which phase of cellular respiration is carbon dioxide made?
5. In which phase of cellular respiration is water made?
Electron Transport chain
6. In which phase of cellular respiration is oxygen a reactant?
Krebs’s and Electron transport chain
7. In which phase of cellular respiration is glucose a reactant?
8. What steps does Aerobic Respiration consist of?
Krebs’s and Electron transport chain (BOTH require oxygen)
9. What steps does Anaerobic Respiration consist of?
Glycolysis – no oxygen is required
10. Out of Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration which process makes the
most ATP for the cell? What is the difference between the two? Name
the steps of each.
Glycolysis – no oxygen = anaerobic
Krebs’s – Aerobic = oxygen is required
Electron Transport Chain – Aerobic = oxygen is required
11. Name the two types of fermentation. What is the difference between
the two? Where are they found to occur?
Lactic Acid Fermentation – your cells do this when there is no oxygen left to perform the
Krebs’s cycle – hurts – muscle soreness, burn, and side pain when running
Alcohol fermentation – how yeast and other organisms ferment (alcohol and bread are
made using alcohol fermentation)
Along with the study guide, review all of your notes given on
photosynthesis, cell respiration and fermentation. And use your IAN