HISTORY of SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY in the PHILIPPINES S&T in the Philippines represents the wide scientific and technological advances the Philippines has made. The main managing agency responsible is the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). The science department has consulting agencies for Forestry, Agriculture and Aquaculture, Metal Industry, Nuclear Research, Food and Nutrition, Health, Meteorological and the Volcanology and Seismology. National Scientists who have made notable contributions in different scientific fields: Fe del Mundo - Pediatrics Eduardo Quisumbing - Plant Taxonomy Gavin Trono - tropical marine Phycology Maria Orosa - Food Technology STONE AGE Archeological findings show that modern man from Asian mainland first came over land on across narrow channels to live in Batangas and Palawan about 48,000 B.C. Subsequently they formed settlement in Sulu, Davao, Zamboanga, Samar, Negros, Batangas, Laguna, Rizal, Bulacan and Cagayan. Inventions They made simple tools and weapons of stone flakes and later developed method of sawing and polishing stones around 40,000 B.C. By around 3,000 B.C. they were producing adzes ornaments of seashells and pottery. Pottery flourished for the next 2,000 years until they imported Chinese porcelain. What has survived of this ancient technology is the present manufacture of the ordinary cooking pot among several local communities. Soon they learned to produce copper, bronze, iron, and gold metal tools and ornaments. Iron Age The Iron Age lasted from the third century B.C. to 11th century A.D. During this period Filipinos were engaged in the extraction smelting and refining of iron from ores until the importation of cast iron from Sarawak and later from China. Inventions/Discoveries They learned to weave cotton, make glass ornaments, and cultivate lowland rice and diked fields of terraced fields utilizing spring water in mountain regions. They also learned to build boats for trading purposes. Spanish chronicles noted refined plank built warships called caracoa suited for inter-island trade raids. The Spaniards later utilized Filipino expertise in boat-building and seamanship to fight the raiding Dutch, Portuguese, Muslims and the Chinese pirate Limahong as well as to build and man the galleons that sailed to Mexico. th 10 century A.D. Filipinos from the Butuan were trading with Champa (Vietnam) and those from Ma-I (Mindoro) with China as noted in Chinese records containing several references to the Philippines. These archaeological findings indicated that regular trade relations between the Philippines, China and Vietnam had been well established from the 10th century to the 15th century A.D. Trading The people of Ma-I and San-Hsu (Palawan) traded bee wax, cotton, pearls, coconut heart mats, tortoise shell and medicinal betelnuts, yu-ta cloth (probably jute or ramie?) for Chinese porcelain, leads fishnets sinker, colored glass beads, iron pots, iron needles and tin. Before the Spaniards Filipinos were already engage in activities and practices related to science forming primitive or first wave technology. They were curative values of some plant on how to extract medicine from herbs. They had an alphabet, a system of writing, a method of counting and weights and measure. They had no calendar but counted the years by the period of the moon and from one harvest to another. The Banaue Rice Terraces are among the sophisticated products of engineering by pre-Spanish era Filipinos. Spanish Colonial Period contributed to growth of science and technology in the country. The Spanish introduced formal education and founded scientific institutions. Early years of Spanish rule, Parish schools were established where religion, reading, writing, arithmetic and music were taught. Sanitation and more advanced methods of agriculture were taught to the natives. Colleges and universities in the archipelago including the University of Sto. Tomas were established. Study of medicine was given priority in the Spanish era, especially in the later years. The Spanish also contributed to the field of engineering by constructing government buildings, churches, roads, bridges and forts. Biology is given focus. Contributors to science in the archipelago during the 19th century were botanists, Fr. Ignacio Mercado., Dr. Trinidad Pardo de Tavera and Dr. Leon Ma Guerrero, chemist Anaclento del Rosario, and medicine scholars Dr. Manuel Guerrero, Dr, Jose Montes and Dr. Elrodario Mercado. The Galleon Trade have accounted in the Philippine colonial economy. Trade was given more focus by the Spaniard colonial authorities due to the prospects of big profits. Agriculture and industrial development on the other hand were relatively neglected. The opening of the Suez Canal saw the influx of European visitors to the Spanish colony and some Filipinos were able to study in Europe influenced by the rapid development of scientific ideals brought about by the Age of Enlightenment. Spanish Regime th Later part of the 16 Century Development of schools Colegio de San Ildefonso-Cebu-1595 Colegio de San Ignacio-Manila-1595 Colegio De Nuestra Senora del RosarioManila-1597 Colegio De San Jose-Manila-1601 Spanish Regime Development of Hospitals San Juan Lazaro Hospital - the oldest in the Far East was founded in 1578. th th •17 and 18 Century• Successive shipwrecks of and attacks of pirates on the galleons led to declining profits from the trade that led to economic th depression in Manila during the later part of the 17 century. Spanish Regime The Real Sociedad Economica de los Amigos Del Pais de Filipinas founded by Governador Jose Basco y Vargas in 1780 encouraged research in agriculture and industry. The society promoted cultivation of indigo, cotton, cinnamon, and silk industry. In 1789 Manila was opened to Asian shipping, inaugurating an era of increase in export of rice, hemp, tobacco, sugar, and indigo, and imports of manufacturing goods. Spanish Regime th The 19 Century In 1863 the colonial authorities issued a royal degree to reform the existing educational system. In 1871 the school of medicine and