FACTORS AFFECTING THE ABSENTEEISM AMONG GRADE 12 ABM STUDENT OF ACLC NAGA Justine Ian Alcantara Jolan Rey Valenzuela Francis Dave Mallari Paul Anthony Manaog Mat Cyrus Mino Aladin Laynes July-October 2018 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In this era, knowledge is very important to mankind who wants to succeed and gets a good job in the future. For those who want to survive in this competitive world, holding a good qualification in education is the main key. As the numbers of university applicants have increased, the students need to face a high level of competitive results to enter to the university. Presently, the school attendance and students absenteeism had turn into one of the major problems faced by the school. Student’s attendance is very important because not all institution provides online or e- learning. In this kind of scenario, it is imperative that students must attend class regularly to benefit maximally information that they get from their lectures. Absenteeism in school is the habit of staying away from school without providing a genuine or any reason for not attending classes. Absenteeism is a truant behavior that negatively affects the performance among students (Keter, 2013). Student absenteeism and truancy have become large problem with students today and received lesser attention due to the abundance of other issues and priorities that social workers and other service agencies are faced with (Teasly, 2004). Absenteeism among school student has been ongoing phenomenon which has not been given much attention today. Student’s attendance is very important to ensure that they will be able to understand what they are learn and it is also can lead to better results for students. Besides, school itself must provide a rules that can reduce the percentage of absenteeism among students and also must study the factors that contributing to student’s attendance. The study of absenteeism is very important for every institution and every teacher to improve the results and the studies. It is useful to make the students disciplined, punctual and regular. This research aims to understand the factor that contributing to student’s absenteeism especially the Grade 12 ABM students of ACLC Naga and also to define the strategies to prevent the problem of absenteeism. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This study aims to find out the factors affecting the absenteeism among ABM students of ACLC Naga, especially it seeks to answer the following question: 1. What are the factors that cause absenteeism among ABM students? 2. Do the factors of absenteeism affect boys and girls students equally? 3. Are the subject matter and the medium of instruction the causes of the student’s absenteeism? Objectives of the Study The main objective of the study is to find out the factors affecting the absenteeism of ABM students. The following objectives are guided the study: 1. To identify the factors that cause absenteeism among ABM students. 2. To determine if factors of absenteeism affect boys and girls equally. 3. To know if the subject matter and the medium of instruction the causes of the student’s absenteeism. Significance of the Study The finding of this will benefit both ABM student and the school and to the following: Student. The study can use to perceive the student commitment as a student. The higher levels of commitment are related to attendance. School. The findings will help the school to minimize the absenteeism among students when the main factors can be reduced. From the information the school can will take the positive reaction to further improving. Researcher. To identify the contemporary research topics and also suggest direction for future researcher as well as some guidelines for the nature of the research. Scope and Limitation The researcher seeks to find out the factors affecting the absenteeism of Grade 12 ABM students of ACLC Naga s/y 2018-2019. The study limits only to 50 Grade 12 Accountancy, Business and Management students who are currently enrolled. Only Grade 12 ABM students are allow to participate in the research. This research will be conduct from July to October 2018. CHAPTER II Review of related Literature The review of related literature will be discussed in this chapter. The main purpose of this chapter is to look into the related topics and issues of past literature and students written by researchers of related field. It provides a better view on related topics and issues of past literature and students written by researchers of related field. It provides a better view on related topics to expand our knowledge and understanding on the research being done. Particularly, it reviews the literatures on theories and factors contributed to absenteeism among school student. This literature review was generally obtained from both primary and secondary sources such as journals, reports, articles, thesis and other related materials. Absenteeism According to (Teasly, 2004) absenteeism is a period of time when a student does not attend school will generally fall behind their classmates in their academic success (Ford & Sutphen,1996) they have fewer opportunity to learn the materials that will help them to succeed ( Epstein & Sheldon, 2002) the focus of student absenteeism ranges from early schooling until adolescent year. According to (Koppenhaver, 2003) absenteeism in students affects their school performances especially when they are in a group or teamwork for their assignments and projects. Since grouping will help develops the student cooperatives and ability to share and gain knowledge from their group mates likewise the group will also miss the opportunity of gaining knowledge from absent student. Based on the research of (Marburger, 2001) states that the absences create a dead, tiresome, unpleasant classroom, environment that makes students who come to class uncomfortable and the lecturer irritable. Absenteeism disturbs the dynamic teaching learning environment and adversely affects the overall wellbeing of classes (Segal, 2008). In quality terms, absenteeism is a waste of educational resources, time and human potential. Student absenteeism also causes rework and wasted time for lectures (Lalek, 1995 & Rumburger 1997). According to (Park and Kerr 1990, Romer 1993 and Foltz 1996, Marburger 2001) is a widely recognized that absenteeism can negatively impact grades in economic courses and that high attendance rates can improve student performances in variety of classroom settings (Sheets et al. 1995, Johnston and James, 2000) According of study by (Brooks 1997, as cited in Bond, 2004) absenteeism can be defined as persistent, habitual and unexplained absence from school. Bond noted that chronic absenteeism occurs when a student is absent without reason 20% or more of school time: this nominal figure is consistently identified regardless of the specific circumstances of the absenteeism. According to (Shmidt,1993) absenteeism affects the students ability to get high scores in examinations which can cause the decreasing of grades or the student may fail and will cause him or her repeat the same year level. Students who have spent time attending lectures or classes have a significant, positive effects on student’s performance. Student that participated exhibits higher grades and scores in examinations that the student. According to (Epstein and Sheldon, 2002) to prevent and correct serious attendance problems, school need to change the way they structured improves the quality of the courses and intensity interpersonal relationship between teachers and students. According to (Chang & Romero 2008 and Moonie et al. 2008) have identified chronic absenteeism as a persistent problem related to poor academic performances and potential behavioral and development issues. There is general agreement among researchers that being chronically absent places student at risk of negative academic consequences. Factors of Absenteeism The factors of student absenteeism are complex and multi-faceted. The factors associated with absenteeism are classified in the literature into three fundamental areas: individual, family and schools (McCluskey, Bynum & Patch, 2004; Eastman et al., 2007; Clark, 2008, Robinson, 2009): Individual Factors. Students' individual factors may negatively affect school attendance. Research indicates that absenteeism increases by seniority in high school (Rood, 1989) and most frequently happens at age 15. Absentee students usually do not feel safe at school. They feel academically or socially inadequate. They find classes boring and their positive experiences related to school are less than those who attend school regularly (Clarke, 2008; CorvilleSmith, Ryan Adams, & Dalicandro, 1998; Williams, 2001). Thus, selfesteem, confidence, concentration, self-management and social skills of these students are low. They feel powerless in the school and think other students do not respect them (Eastwold, 1989; Wall, 2003; Eastman et al.2007). According to Reid (2000) and Gentle-Genitty (2008), other results include not wanting to get up in the morning, receiving strict punishment, sleeping late, not completing homework, being in a grade that is one above or one below the regular grade level, switching to another school in the middle or the beginning of the school year, feeling extreme test pressure, feeling constantly ill, and having siblings who are regularly absent. Participating in fun activities and socializing with their peers outside of school are also among the reasons (Williams, 2001). Interestingly, as Clark (2008) indicated, some students are absent since they find courses difficult and some others are absent because they find the courses monotonous and boring. Family factors. Another major reason for absenteeism is "family factors". A student's parent has a significant impact on his attendance in school (Clark, 2008). Research indicates the following reasons for student absenteeism arising from the family: family's socio-economic level; family's need for student to work; parenting skills; psychological problems; support or neglect; alcohol or drug problems; criminal behavior (McCluskey et al., 2004; Clark, 2008; Reed, 2000); the lack of consistency; divorce; inter-parent conflicts; family structure, such as a single parent; interest or control level for the student's behavior; parents have low education level; negative past school experiences; lack of participation in school or not understanding procedures; and not providing environment for the student to do homework (Corville-Smith, Ryan Adams, & Dalicandro, 1998 ; Rood, 1989; Corley, 2012; GentleGenitty, 2008, Eastman et al., 2007, 2007; Reed, 2000). The level of respect the family has for education is seen as a role model for students. The primary responsibility of parents is to ensure their children regularly attend school. Conditions at home have a significant impact on children’s attendance and on their promptness. Poor family control and lack of persistence is perhaps one of the most important factors behind school absenteeism (Pehlivan, 2006). Family control can be defined as parents' knowledge about their child's