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KOFORIDUA TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
FACULTY OF BUILT AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT
ASSESSMENT OF DEFECTS AND POOR MAINTENACE OF PLUMBING
WORKS IN SOME SELECTED BUILDINGS IN THE EASTERN REGION.
A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
RQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF HIGHER NATIONAL
DIPLOMA (HND) IN BUILDING TECHNOLOGY
BY
DEMENU JOHNSON
YEBOAH EMMANUEL
AND
DAMATEY JOSEPH
AUGUST, 2020
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2
STUDENTS DECLARATION
We hereby declare that this work has not previously been submitted to the
Technical University or to any other body or person whether for the purpose of
assessment, Publication or for any other purpose.
STUDENTS
DEMENU JOHNSON
Signature……………………
(04/2017/1365D)
Date…………………………
YEBOAH EMMANUEL
Signature……………………
(04/2017/1398D)
Date…………………………
DAMATEY JOSEPH
Signature……………………
(04/2017/1405D)
Date…………………………
Certified by
DR. BOATENG PRINCE
(H.O.D)
Date……………………
Signature…………………..
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SUPERVISOR DECLARATION
I declare that, I have supervised the student in undertaking the research reported
herein and I confirm that the student has my permission to present it for assessment.
MR. ADU GYAMFI TIMOTHY (SUPERVISOR)
Signature………………………
Date…………………………….
ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We give glory to Almighty God for His faithfulness, guidance and blessings
towards us. We express our special thanks, gratitude and appreciation to Mr Adu
Gyamfi Timothy our supervisor for his dedication, guidance, encouragement,
helpful suggestions and contributions offered beyond our expectation throughout
the research. We appreciate all his efforts towards to the success of the research.
We are also grateful to the lecturers and staff of the Department of Building
Technology and Head of the Department; Dr. Boateng Prince for his massive advice
about how to conduct a good research.
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DEDICATION
We dedicate this work to the Almighty God who has given us the grace, wisdom
and strength to undergo this research. We also dedicate to the family of Mortoti,
Yeboah and Damatey for supporting us in diverse ways. It is our humble prayer
that Almighty God will replenish whatever they have spent to make our studies a
success.
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ABSTRACT
Over the year’s construction has seen some factors that do not in any way contribute
to the successes to be achieved by the construction industry. The main aim of this
study is to assess the defect and poor maintenance in plumbing works in some
selected public buildings in New Juaben Municipality. The study was conducted in
the Koforidua municipality. Descriptive survey was adopted as the research design.
Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used in selecting a sample size
of 85 respondent. Questionnaires were used as data collection instrument. Data
generated from the survey was further analysed using SPSS. The study find out
three types of plumbing as first objective and the three major types of the plumbing
defects are: Plumbing fixtures defects, Septic defects and shower stalls defects.
From the results obtained, the study revealed that the causes of these defects were
due to poor workmanship, poor design and inappropriate specification used by
contractors. The study also finds out that the underlying causes of poor maintenance
of plumbing works as result non-availability of physical resources, lack of
maintenance culture and inadequate funds. The study concluded that the causes of
plumbing defects in building can be reduced by: proper supervision, use of qualify
plumbers and plumbing design should be at the hands of competent personnel’s. It
was recommended that competent people who have the skills must be appointed for
the work.
