Uploaded by Maria Janna Ivy Montejo


Justine Ian Alcantara
Jolan Rey Valenzuela
Francis Dave Mallari
Paul Anthony Manaog
Mat Cyrus Mino
Aladin Laynes
July-October 2018
In this era, knowledge is very important to mankind who wants to succeed
and gets a good job in the future. For those who want to survive in this competitive
world, holding a good qualification in education is the main key. As the numbers
of university applicants have increased, the students need to face a high level of
competitive results to enter to the university. Presently, the school attendance and
students absenteeism had turn into one of the major problems faced by the school.
Student’s attendance is very important because not all institution provides online
or e- learning. In this kind of scenario, it is imperative that students must attend
class regularly to benefit maximally information that they get from their lectures.
Absenteeism in school is the habit of staying away from school without
providing a genuine or any reason for not attending classes. Absenteeism is a
truant behavior that negatively affects the performance among students (Keter,
2013). Student absenteeism and truancy have become large problem with
students today and received lesser attention due to the abundance of other issues
and priorities that social workers and other service agencies are faced with (Teasly,
Absenteeism among school student has been ongoing phenomenon which
has not been given much attention today. Student’s attendance is very important
to ensure that they will be able to understand what they are learn and it is also
can lead to better results for students. Besides, school itself must provide a rules
that can reduce the percentage of absenteeism among students and also must
study the factors that contributing to student’s attendance.
The study of absenteeism is very important for every institution and every
teacher to improve the results and the studies. It is useful to make the students
disciplined, punctual and regular. This research aims to understand the factor that
contributing to student’s absenteeism especially the Grade 12 ABM students of
ACLC Naga and also to define the strategies to prevent the problem of
This study aims to find out the factors affecting the absenteeism among
ABM students of ACLC Naga, especially it seeks to answer the following question:
1. What are the factors that cause absenteeism among ABM students?
2. Do the factors of absenteeism affect boys and girls students equally?
3. Are the subject matter and the medium of instruction the causes of the
student’s absenteeism?
Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study is to find out the factors affecting the
absenteeism of ABM students. The following objectives are guided the
1. To identify the factors that cause absenteeism among ABM students.
2. To determine if factors of absenteeism affect boys and girls equally.
3. To know if the subject matter and the medium of instruction the causes of the
student’s absenteeism.
Significance of the Study
The finding of this will benefit both ABM student and the school and to the
Student. The study can use to perceive the student commitment as a student.
The higher levels of commitment are related to attendance.
School. The findings will help the school to minimize the absenteeism among
students when the main factors can be reduced. From the information the school
can will take the positive reaction to further improving.
Researcher. To identify the contemporary research topics and also suggest
direction for future researcher as well as some guidelines for the nature of the
Scope and Limitation
The researcher seeks to find out the factors affecting the absenteeism of
Grade 12 ABM students of ACLC Naga s/y 2018-2019. The study limits only to 50
Grade 12 Accountancy, Business and Management students who are currently
enrolled. Only Grade 12 ABM students are allow to participate in the research. This
research will be conduct from July to October 2018.
Review of related Literature
The review of related literature will be discussed in this chapter. The main
purpose of this chapter is to look into the related topics and issues of past literature
and students written by researchers of related field. It provides a better view on
related topics and issues of past literature and students written by researchers of
related field. It provides a better view on related topics to expand our knowledge
and understanding on the research being done. Particularly, it reviews the
literatures on theories and factors contributed to absenteeism among school
student. This literature review was generally obtained from both primary and
secondary sources such as journals, reports, articles, thesis and other related
According to (Teasly, 2004) absenteeism is a period of time when a
student does not attend school will generally fall behind their classmates in their
academic success (Ford & Sutphen,1996) they have fewer opportunity to learn
the materials that will help them to succeed ( Epstein & Sheldon, 2002) the
focus of student absenteeism ranges from early schooling until adolescent year.
According to (Koppenhaver, 2003) absenteeism in students affects their
school performances especially when they are in a group or teamwork for their
assignments and projects. Since grouping will help develops the student
cooperatives and ability to share and gain knowledge from their group mates
likewise the group will also miss the opportunity of gaining knowledge from absent
Based on the research of (Marburger, 2001) states that the absences
create a dead, tiresome, unpleasant classroom, environment that makes students
who come to class uncomfortable and the lecturer irritable. Absenteeism disturbs
the dynamic teaching learning environment and adversely affects the overall wellbeing of classes (Segal, 2008). In quality terms, absenteeism is a waste of
educational resources, time and human potential. Student absenteeism also
causes rework and wasted time for lectures (Lalek, 1995 & Rumburger 1997).
