Lip Balm and Lip Stick 2. The Structural formula of ingredients Coconut Oil Oleic acid C18H34O2 Capric Acid CH3(CH2)8COOH. Caprylic acid CH3(CH2)6CO2H. Lauric Acid C12H24O2 Myristic Acid CH3(CH2)12COOH Palmatic acid CH3(CH2)14COOH Palmatic acid CH3(CH2)14COOH Stearic acid C17H35CO2H Linoleic acid C18H32O2 Oleic acid C18H34O2 Shea Butter Candelilla wax C31H64 n-alkanes, ranges from 29-33 High molecular weight esters Alcohols e.g methanol carbons e.g Paraffin wax Methane Sterols Beeswax C15H31COOC30H61 Palmatic acid CH3(CH2)14COOH Palmitoleic acid CH3(CH2)5CH=CH(CH2)7COOH Creotic acidCH3(CH2)24COOH. Ester of creotic acid & triacontanol (CH3(CH2)29OH) Myricin CH3(CH2)14COO(CH2)12CH3 Hentriacontane CH3(CH2)CH3 Triacontanyl palmite C46H92O2 Essential Oils Aromatic Notes Nerolidol C15H26O Linalool C10H18O Limonene γ-selinene Terpenes family Alcohols Ketones Aldehydes α-bisabolol C15H26O Menthone C10H18O Citronellal C10H18O Geraniol C10H18O vetivone C15H22O sinensal C15H22O Esters Phenols - tepinyl acetate C12H20O2 Thymol C10H14O cedryl acetate C17H28O2 Castor Oil Caster oil Ricinolec acid C18H34O3 Oleic acid C18H34O2 α- Linoleic acid C18H30O2 Linoleic acid C18H32O2 Stearic acid C17H35CO2H Palmatic acid CH3(CH2)14COOH Structure of the major component- trimester of glycerol and ricinoleic acid. 4. Why are essential oils used in lipbalm https://www.mdpi.com/2079-9284/5/1/11/htmThe main reason for their usage in cosmetics is their pleasant aroma. Fatty acids, fatty oils and surfactants used in the production-process of cosmetic products often exhibit an unpleasant scent. Effective perfume mixtures are therefore added to these products in order to mask it https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Suruchi_Kokil2/publication/301204451_Review_on_Natural_ Lip_Balm/links/570c7e5008ae8883a1ffeed2.pdfPeppermint essential oil energizes and revitalizes skin. Cinnamon essential oil is an excellent antioxidant. Lavender essential oil is soothing and nourishing to skin. And grapefruit essential oil is light and refreshing for dry lips Why is camphor used in lipbalm Most commonly used today as an ingredient in liniments and balms that act as antiseptics, analgesics, anti-pruritics and counterirritants 5. Chemical Compositions (Coconut oil) https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/coconut-oilCopra, which is obtained by drying coconuts, is the source of coconut oil. Power-driven rotaries and expellers are used for extracting oil from copra. This oil extraction is immediately followed by the separation of cake residue and mucilage by filtering or by settling. (Shea Butter) https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1512/sheabutter#:~:text=Shea%20butter%20is%20a%20seed%20fat%20that%20comes%20from%20the%20sh ea%20tree.&text=The%20shea%20butter%20comes%20from,the%20water%20and%20becomes%20 solid.Shea butter is a seed fat that comes from the shea tree. The shea tree is found in East and West tropical Africa. The shea butter comes from two oily kernels within the shea tree seed. After the kernel is removed from the seed, it is ground into a powder and boiled in water. The butter then rises to the top of the water and becomes solid. (Essential Oils) https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/what-are-essential-oils#what-they-areEssential oils are obtained through distillation (via steam and/or water) or mechanical methods, such as cold pressing. Once the aromatic chemicals have been extracted, they are combined with a carrier oil to create a product that's ready for use. (Caster Oil) https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/castor-oil#section1It’s made by extracting oil from the seeds of the Ricinus communis plant. These seeds, which are known as castor beans, contain a toxic enzyme called ricin. However, the heating process that castor oil undergoes deactivates it, allowing the oil to be used safely. 8. Parabens https://www.ewg.org/californiacosmetics/parabensParabens are a group of chemicals widely used as artificial preservatives in cosmetic and body care products since the 1920s. Since cosmetics contain ingredients that can biodegrade, these chemicals are added to prevent and reduce the growth of harmful bacteria and mould, increasing the shelf life of the product. The concern with these chemicals is that scientific studies suggest that parabens can disrupt hormones in the body and harm fertility and reproductive organs, affect birth outcomes, and increase the risk of cancer. They can also cause skin irritation. Moreover, studies have detected parabens in nearly all urine samples taken from adults in the U.S., regardless of demographic (Ye 2006). Parabens can act like the hormone oestrogen in the body and disrupt the normal function of hormone systems affecting male and female reproductive system functioning, reproductive development, fertility and birth outcomes. Parabens can also interfere with the production of hormones. Alternatives include: https://www.leaf.tv/articles/alternativepreservatives-for-natural-parabens/Oils, Vitamins and Herbs, Sodium Benzoate, Ethylhexylglycerin, Phenoxyethanol Phathalates https://www.cdc.gov/biomonitoring/Phthalates_FactSheet.html Phthalates are a group of chemicals used to make plastics more flexible and harder to break. They are often called plasticizers. Human health effects from exposure to low levels of phthalates are unknown. Some types of phthalates have affected the reproductive system of laboratory animals. More research is needed to assess the human health effects of exposure to phthalates. http://www.ftoxins.com/toxic-ingredients-lip-balm/ Phthalates are strong hormone disruptors linked to decreased sperm count in men and reduced female fertility. Phthalates can also cause a worsening of allergy and asthma symptoms. Petrolatum (AKA petroleum jelly, mineral oil) Petrolatum is made from petroleum – yes, what you put in your car – that has been refined. Some refining methods use toxic compounds. If the petroleum jelly becomes contaminated during the manufacturing process, possible Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, which have links to breast cancer, and other carcinogenic agents may get into the jelly. Another concern with petrolatum is that it creates an airtight barrier on the skin which can act as a penetration enhancer. This means absorption of any of the toxic ingredients below will be increased. Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) Butylated compounds are mainly used as a preservative in lip balms. Health concerns linked to these chemicals include endocrine disruption, organ-system toxicitiy, developmental and reproductive toxicity, cancer and repiratory irritation. Chemical sunscreen (Oxybenzone, Octinoxate, Homosalate) The EWG has rated Oxybenzone – the most common chemical sunscreen – an 8 on their toxicity rating scale. It has been shown to act like estrogen in the body, alter sperm production in animals and is associated with endometriosis in women. Octinoxate and Homosalate also disrupt hormone function.