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TABLE OF CONTENT
STUDENTS DECLARATION ................................................................................ i
SUPERVISOR DECLARATION ........................................................................... ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ..................................................................................... iii
DEDICATION ....................................................................................................... iv
ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................v
CHAPTER ONE ......................................................................................................1
INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY ................................................................. 1
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT ............................................................................... 2
1.3 AIM OF THE STUDY...................................................................................... 4
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY............................................................................... 5
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS .............................................................................. 5
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY ................................................................................. 5
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.................................................................. 6
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY ...................................................................... 6
1.9 STRUCTURE OF STUDY ............................................................................... 6
CHAPTER TWO .....................................................................................................8
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LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................8
2.1 THE CONCEPT OF DEFECT ......................................................................... 8
2.2 DEFINITION OF MAINTENANCE ............................................................. 10
2.2.1 Types of Maintenance (Source: BS 3811: 1984) ......................................... 11
2.2.2 Objectives of Maintenance of Plumbing Works on the Economy ............... 12
2.2.3 Functions of Maintenance ............................................................................ 12
2.2.4 Aims of Maintenance ................................................................................... 13
2.2.5 Factors Influencing Decision to Undertake Maintenance ............................ 14
2.3 DEFINITION OF PLUMBING ...................................................................... 15
2.4 DEFINITION OF PLUMBING MATERIALS .............................................. 15
2.4.1 Materials Used For Plumbing Works: ......................................................... 16
2.4.2 Types of Plumbing Works ........................................................................... 17
2.5 IMPORTANCE OF PLUMBING SYSTEMS................................................ 18
2.6 DEFECTS IN PLUMBING ............................................................................ 19
2.7 CAUSES OF THE DEFECTS IN PLUMBING WORKS ............................. 22
2.8 EFFECTS OF DEFECT IN PLUMBING WORKS ....................................... 28
2.9 REMEDIES FOR PLUMBING DEFECT ...................................................... 30
3.1 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................... 31
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3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN .................................................................................... 32
3.3 POPULATION ............................................................................................... 33
3.4 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE AND SAMPLE SIZE ........................................ 33
3.5 STUDY VARIABLES .................................................................................... 34
3.6 DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS ........................ 34
3.6.1 Primary Data Collection .............................................................................. 36
3.6.2 Secondary Data Collection .......................................................................... 36
3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS ................................................................ 36
4.1 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................... 37
4.2.2 Bio Data of Respondents ............................................................................. 38
4.2.3Background Information of Respondents of the Building ............................ 38
4.2.4 Distribution of Age of Respondents ............................................................ 38
4.2.5 Gender of Respondents ................................................................................ 39
4.2.6 Educational Level of the Respondents ......................................................... 40
4.2.7 Category of Respondents (Values in Percentages) .......................................41
4.2.8 Number of Year’s Respondents Occupied the Building .............................. 42
4.2.9 Defect Detected When Respondents Occupied the Building ...................... 43
4.3 TYPES OF PLUMBING DEFECTS .............................................................. 44
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4.4.1 Number of Year’s Defects Has Been Faced by Respondents ...................... 47
4.5 FACTORS CONTRIBUTING OF POOR MAINTENANCE IN PLUMBING
WORKS ................................................................................................................ 48
4.5.1 How often respondents maintain their plumbing facilities. ..........................49
4.5.2 Who Is Responsible For The Maintenance of The Plumbing Facilities? .... 50
4.5.3 Maintenance Rule Guiding the Use of Your Plumbing Facilities ............... 51
4.6 GENERAL CONDITION OF THE PLUMBING FACILITIES IN THE
BUILDING. .......................................................................................................... 54
CHAPTER FIVE ...................................................................................................57
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..57
5.1 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................... 57
5.2 SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGS ........................................................... 57
5.3 CONCLUSIONS............................................................................................. 59
5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................................ 59
REFERENCES ......................................................................................................61
APPENDIX ............................................................................................................65
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LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1: Age Distribution of Respondents......................................................... 39
Table 4.2: Gender of Respondents ........................................................................ 40
Table 4.3: Level of Education of Respondents. .................................................... 41
Table 4.5: Number of Year’s Respondent Occupied the Building ....................... 43
Table 4.6: Defect Detected From Respondents .................................................... 44
Table 4.7: Various Plumbing Defects Faced By Respondents ............................. 45
Table 4.8: Causes of Plumbing Defect in Buildings Works ................................. 47
Table 4.9: Number of Years Defects Have Been Faced ....................................... 48
Table 4.10: Factors Contributing of Poor Maintenance in Plumbing Works ....... 49
Table 4.11: Respondents Responsible For Maintenance of Plumbing Works...... 51
Table 4.12: General Condition of the Plumbing Facilities in the Building .......... 55
Table 4.13:Ways to Reduce Occurrences of the Defects of Plumbing Works ..... 56
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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 4.1: Various Plumbing Defects Faced By Respondents…………………38
Figure 4.2: Do You Have Any Maintenance Rule Guiding Your Plumbing
Facilities……..…45
Figure
4.3:
Respondents
Responsible
For
Works....…Ошибка! Закладка не определена.
xi
Maintenance
Of
Plumbing
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to Muscroft, (2016).Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a
wide range of applications. Plumbing uses pipes, valves, fixtures, tanks, and other
apparatuses to convey fluids. Keith (1992). Plumbing are good heart Wilcox.