According to (Park and Kerr 1990, Romer 1993 and Foltz 1996,
Marburger 2001) is a widely recognized that absenteeism can negatively impact
grades in economic courses and that high attendance rates can improve student
performances in variety of classroom settings (Sheets et al. 1995, Johnston
and James, 2000)
According of study by (Brooks 1997, as cited in Bond, 2004)
absenteeism can be defined as persistent, habitual and unexplained absence from
school. Bond noted that chronic absenteeism occurs when a student is absent
without reason 20% or more of school time: this nominal figure is consistently
identified regardless of the specific circumstances of the absenteeism.
According to (Shmidt,1993) absenteeism affects the students ability to
get high scores in examinations which can cause the decreasing of grades or the
student may fail and will cause him or her repeat the same year level. Students
who have spent time attending lectures or classes have a significant, positive
effects on student’s performance. Student that participated exhibits higher grades
and scores in examinations that the student.
According to (Epstein and Sheldon, 2002) to prevent and correct serious
attendance problems, school need to change the way they structured improves
the quality of the courses and intensity interpersonal relationship between teachers
and students.
According to (Chang & Romero 2008 and Moonie et al. 2008) have
identified chronic absenteeism as a persistent problem related to poor academic
performances and potential behavioral and development issues. There is general
agreement among researchers that being chronically absent places student at risk
of negative academic consequences.
Factors of Absenteeism
The factors of student absenteeism are complex and multi-faceted. The
factors associated with absenteeism are classified in the literature into three
fundamental areas: individual, family and schools (McCluskey, Bynum & Patch,
2004; Eastman et al., 2007; Clark, 2008, Robinson, 2009):
Individual Factors. Students' individual factors may negatively affect
school attendance. Research indicates that absenteeism increases by seniority in
high school (Rood, 1989) and most frequently happens at age 15. Absentee
students usually do not feel safe at school. They feel academically or socially
inadequate. They find classes boring and their positive experiences related to
school are less than those who attend school regularly (Clarke, 2008; CorvilleSmith, Ryan Adams, & Dalicandro, 1998; Williams, 2001). Thus, selfesteem, confidence, concentration, self-management and social skills of these
students are low. They feel powerless in the school and think other students do
not respect them (Eastwold, 1989; Wall, 2003; Eastman et al.2007).
According to Reid (2000) and Gentle-Genitty (2008), other results include
not wanting to get up in the morning, receiving strict punishment, sleeping late,
not completing homework, being in a grade that is one above or one below the
regular grade level, switching to another school in the middle or the beginning of
the school year, feeling extreme test pressure, feeling constantly ill, and having
siblings who are regularly absent. Participating in fun activities and socializing with
their peers outside of school are also among the reasons (Williams, 2001).
Interestingly, as Clark (2008) indicated, some students are absent since they
find courses difficult and some others are absent because they find the courses
monotonous and boring.
Family factors. Another major reason for absenteeism is "family factors".
A student's parent has a significant impact on his attendance in school (Clark,
2008). Research indicates the following reasons for student absenteeism arising
from the family: family's socio-economic level; family's need for student to work;
parenting skills; psychological problems; support or neglect; alcohol or drug
problems; criminal behavior (McCluskey et al., 2004; Clark, 2008; Reed,
2000); the lack of consistency; divorce; inter-parent conflicts; family structure,
such as a single parent; interest or control level for the student's behavior; parents
have low education level; negative past school experiences; lack of participation
in school or not understanding procedures; and not providing environment for the
student to do homework (Corville-Smith, Ryan Adams, & Dalicandro, 1998
; Rood, 1989; Corley, 2012; GentleGenitty, 2008, Eastman et al., 2007,
2007; Reed, 2000). The level of respect the family has for education is seen as
a role model for students.