pharmacy were opened in UST. After 15 years it granted the degree of Licenciado en Medicina to 62 graduates. Spanish Regime The licentiate degree equivalent to a Master degree was st granted Bachelor’s degree in pharmacy to its 1 six graduates who included Leon Ma. Guerrero considered was the father of Philippine Pharmacy due to his works on Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. There were no school for engineering but they offered nautical four year course for pilot of merchant marine that includes the subjects: Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry, Physics, Hydrography, Meteorology, Navigation and Pilotage. Spanish Regime Higher education was generally viewed with suspicion as encouraging rebellion among native Filipinos and thus only few daring students were able to undertake higher studies. The expanded world trade and commerce in the later part th of the 19 century led to the rapid development of Manila as cosmopolitan center. Modern amenities such as steam tramways, waterworks, newspaper, electric lights, banking system were introduce th in 19 century. Spanish Regime Jesuits promoted meteorological studies founding Manila observatory at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila in 1865. American Period and Post-Commonwealth Era The progress of S&T in the Philippines continued under the American rule. On July 1, 1901 The Philippine Commission established the Bureau of Government Laboratories which was placed under the Department of Interior. The Bureau replaced the Laboratorio Municipal, which was established under the Spanish colonial era. The Bureau dealt with the study of tropical diseases and laboratory projects. On October 26, 1905, the Bureau of Government Laboratories was replaced by the Bureau of Science. On December 8, 1933, the National Research Council of the Philippines was established. The Bureau of Science became the primary research center of the Philippines until World War II.  Science, during the American period, was inclined towards agriculture, food processing, forestry, medicine and pharmacy. Not much focus was given on the development of industrial technology due to free trade policy with the United States which nurtured an economy geared towards agriculture and trade. In 1946, the Bureau of Science was replaced by the Institute of Science. In a report by the US Economic Survey to the Philippines in 1950, there is a lack of basic information which were necessities to the country's industries, lack of support of experimental work and minimal budget for scientific research and low salaries of scientists employed by the government. In 1958, under President Carlos P. Garcia, the Philippine Congress passed the Science Act of 1958 which established the National Science Development Board. Marcos Era and Martial Law the importance given to science grew. In the amended 1973 Philippine Constitution, Article XV, Section 9 (1), he declared that the "advancement of science and technology shall have priority in the national development.” In his two terms of presidency and during Martial Law, he enacted many laws promoting S&T. Notable S&T Accomplishments of the Marcos Regime the Department of Education was directed to revitalize science courses in public high schools. additional funds were channeled to support projects in applied sciences and science education. a big part of the war damage fund was given to private universities to encourage them to create courses in science and technology and research. upgrade of the science curricula and teaching equipment. establishment of research and development schools, technical institutes, science education centers, and agricultural colleges and vocational high schools creation of the National Grains Authority establishment of the Philippine Council for Agricultural Research to support the progressive development of agriculture, forestry, and fisheries promotion of scientific research and invention establishment of the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) under the Department of National Defense. creation of the Philippine National Oil Company establishment of the National Academy of Science and Technology composed of scientists as a reservoir of scientific and technological expertise for the country. creation of a Task Force on the formulation of a national action program to assess S&T policies and programs. invested funds and time in organizations for scientific research, such as the NSDB, the Philippine Council for Agricultural Research and Resources, the Plant Breeding Institute, the International Rice Research Institute, the Bureau of Plant Industry, and the Bureau of Forest Products. instituted the Health Sciences Center creation of the National Committee on Geological Sciences reorganization of the National Science Development Board and its agencies into a National Science and Technology Authority granting of salary increases to teachers in the Philippine Science High School enactment of a law for the completion of the National Agriculture and Life Sciences Research Complex at the University of the Philippines at Los Baños establishment of Mindanao and Visayas campuses of the Philippine Science High School The Fifth Republic under President Corazon C. Aquino The National Science and Technology Authority was replaced by the Department of Science and Technology, giving S&T a representation in the cabinet. Under the Medium Term Philippine Development Plan for the years 1987-1992, S&T’s role in economic recovery and sustained economic growth was highlighted. In the 1990 SONA, Aquino announced that S&T development shall be one of the top three priorities of the government towards an economic recovery. In 1988, Aquino created the Presidential Task Force for Science and Technology which came up with the first Science and Technology Master Plan or STMP. The goal of STMP was for the Philippines to achieve newly industrialized country status by the year 2000. Aquino encouraged scientists and inventors to bring the Philippines to its former position as second to Japan in the field of S&T. Aquino encouraged the private research sector to form a stronger bond with public research to help jump-start the progress in the area of Philippine Research and Development. Free Public Secondary Education Act of 1988, Science for the Masses Program Funding for the S&T sector was tripled The Science and Technology Master Plan was formulated A Research and Development Plan was also formulated Under Pres. Fidel V. Ramos significant increase in personnel specializing in the S&T field. 