Impact of Engineering and Electronics
Healthcare Industry
Dr. K Srinivasamoorthi
Operations Head, Magna Meditech Sdn Bhd,
What is Healthcare Industry?
• Health care Industry comprise of Hospital (Clinical & Paramedical), Medical device
manufacturing & service, Instruments/Tools fabrication & supply, Consumables sector,
Drug manufacturing, etc,
• Engineering society massive contribution in past two centuries in terns of Research,
Innovation, Design, Fabrication, Marketing & Services in healthcare industry.
Why Engineering in Medical field?
A physician of the future connects the dots and pushes the limits of what we can offer
A physician of the future constantly searchers for the answers through an interdisciplinary
approach involving science and engineering.
Impacts of Engineering in Health care
 Outline:
 Civil – Facility services (Infrastructure, architectural, sewerage, water supply, geological
& environmental aspects)
 Mechanical (Design & fabrication of plants, machines, tools, prosthetics labs, implants)
 Electrical (Provide electrification, conversion of energy, power systems, etc.,)
 Chemical (Drug manufacture, blood bank, molecular biology & recombinant DNA
 Electronics (On medical devices-signals and systems, whole body diagnose, monitoring
and therapeutic systems)
 Computer Science (include hospital information system, data analysis&
storage medical imaging, laboratory computing, computer assisted clinical decision,
computer assisted therapy)
 Manufacturing medical devices
 Reengineering Concept in Medical device Industry
 Future scopes of engineers in healthcare
 Conclusion
Civil Engineering Contribution
• Land procurement, land develop & Building work
Electrification, ventilation, lighting
Water supply-Water requirement of hospital (according to National Building Code),
Source, Purification, Storage & Distribution system of water
Lifts, elevator
Hospital roads, garden, parks
Drainage system
Hospital traffic and parking slots
Civil Engineering Contribution
Facility services (Specialized infrastructure, architect,
construction, biohazard management)
MRI RF shielding Construction
CT/X-Radiation shield Construction
Linear Accelerator Vault Shield Construction
Mechanical Engineering Contribution
• Medical gases (Compressed Air, O2,N2O & Vacuum)
• Gas plant - Storage, distribution/supply
International Color coded pipelining system
• Supply of Steam (Boilers, Hot water and steam, Steam distributions system)
• Central Heating Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) Systems
• Transportation ( Lift & Vehicles)
Mechanical Engineering Contribution
(Design and Fabrication of plants, machines, instruments,
tools, prosthetics labs, rehabilitation implants, etc.,)
MRI plant Installation
CT scan Gantry manufacturing
Human implant parts and company
Mechanical Engineering Contribution
The heart/cardiac stents or coronary stents made of metal
mesh, they put into arteries, a procedure called
Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA)
intervention or angioplasty.
Computer Aided Stent Design
Electrical Engineering Contribution
 Nature & Magnitude of load
Source of electric supply
Short circuit protection
Alternative methods of electricity like stand by generator,
solar system, inverters and Ups etc.
Load assessment, Load distribution
Air conditioning
Isolation transformers for operation room
Electrical Engineering Contribution
Provide electrification, conversion of energy, manage
power systems, etc.,)
Medical high power system UPS
Protected safety power system in OR
Liquid medical gas central supply
monitoring system
Chemical Engineering Contribution
Drug testing & manufacturing, blood bank process, molecular
biology and recombinant DNA technology, etc.,)
Molecular Lab
Biochemical Analyzer
Hemodialysis system
Genetics Lab
Computer Engineering Contribution
 Medical Device Software development
 Various modality medical Imaging software
 Laboratory computing, critical care
computer assisted clinical decision &
 Homecare product SW design using Hi-fi
 Legal Licenses for Computer
Antivirus for Computers
Hospital Software (Hospital Information System, Management Information System)
Website Maintenance plan
Daily, Weekly, monthly Backup Plan
Hospital Data safety plan
Preventive maintenance plan for Computer, Hardware , Networking & Software.
Electronics Engineering Contribution
 Electronics play vital role product like tiny instruments/tools to major machines
 The principle and function of Electromechanical system combined with processor based
software results simplified & precise procedure than earlier system.
 Combined effort of technical twigs are wrapped up with electronics & software to serve
life saving system
Evolution of medical device
Electronics Engineering Contribution
 Mentioned here few of the devices evolutionary details from it’s invention.
 Stethoscope
 Sphygmomanometer
 Multipara monitor
 Ventilators
Page  17
Instrument to investigate the sounds made by heart and lungs and
determined diagnoses by the observations made.
Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laënnec a French physician invented
the stethoscope in 1816.
Bamboo stick to Micro-electromechanical systems(MEMS) digital stethoscopes evolution
Page  18
Digital Stethoscopes: Vi-scope
Vi-scope is the device which working in auscultation principle, record stethoscopes' heart
sounds and provide analyzed waveform to diagnose heart and lung diseases.
Page  19
Non invasive blood pressure (Sphygmomanometer)
 The sphygmomanometer is to measure invasive body blood pressure.
 Invented by Samuel Siegfried Karl Ritter von Basch in the year 1881 and Scipione
Riva-Rocci introduced a more easily used version in 1896.
First sphygmomanometer Classical sphygmomanometer Analog sphygmomanometer Digital sphygmomanometer
Page  20
Multipara monitor System All in one
 ECG-Electrical signal
 SpO2-Spectrophotometric signal
 NIBP- Static/Oscillation Pressure signal
 Respiration- Variable impedance signal
 Temperature-Thermo signal
 ECG-Electrical activity of heart is monitored in 3 lead, 5 lead, and 10 lead system
 SpO2-Saturated partial oxygen level in blood is monitored in percentage
 NIBP- Non-invasive Blood Pressure is measured periodically
 Respiration- Breath rate for minute is monitored
 Temperature-Non-invasive body temp is monitored thru nasal/rectal sensor
Page  21
A ventilator provides mechanical ventilation to deliver
breaths to a patient who is physically unable to breathe
or breathe insufficiently.
Ventilator patients treated in ICU on 1916
A Patient in ventilator at ICU on 1916
Negative pressure ventilator system
used in 1st world war in 1914-1918
Page  22
Real engineering in Life saving system-Ventilator
Intubation and mechanical ventilation
Page  23
Further Classify on functions & use
Imaging equipment
Radiology/Radiotherapy images
Ultrasound image
Endoscopic image
Thermogram image
Laboratory equipment
Surgical/ Operation room(OR) equipment
Dental equipment
Physiotherapy equipment
Page  24
The supply of Medical Devices of India
Import by International Players 75-80%
Manufactured in India 20-25%
Manufacturing 20-25% in India indigenous technology contribution is only 7-11%
In global export India’s Contribution 1.7-2%
Reengineering Concept
Business process reengineering (BPR) is the practice of rethinking and redesigning the way work is
done to better support an organization's mission and reduce costs.
If wheel Spin can achieve significant
Reengineering apt for India
 Demanufacturing
 Reverse Engineering
 Remanufacturing
Reengineering - DEM
Demanufacturing - process where a product after
extensive usage at end of lifespan disassembled into
 The components are classified as to functionality
and components suitable for reuse are again to
returned to a product for reuse.
 Components that are deemed unusable are typically
recycled to be used in new products.
 Demanufacturing is proposed to be used in all
industries as a means of reduce the environmental
footprint while preserving economic viability of the
processes involved.
Reengineering - REV
Reverse Engineering - back engineering, the
process by which
 To reveal its designs, architecture, code or to
extract knowledge from the object; similar to
scientific research.
 The only difference being that scientific research
is about a natural phenomenon.
 Reverse engineering can lead reinvention through
existing product or design.
Remanufacturing - rebuilding a product to specifications of original manufactured
product using a combination of reused, repaired and new parts.
 It requires the repair or replacement of worn out or obsolete components and modules.
 Re-innovated, redesigned parts are manufactured with optimised method
Scopes in Health care industry
Interdisciplinidade in medicine is very important for progress of science and engineering.
It has contributed greatly to the advancement in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
Nano cell hardware embed with Artificial Neural Intelligent (ANI) entered in to market will
create revolution on provide solution on present challenges in the industry.
The interaction of nano- and micro meter scale systems are emerging trend in medical
devices, materials, artificial biomolecules, cells, tissues and organs.
The convergence between technological objects of engineering and biological sciences
of medicine represents a new paradigm to lead to high-impact applications in
biotechnology and regenerative medicine.