The primary responsibility of parents is to ensure their children regularly
attend school. Conditions at home have a significant impact on children’s
attendance and on their promptness. Poor family control and lack of persistence
is perhaps one of the most important factors behind school absenteeism
(Pehlivan, 2006). Family control can be defined as parents' knowledge about
their child's activities, friends and the information regarding his whereabouts
(Cetin & Cok, 2011). Disinterested families are often seldom concerned with
their children’s success or failure. They do not help in solving the problems at
school and they rarely attend parent-school meetings. These families are unlikely
to create a disciplined environment for children at home (Hallam & Rogers,
2008). According to Williams (2001), today's high school students are
controlled less than their parents were in the past. As well as lack of control and
lack of monitoring, some parents ignore the excuses with less than a valid reason.
In so doing, they are supporting and justifying the absenteeism.
School factors. School-related factors influence students' decisions
toward school attendance. A school’s attitude and rules against absenteeism are
factors that are contribute to the absenteeism problem (Eastman et al., 2007).
According to Robinson (2009), schools’ procedures are inconsistent and do
not produce meaningful results in reducing absenteeism. Students are not
receiving clear messages from the school about the importance of attendance.
Tolerant policies or lack of firm implementation for existing policies gives the wrong
message to students and parents about the importance of attendance (Clarke,
2008). Wall (2000) also indicated that inconsistency of policies, lack of
meaningful results and poor school record keeping have a negative effect on
Although there are various reasons for absenteeism, one of the most
important of these reasons is "not liking the school" (Pehlivan, 2006). If the
school is cold, not secure, or if there is a climate of tolerance for bullying, students
will prefer not to be in school (Clark, 2008; Corley, 2012). In particular, conflicts
with peers and teachers, exposure to bullying, and dislike of teachers are important
causes of absenteeism (Eastman et al., 2007; Reid, 2000; Gentle-Genitty,
2008). In a school environment where students do not feel a commitment to
school, they would not want to attend, resulting in increased feelings of alienation.
As Hamm and Faircloth (2005) stated, commitment to the school is formed by
the student’s perceptions about respect, love and values they receive in the school.
In the school environment where there is a perceived value and an emotional
commitment, there will be a sense of security. Therefore, in such a school
environment, students' attendance and participation increases.
Various studies aiming to identify the causes of absenteeism have been
conducted in Turkey. These include reasons for elementary school level
absenteeism (Kadi 2000; Ozbas, 2010; Yildiz ve Sanli Kula, 2012). Several
studies examining the reasons for secondary school absenteeism (Pehlivan,
2006; Altinkurt, 2008; Gokyer, 2012) are also available. These studies are
limited, given the importance and magnitude of the problem. These studies
describe and explain the reasons of absenteeism in elementary and secondary
level education through the evaluation of the participants’ responses in different
locations. In the literature, as highlighted by researchers, reasons for absenteeism
are various and versatile (Eastman et al., 2007). They include many factors,
such as student’s perception of the school environment, student’s commitment to
school, student's family structure and student-family communication. Therefore,
absenteeism and its causes should be examined against individual characteristics,
such as gender of the student, and the level of maturity in interaction with the
school and family system in order to solve the problems.
Some of the factors which have been noted during the research and
(Brooks, 1997). Martinko 2002, (Reid, 2005, Teasley, 2004, (Marburger,
2001), 1. Student Factors 2. Health factors 3. Psychological Factors 4. School
Factors 5. Parent Factors 6. Financial Factors 7. Community Factors.
Komakech and Osuu (2014) investigated the major cause for student
absenteeism and the possible solutions to the cause in Universal Secondary
Education Schools in Uganda. The findings showed that the lack of scholastic
requirements, household work, lack of interest in education, hunger at school or
lack of mid-day meals, sexual harassment at school, long distance to school, illness
or disease, loss of parent or close relative, peer influence, and harsh punishment
at school were the top ten causes of students’ absenteeism in schools.
Cook and Ezenne (2010) determined the root cause of absenteeism in
selected primary schools in Jamaica by investigating the influence of personal,
educational, and community factors on student absenteeism from school. The
findings suggest that the causal factors of absenteeism do not find their genesis
in the family only, but also in the schools, the communities, and the students
themselves. These factors combine to accentuate absenteeism in primary school
in the rural areas of Jamaica.
Phillips (2010), analyzed the factors affecting student attendance and
determined whether proposed incentive program would motivate students to come
to school more regularly at high school level.The use an incentive program to
encourage student attendance improved student attendance during the third
grading period at this school. Student beliefs about the importance of school
attendance were identified and academic and environmental factors were defined
by the administration and teachers.
According (Balfanz, Byrnes, Robert &Vaugan, 2012) it has been
observed that families participation in social activities e.g. attending marriages,
deaths, social calls, and recreational trips are the major causes of the matriculation
student absence from schools. In the case of female students, parents cannot
leave the girls alone at home when going out of the city. Students help their
parents in their household work sometimes; the children of the poor parents have
to work for their parents at other people homes to make both ends meet (Balfanz,
Byrnes, Robert &Vaugan, 2012).
All the above-mentioned and many other factors have made this problem
even grave the factors revealed in the body of knowledge may vary from region
to region and context to context. Absenteeism leads to poor grades which lead to
failure and/or dropouts.
The research framework illustrates the conceptual of the study shows the
relationship of the input, process and output of the topic. This framework
embodies the specific direction by which the research will have undertaken by
describing the specific variables identified in the study.
The input which includes the factors that cause absenteeism among ABM
students, if factors of absenteeism affect boys and girls equally and if the subject
matter and the medium of instruction the causes of the student’s absenteeism.
The process on the other hand shows how the research being conducted
through defining the problems of the research first and gather required data
relevant to the research from respondents through answering the questionnaires.
The output as a result, will indicate the general view of the situation on the
Factors affecting the absenteeism among Grade 12 ABM students and to know the
outcome of this study and give justification to the research.
1. The
cause absenteeism
2. If
Analysis and
absenteeism affect
of data
12 ABM
3. If the subject matter
and the medium of
Figure 2. Conceptual Framework of the Study
Research Methodology
This chapter represents the research design, respondents of the study,
sampling techniques, instrumentation, data collection method, statistical method
and research locale.
Research Design
This research was conducted through mixed-methods research. The
researchers intended to study the problem in-depth covering all aspects of the
phenomenon. For that the best design includes both quantitative and qualitative
research methods. The population of the study was covering all immediate
stakeholders of the problem: the students, the parents, the teachers, and heads
of the schools. Data were collected through cross-sectional research design. Since
the researchers strived to explore the possible factors of absenteeism, this
descriptive research was more into exploratory design.
Respondents of the Study
The study will focus on Grade 12 ABM students who are currently enrolled
in ACLC Naga s/y 2018-2019. . Since the chosen population could not be observed
because of factors such as time limitation and financial constraints, a section of
population was selected as a sample from the entire population to represent the
whole. A sample is derived from the population. For this study, the sample sized
is 50 made up of 3 sections of ABM students of Grade 12.
Research Locale
The research conducted at Ama Computer Learning Center (ACLC) where
located at 4th floor Nagaland E-mall. . The respondents interviewed to their
respective classroom. The study conducted in the first semester of the academic
year 2018-2019.
Sampling Techniques
The Stratified random sampling. It is a type of probability sampling which is a
random sample of a population in which the population is first divided into distinct
sub- populations, or strata, and random sample are then taken separately from
each stratum. This means out of every section (Grade 12 ABM A, B and C), a
specific number of respondents were selected to participate in the study. This was
gives all the subsets of the sample frame equal probabilities of selection.
For the purpose of triangulation, the basis of mixed-research design, both
qualitative and quantitative data collection tools were employed. In quantitative,
a self-developed questionnaire was used. Items were developed based on the
factors highlighted in the recent literature. close ended items were measured at a
likert type scale having 5 options, and those 5 options were given values as: 5 for
strongly agree (SA), 4 for Agree (A), 3 for Neutral (N), 2 for Disagree (D), and 1
for strongly disagree (SD). This self-developed questionnaire was administered to
sample students only.
Data Collection Method
The type of method that was used in this study consisted of self-administered
questionnaire. Consent from teachers was obtained prior to visiting the
classrooms. In this setting, students were informed of the purpose that filling out
the survey and tuning it in was deemed as having their consent and that their
participation was voluntary. They were also aware that they could skip any
question when they felt uncomfortable answering and that there was no penalty
for choosing not to participate.
Statistical Method
SPSS is very user friendly and best learned by hands-on utilization. SSPS is
a comprehensive statistical software package for helping in analyze the study and
an import the dissertation data from almost any kind of the file for analysis. In
analyze, SSPS used to generate tabulated dissertation reports, charts and plots of
distribution and trends as well as descriptive statistics and complex statistical
analysis using the collected data.
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