3,500 scholarships were given to students taking up S&T-related courses - Science and Technology Scholarship Law of 1994 modernization and update of science classrooms. Health care services were promoted through local programs - "Doctors to the Barrio Program.” Magna Carta for Science and Technology Personnel National Program for Gifted Filipino Children in Science and Technology Science and Technology Agenda for National Development (STAND) Inventors and Inventions Incentives Act The Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines Under Pres. Joseph Estrada Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999 (Republic Act No. 8749 ) - to protect and preserve the environment and ensure the sustainable development of the country’s natural resources  Electronic Commerce Act of 2000 (Republic Act No. 8792) which outlaws computer hacking and provides opportunities for new businesses emerging from the Internet-driven New Economy  launch of a full-scale program based on costeffective irrigation technologies Basic health care, basic nutrition, and useful education Speed up the program for establishing one science high school in every province pushed for the advancement of industries and schools into the Internet age announcement of the passage of the e-Commerce Act Under Pres. Gloria Arroyo dubbed as the "golden age" of science and technology Numerous laws and projects concerning the environment and science helped push STI The term "Filipinnovation" was coined to promote the Philippines to be an innovation hub in Asia strengthening the schools and education system to focus more in science, technology and mathematics passage of the Biofuels Act Under Pres. Benigno Aquino conferment of 4 new National Scientist for their scientific contribution. Gavino C. Trono - extensive studies made on seaweed species helped families in the coastal areas. Angel C. Alcala - served as the pioneer scientist and advocate of coral reefs aside from his contribution in the fields of systematics, secology and herpetology Ramon C. Barba - all year round availability of mangoes was made possible through his studies on the induction of flowering of mango and micropropagation of important crop species. Edgardo D. Gomez - steered the national-scale assessment of damage coral reefs which led to a national conservation program. Philippine S&T Plans 1. Science and Technology Master Plan (STMP) 1991-2000 2. Science and Technology Agenda for National Development (STAND) 1993-1998 3. DOST Medium-Term Plan (DMTP) 1999-2004 4. National Science & Technology Plan (NSTP) 2002-2020 Science and Technology Master Plan (STMP) 10-year (1991-2000) plan formulated during the administration of President Aquino. represented the first attempt by the government of the Philippines -- in particular, the DOST-- at comprehensive and long-term planning in S&T. The Plan correctly diagnosed the problems plaguing Philippine S&T low investment in R&D poor S&T education lack of private sector participation in R&D inadequate attention to market demand as a basis for R&D and innovation lack of technology transfer and commercialization. To address these problems, the STMP proposed bold measures like global search of technology programs to attract expatriate scientists greater private sector involvement in R&D closer collaboration among the private sector, academe and government. The programs proposed under the STMP were basically sound. However, the resources to carry out the proposed reforms were lacking. Target appears to have been overly optimistic. Science and Technology Agenda for National Development (STAND) the medium-term S&T plan (1993-1998) under President Ramos employed the strategy of targeting specific industries as “export winners” 13 “winners” identified for government support or special treatment 1. computer software 8. marble 2. fashion accessories 9. electronic products 3. marine products 10. garments and textiles 4. fruits (fresh and processed) 11. construction services 5. gifts, toys and housewares 6. furniture 7. metals fabrication 12. professional services 13. ornamental and horticulture products STAND may have targeted too many industries, spreading scarce private and public-sector resources very thinly. The identification of industries was not the result of a scientific, objective method but of rounds of consultation with industry and sectoral representatives whose predictable result was to keep adding to the list of targeted industries. DOST Medium-Term Plan (DMTP) The DMTP for 1999-2004 was basically an agency or departmental plan of DOST. was more limited in scope than the previous plans. tried to avoid the temptation to target specific industries or “pick winners”. focused on a few “flagship programs”, while at the same time making sure not to neglect the regular or recurring programs of DOST. The DMTP was torn between the need to build the country’s long-term capability in S&T and the need to address the short-term problem of poverty alleviation. The former strategy suggests a focus on building human resource capability, and in particular the capacity to do R&D, while the latter strategy makes do with, or even puts a premium on low-technology, labor-intensive and livelihood-type programs and projects. National Science & Technology Plan 2002-2020 (NSTP 2020) a long- term indicative plan which defines the direction of science and technology (S&T) development in the Philippines for 18 years. It is the S&T community’s response to the national leadership’s call for S&T to be the foundation of future economic development in the country. The Plan is supportive of the visions and goals stated in the Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP).