Impact of Engineering and Electronics in Healthcare Industry Dr. K Srinivasamoorthi Operations Head, Magna Meditech Sdn Bhd, Malaysia YOUR LOGO What is Healthcare Industry? • Health care Industry comprise of Hospital (Clinical & Paramedical), Medical device manufacturing & service, Instruments/Tools fabrication & supply, Consumables sector, Drug manufacturing, etc, • Engineering society massive contribution in past two centuries in terns of Research, Innovation, Design, Fabrication, Marketing & Services in healthcare industry. Why Engineering in Medical field? A physician of the future connects the dots and pushes the limits of what we can offer patients. A physician of the future constantly searchers for the answers through an interdisciplinary approach involving science and engineering. Impacts of Engineering in Health care Outline: Civil – Facility services (Infrastructure, architectural, sewerage, water supply, geological & environmental aspects) Mechanical (Design & fabrication of plants, machines, tools, prosthetics labs, implants) Electrical (Provide electrification, conversion of energy, power systems, etc.,) Chemical (Drug manufacture, blood bank, molecular biology & recombinant DNA technology) Electronics (On medical devices-signals and systems, whole body diagnose, monitoring and therapeutic systems) Computer Science (include hospital information system, data analysis& storage medical imaging, laboratory computing, computer assisted clinical decision, computer assisted therapy) Outline: Manufacturing medical devices Reengineering Concept in Medical device Industry Future scopes of engineers in healthcare Conclusion Cont.. Civil Engineering Contribution • Land procurement, land develop & Building work Electrification, ventilation, lighting Water supply-Water requirement of hospital (according to National Building Code), Source, Purification, Storage & Distribution system of water Lifts, elevator Hospital roads, garden, parks Drainage system Hospital traffic and parking slots Civil Engineering Contribution Facility services (Specialized infrastructure, architect, construction, biohazard management) MRI RF shielding Construction CT/X-Radiation shield Construction Linear Accelerator Vault Shield Construction Mechanical Engineering Contribution • Medical gases (Compressed Air, O2,N2O & Vacuum) • Gas plant - Storage, distribution/supply International Color coded pipelining system • Supply of Steam (Boilers, Hot water and steam, Steam distributions system) • Central Heating Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) Systems • Transportation ( Lift & Vehicles) Mechanical Engineering Contribution (Design and Fabrication of plants, machines, instruments, tools, prosthetics labs, rehabilitation implants, etc.,) MRI plant Installation CT scan Gantry manufacturing Human implant parts and company Mechanical Engineering Contribution The heart/cardiac stents or coronary stents made of metal mesh, they put into arteries, a procedure called Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) intervention or angioplasty. Computer Aided Stent Design Electrical Engineering Contribution Nature & Magnitude of load Source of electric supply Short circuit protection Alternative methods of electricity like stand by generator, solar system, inverters and Ups etc. Load assessment, Load distribution Lighting Air conditioning Isolation transformers for operation room Electrical Engineering Contribution Provide electrification, conversion of energy, manage power systems, etc.,) Medical high power system UPS Protected safety power system in OR Liquid medical gas central supply monitoring system Chemical Engineering Contribution Drug testing & manufacturing, blood bank process, molecular biology and recombinant DNA technology, etc.,) Molecular Lab Biochemical Analyzer Hemodialysis system Genetics Lab Computer Engineering Contribution Medical Device Software development Various modality medical Imaging software Laboratory computing, critical care monitoring, computer assisted clinical decision & therapy Homecare product SW design using Hi-fi gadgets Legal Licenses for Computer Antivirus for Computers Hospital Software (Hospital Information System, Management Information System) Website Maintenance plan Daily, Weekly, monthly Backup Plan Hospital Data safety plan Preventive maintenance plan for Computer, Hardware , Networking & Software. Electronics Engineering Contribution Electronics play vital role product like tiny instruments/tools to major machines The principle and function of Electromechanical system combined with processor based software results simplified & precise procedure than earlier system. Combined effort of technical twigs are wrapped up with electronics & software to serve life saving system Evolution of medical device YOUR LOGO Electronics Engineering Contribution Mentioned here few of the devices evolutionary details from it’s invention. Stethoscope Sphygmomanometer Multipara monitor Ventilators Page 17 YOUR LOGO Stethoscope Instrument to investigate the sounds made by heart and lungs and determined diagnoses by the observations made. Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laënnec a French physician invented the stethoscope in 1816. Bamboo stick to Micro-electromechanical systems(MEMS) digital stethoscopes evolution Page 18 YOUR LOGO Digital Stethoscopes: Vi-scope Vi-scope is the device which working in auscultation principle, record stethoscopes' heart sounds and provide analyzed waveform to diagnose heart and lung diseases. https://hdmedicalgroup.com/author/hdkc27/page/3/ Page 19 YOUR LOGO Non invasive blood pressure (Sphygmomanometer) The sphygmomanometer is to measure invasive body blood pressure. Invented by Samuel Siegfried Karl Ritter von Basch in the year 1881 and Scipione Riva-Rocci introduced a more easily used version in 1896. First sphygmomanometer Classical sphygmomanometer Analog sphygmomanometer Digital sphygmomanometer Page 20 YOUR LOGO Multipara monitor System All in one ECG-Electrical signal SpO2-Spectrophotometric signal NIBP- Static/Oscillation Pressure signal Respiration- Variable impedance signal Temperature-Thermo signal ECG-Electrical activity of heart is monitored in 3 lead, 5 lead, and 10 lead system SpO2-Saturated partial oxygen level in blood is monitored in percentage NIBP- Non-invasive Blood Pressure is measured periodically Respiration- Breath rate for minute is monitored Temperature-Non-invasive body temp is monitored thru nasal/rectal sensor Page 21 YOUR LOGO Ventilator A ventilator provides mechanical ventilation to deliver breaths to a patient who is physically unable to breathe or breathe insufficiently. Ventilator patients treated in ICU on 1916 A Patient in ventilator at ICU on 1916 Negative pressure ventilator system used in 1st world war in 1914-1918 Page 22 YOUR LOGO Real engineering in Life saving system-Ventilator Intubation and mechanical ventilation Page 23 YOUR LOGO Further Classify on functions & use Imaging equipment Radiology/Radiotherapy images Ultrasound image Endoscopic image Thermogram image Laboratory equipment Surgical/ Operation room(OR) equipment Dental equipment Physiotherapy equipment Page 24 YOUR LOGO Manufacturing The supply of Medical Devices of India Import by International Players 75-80% Manufactured in India 20-25% Manufacturing 20-25% in India indigenous technology contribution is only 7-11% In global export India’s Contribution 1.7-2% Reengineering Concept Business process reengineering (BPR) is the practice of rethinking and redesigning the way work is done to better support an organization's mission and reduce costs. If wheel Spin can achieve significant outcome Reengineering apt for India Demanufacturing Dem Reverse Engineering Remanufacturing Rev Rem Reengineering - DEM Demanufacturing - process where a product after extensive usage at end of lifespan disassembled into components. The components are classified as to functionality and components suitable for reuse are again to returned to a product for reuse. Components that are deemed unusable are typically recycled to be used in new products. Demanufacturing is proposed to be used in all industries as a means of reduce the environmental footprint while preserving economic viability of the processes involved. Reengineering - REV Reverse Engineering - back engineering, the process by which deconstructed. a man-made object is To reveal its designs, architecture, code or to extract knowledge from the object; similar to scientific research. The only difference being that scientific research is about a natural phenomenon. Reverse engineering can lead reinvention through existing product or design. Reengineering-REM Remanufacturing - rebuilding a product to specifications of original manufactured product using a combination of reused, repaired and new parts. It requires the repair or replacement of worn out or obsolete components and modules. Re-innovated, redesigned parts are manufactured with optimised method Scopes in Health care industry Conclusion Interdisciplinidade in medicine is very important for progress of science and engineering. It has contributed greatly to the advancement in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Nano cell hardware embed with Artificial Neural Intelligent (ANI) entered in to market will create revolution on provide solution on present challenges in the industry. The interaction of nano- and micro meter scale systems are emerging trend in medical devices, materials, artificial biomolecules, cells, tissues and organs. The convergence between technological objects of engineering and biological sciences of medicine represents a new paradigm to lead to high-impact applications in biotechnology and regenerative medicine.