Uploaded by Dorine Onejeme

Research Notes ^N2

Lip Balm and Lip Stick
2. The Structural formula of ingredients
Coconut Oil
Oleic acid C18H34O2
Capric Acid CH3(CH2)8COOH.
Caprylic acid CH3(CH2)6CO2H.
Lauric Acid C12H24O2
Myristic Acid CH3(CH2)12COOH
Palmatic acid CH3(CH2)14COOH
Palmatic acid CH3(CH2)14COOH
Stearic acid C17H35CO2H
Linoleic acid C18H32O2
Oleic acid C18H34O2
Shea Butter
Candelilla wax C31H64
n-alkanes, ranges from 29-33 High molecular weight esters Alcohols e.g methanol
e.g Paraffin wax
Beeswax C15H31COOC30H61
Palmatic acid CH3(CH2)14COOH
Palmitoleic acid
Creotic acidCH3(CH2)24COOH.
Ester of creotic acid & triacontanol
Myricin CH3(CH2)14COO(CH2)12CH3
Hentriacontane CH3(CH2)CH3
Triacontanyl palmite C46H92O2
Essential Oils
Aromatic Notes
Nerolidol C15H26O
Linalool C10H18O
Terpenes family
α-bisabolol C15H26O
Menthone C10H18O
Citronellal C10H18O
Geraniol C10H18O
vetivone C15H22O
sinensal C15H22O
- tepinyl acetate C12H20O2
Thymol C10H14O
cedryl acetate C17H28O2
Castor Oil
Caster oil
Ricinolec acid C18H34O3
Oleic acid C18H34O2
α- Linoleic acid C18H30O2
Linoleic acid C18H32O2
Stearic acid C17H35CO2H
Palmatic acid CH3(CH2)14COOH
Structure of the major component- trimester of
glycerol and ricinoleic acid.
4. Why are essential oils used in lipbalm
https://www.mdpi.com/2079-9284/5/1/11/htmThe main reason for their usage in cosmetics is their
pleasant aroma. Fatty acids, fatty oils and surfactants used in the production-process of cosmetic
products often exhibit an unpleasant scent. Effective perfume mixtures are therefore added to these
products in order to mask it
Lip_Balm/links/570c7e5008ae8883a1ffeed2.pdfPeppermint essential oil energizes and revitalizes
skin. Cinnamon essential oil is an excellent antioxidant. Lavender essential oil is soothing and
nourishing to skin. And grapefruit essential oil is light and refreshing for dry lips
Why is camphor used in lipbalm
Most commonly used today as an ingredient in liniments and balms that act as antiseptics,
analgesics, anti-pruritics and counterirritants
5. Chemical Compositions
(Coconut oil)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/coconut-oilCopra, which is obtained by drying
coconuts, is the source of coconut oil. Power-driven rotaries and expellers are used for extracting oil
from copra. This oil extraction is immediately followed by the separation of cake residue
and mucilage by filtering or by settling.
(Shea Butter)
solid.Shea butter is a seed fat that comes from the shea tree. The shea tree is found in East and West
tropical Africa. The shea butter comes from two oily kernels within the shea tree seed. After the kernel
is removed from the seed, it is ground into a powder and boiled in water. The butter then rises to the
top of the water and becomes solid.
(Essential Oils)
https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/what-are-essential-oils#what-they-areEssential oils are
obtained through distillation (via steam and/or water) or mechanical methods, such as cold pressing.
Once the aromatic chemicals have been extracted, they are combined with a carrier oil to create a
product that's ready for use.
(Caster Oil)
https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/castor-oil#section1It’s made by extracting oil from the seeds
of the Ricinus communis plant.
These seeds, which are known as castor beans, contain a toxic enzyme called ricin. However, the
heating process that castor oil undergoes deactivates it, allowing the oil to be used safely.
8. Parabens
https://www.ewg.org/californiacosmetics/parabensParabens are a group of chemicals widely used as
artificial preservatives in cosmetic and body care products since the 1920s. Since cosmetics contain
ingredients that can biodegrade, these chemicals are added to prevent and reduce the growth of
harmful bacteria and mould, increasing the shelf life of the product. The concern with these chemicals
is that scientific studies suggest that parabens can disrupt hormones in the body and harm fertility
and reproductive organs, affect birth outcomes, and increase the risk of cancer. They can also cause
skin irritation. Moreover, studies have detected parabens in nearly all urine samples taken from adults
in the U.S., regardless of demographic (Ye 2006).
Parabens can act like the hormone oestrogen in the body and disrupt the normal function of hormone
systems affecting male and female reproductive system functioning, reproductive development,
fertility and birth outcomes. Parabens can also interfere with the production of hormones.
Alternatives include: https://www.leaf.tv/articles/alternativepreservatives-for-natural-parabens/Oils, Vitamins and Herbs,
Sodium Benzoate, Ethylhexylglycerin, Phenoxyethanol
https://www.cdc.gov/biomonitoring/Phthalates_FactSheet.html Phthalates are a group of chemicals
used to make plastics more flexible and harder to break. They are often called plasticizers. Human
health effects from exposure to low levels of phthalates are unknown. Some types of phthalates
have affected the reproductive system of laboratory animals. More research is needed to assess the
human health effects of exposure to phthalates.
http://www.ftoxins.com/toxic-ingredients-lip-balm/ Phthalates are strong hormone disruptors
linked to decreased sperm count in men and reduced female fertility. Phthalates can also cause a
worsening of allergy and asthma symptoms.
Petrolatum (AKA petroleum jelly, mineral oil)
Petrolatum is made from petroleum – yes, what you put in your car – that has been refined. Some
refining methods use toxic compounds. If the petroleum jelly becomes contaminated during the
manufacturing process, possible Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, which have links to breast
cancer, and other carcinogenic agents may get into the jelly. Another concern with petrolatum is
that it creates an airtight barrier on the skin which can act as a penetration enhancer. This means
absorption of any of the toxic ingredients below will be increased.
Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)
Butylated compounds are mainly used as a preservative in lip balms. Health concerns linked to these
chemicals include endocrine disruption, organ-system toxicitiy, developmental and reproductive
toxicity, cancer and repiratory irritation.
Chemical sunscreen (Oxybenzone, Octinoxate, Homosalate)
The EWG has rated Oxybenzone – the most common chemical sunscreen – an 8 on their toxicity
rating scale. It has been shown to act like estrogen in the body, alter sperm production in animals
and is associated with endometriosis in women. Octinoxate and Homosalate also disrupt hormone