activities, friends and the information regarding his whereabouts (Cetin & Cok, 2011). Disinterested families are often seldom concerned with their children’s success or failure. They do not help in solving the problems at school and they rarely attend parent-school meetings. These families are unlikely to create a disciplined environment for children at home (Hallam & Rogers, 2008). According to Williams (2001), today's high school students are controlled less than their parents were in the past. As well as lack of control and lack of monitoring, some parents ignore the excuses with less than a valid reason. In so doing, they are supporting and justifying the absenteeism. School factors. School-related factors influence students' decisions toward school attendance. A school’s attitude and rules against absenteeism are factors that are contribute to the absenteeism problem (Eastman et al., 2007). According to Robinson (2009), schools’ procedures are inconsistent and do not produce meaningful results in reducing absenteeism. Students are not receiving clear messages from the school about the importance of attendance. Tolerant policies or lack of firm implementation for existing policies gives the wrong message to students and parents about the importance of attendance (Clarke, 2008). Wall (2000) also indicated that inconsistency of policies, lack of meaningful results and poor school record keeping have a negative effect on students. Although there are various reasons for absenteeism, one of the most important of these reasons is "not liking the school" (Pehlivan, 2006). If the school is cold, not secure, or if there is a climate of tolerance for bullying, students will prefer not to be in school (Clark, 2008; Corley, 2012). In particular, conflicts with peers and teachers, exposure to bullying, and dislike of teachers are important causes of absenteeism (Eastman et al., 2007; Reid, 2000; Gentle-Genitty, 2008). In a school environment where students do not feel a commitment to school, they would not want to attend, resulting in increased feelings of alienation. As Hamm and Faircloth (2005) stated, commitment to the school is formed by the student’s perceptions about respect, love and values they receive in the school. In the school environment where there is a perceived value and an emotional commitment, there will be a sense of security. Therefore, in such a school environment, students' attendance and participation increases. Various studies aiming to identify the causes of absenteeism have been conducted in Turkey. These include reasons for elementary school level absenteeism (Kadi 2000; Ozbas, 2010; Yildiz ve Sanli Kula, 2012). Several studies examining the reasons for secondary school absenteeism (Pehlivan, 2006; Altinkurt, 2008; Gokyer, 2012) are also available. These studies are limited, given the importance and magnitude of the problem. These studies describe and explain the reasons of absenteeism in elementary and secondary level education through the evaluation of the participants’ responses in different locations. In the literature, as highlighted by researchers, reasons for absenteeism are various and versatile (Eastman et al., 2007). They include many factors, such as student’s perception of the school environment, student’s commitment to school, student's family structure and student-family communication. Therefore, absenteeism and its causes should be examined against individual characteristics, such as gender of the student, and the level of maturity in interaction with the school and family system in order to solve the problems. Some of the factors which have been noted during the research and teaching/learning experience were: (Hoffman, Llagas&Sydex, 2003). (Brooks, 1997). Martinko 2002, (Reid, 2005, Teasley, 2004, (Marburger, 2001), 1. Student Factors 2. Health factors 3. Psychological Factors 4. School Factors 5. Parent Factors 6. Financial Factors 7. Community Factors. Komakech and Osuu (2014) investigated the major cause for student absenteeism and the possible solutions to the cause in Universal Secondary Education Schools in Uganda. The findings showed that the lack of scholastic requirements, household work, lack of interest in education, hunger at school or lack of mid-day meals, sexual harassment at school, long distance to school, illness or disease, loss of parent or close relative, peer influence, and harsh punishment at school were the top ten causes of students’ absenteeism in schools. Cook and Ezenne (2010) determined the root cause of absenteeism in selected primary schools in Jamaica by investigating the influence of personal, educational, and community factors on student absenteeism from school. The findings suggest that the causal factors of absenteeism do not find their genesis in the family only, but also in the schools, the communities, and the students themselves. These factors combine to accentuate absenteeism in primary school in the rural areas of Jamaica. Phillips (2010), analyzed the factors affecting student attendance and determined whether proposed incentive program would motivate students to come to school more regularly at high school level.The use an incentive program to encourage student attendance improved student attendance during the third grading period at this school. Student beliefs about the importance of school attendance were identified and academic and environmental factors were defined by the administration and teachers. According (Balfanz, Byrnes, Robert &Vaugan, 2012) it has been observed that families participation in social activities e.g. attending marriages, deaths, social calls, and recreational trips are the major causes of the matriculation student absence from schools. In the case of female students, parents cannot leave the girls alone at home when going out of the city. Students help their parents in their household work sometimes; the children of the poor parents have to work for their parents at other people homes to make both ends meet (Balfanz, Byrnes, Robert &Vaugan, 2012). All the above-mentioned and many other factors have made this problem even grave the factors revealed in the body of knowledge may vary from region to region and context to context. Absenteeism leads to poor grades which lead to failure and/or dropouts. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The research framework illustrates the conceptual of the study shows the relationship of the input, process and output of the topic. This framework embodies the specific direction by which the research will have undertaken by describing the specific variables identified in the study. The input which includes the factors that cause absenteeism among ABM students, if factors of absenteeism affect boys and girls equally and if the subject matter and the medium of instruction the causes of the student’s absenteeism. The process on the other hand shows how the research being conducted through defining the problems of the research first and gather required data relevant to the research from respondents through answering the questionnaires. The output as a result, will indicate the general view of the situation on the Factors affecting the absenteeism among Grade 12 ABM students and to know the outcome of this study and give justification to the research. INPUT 1. The factors that cause absenteeism Questionnaire among Data ABM gathering students. 2. If factors of Analysis and absenteeism affect iI interpretation boys of data and girls OUTPUT PROCESS FACTORS AFFECTING THE ABSENTEEISM AMONG GRADE 12 ABM STUDENT OF ACLC NAGA equally. 3. If the subject matter and the medium of instruction causes the of the student’s absenteeism. Figure 2. Conceptual Framework of the Study CHAPTER III Research Methodology This chapter represents the research design, respondents of the study, sampling techniques, instrumentation, data collection method, statistical method and research locale. Research Design This research was conducted through mixed-methods research. The researchers intended to study the problem in-depth covering all aspects of the phenomenon. For that the best design includes both quantitative and qualitative research methods. The population of the study was covering all immediate stakeholders of the problem: the students, the parents, the teachers, and heads of the schools. Data were collected through cross-sectional research design. Since the researchers strived to explore the possible factors of absenteeism, this descriptive research was more into exploratory design. Respondents of the Study The study will focus on Grade 12 ABM students who are currently enrolled in ACLC Naga s/y 2018-2019. . Since the chosen population could not be observed because of factors such as time limitation and financial constraints, a section of population was selected as a sample from the entire population to represent the whole. A sample is derived from the population. For this study, the sample sized is 50 made up of 3 sections of ABM students of Grade 12. Research Locale The research conducted at Ama Computer Learning Center (ACLC) where located at 4th floor Nagaland E-mall. . The respondents interviewed to their respective classroom. The study conducted in the first semester of the academic year 2018-2019. Sampling Techniques The Stratified random sampling. It is a type of probability sampling which is a random sample of a population in which the population is first divided into distinct sub- populations, or strata, and random sample are then taken separately from each stratum. This means out of every section (Grade 12 ABM A, B and C), a specific number of respondents were selected to participate in the study. This was gives all the subsets of the sample frame equal probabilities of selection. Instrumentation For the purpose of triangulation, the basis of mixed-research design, both qualitative and quantitative data collection tools were employed. In quantitative, a self-developed questionnaire was used. Items were developed based on the factors highlighted in the recent literature. close ended items were measured at a likert type scale having 5 options, and those 5 options were given values as: 5 for strongly agree (SA), 4 for Agree (A), 3 for Neutral (N), 2 for Disagree (D), and 1 for strongly disagree (SD). This self-developed questionnaire was administered to sample students only. Data Collection Method The type of method that was used in this study consisted of self-administered questionnaire. Consent from teachers was obtained prior to visiting the classrooms. In this setting, students were informed of the purpose that filling out the survey and tuning it in was deemed as having their consent and that their participation was voluntary. They were also aware that they could skip any question when they felt uncomfortable answering and that there was no penalty for choosing not to participate. Statistical Method SPSS is very user friendly and best learned by hands-on utilization. SSPS is a comprehensive statistical software package for helping in analyze the study and an import the dissertation data from almost any kind of the file for analysis. 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