Heating and cooling (HVAC), waste removal, and potable water delivery are
among the most common uses for plumbing, but it is not limited to these
applications. JE van Zyl (2008) Household plumbing products, materials and
practices play an important part in the effective and efficient delivery of water and
sanitation services. Good products and materials can ensure efficient use of water
at domestic level, thereby reducing wastage of treated water and a scarce resource.
Plumbing maintenance plays an important role among other activities in plumbing
operation. Plumbing damages and defect are part of the plumbing maintenance.
There will be no way to or short cut from plumbing maintenance work. And also
according to Josephson and Hammarlund (1999), within the industry research has
estimated that defects cost between 2-6% of the final build cost during construction
and between 3-5% in post-completion maintenance. One of the critical problems
confronting the housing industry in Ghana is the poor maintenance practice
(Afranie and Osei Tutu, 1999). Maintenance is the core agenda in preserving the
building and the survival of the property Saberwal and Gopa in 1998. Most
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buildings in Ghana whether owned or used by the overall public or individuals are
very poorly maintained largely due to poor maintenance culture and relatively high
cost of maintenance. Usman (2012).In Ghana, the situation of defect and
maintenance of plumbing works is not different at all, this is because most
buildings in the country are been affected with the problem of plumbing defects
such as shower leaks blockages or leaks to drainage, dipping facets, faulty washers,
blockages in sink and water closet, leaking fixtures, slow drain. Lepert & Brillet,
(2009).In general, there have been several plumbing defects which usually occur to
building parts such as roofs, walls, floors ceiling and toilets, Tan Wei Cheun,(2008)
and as a result of all these, the plumbing defects have put some buildings in a very
bad conditions. The situation in Koforidua, the Eastern Region of Ghana as my case
study area isn't different as compared with what's happening within the world and
Africa as an entire. Most of those buildings have developed various kinds of
plumbing defects that may have resulted either through design deficiency or lack
of adequate maintenance materials used mainly for maintenance works don't seem
to be fitting with existing materials (Baiden and Tuuli, 2004).
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
The rate of construction project accomplishment is weak due to the rapid increasing
rate of major defects in plumbing works as a results of poor quality materials and
workmanship which has been identified because the major explanation for defects
in construction projects. The condition of those buildings leaves much to be desired
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and also the satisfaction derived from buildings in fulfilling the function and
aesthetics properties is somehow missing in most buildings in Ghana to be précised
our case study area. Most of those buildings have developed various styles of
plumbing defects like blockages in sinks and cans, problem with boilers not
working properly, faulty washers leakages in most pipe works, toilet and seats not
firmly fixed to the bottom and signs of corrosion to external walls of pipes causing
cracking, dampness, detachment, and water leakages. Defects are categorized as
being deficiencies in design, material, construction or subsurface (Augustsson et
al., 1989) which may have resulted either through design deficiency or lack of poor
workmanship. Also, differing kinds of plumbing materials used mainly for
maintenance works aren't fitting with existing materials (Baiden and Tuuli, 2004).
Other sources of defects have occurred from poor workmanship or unsuitable
construction detailing and it should be argued that the danger of defects occurring
in building projects is larger, thanks to incompetent and unqualified construction
professionals. Bad plumbing ends up in leakages and rusting of plumbing materials
which is as a results of poor workmanship; because of lack of skilful labour training
which the most reason behind these defects.
These defects are often attributed to some or all of the following; how the building
was designed and constructed; performance of the contractors selected for the
project at stake; and quality of materials used for the event. This lack of
maintenance by occupants of these facilities often finishes up in reduced lifespan
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of these buildings as mention by Melvin (1992), which invariably defeat the aim
that they are put. Plumbing works decay also stems from poor workmanship and
poor supervision (Amobi, 2003), most of these defects arises from the actual fact
that the skill employed during the assembly of these buildings are defective, the
supervisory most now then is minimal or left within the hands of unskilled foremen
thus creating a chasm which may be filled by unprofessional ethics thus resulting
in failure within the lifetime of the structure which is ready to eventually be
translated to the overall lifetime of the building. Adejimi (2005) in his study
identified twelve relevant factors affecting the maintenance strength of plumbing
works as design resolution, structural strength, specified materials strength,
maintenance manual, safety measures, skill maintenance personnel, environmental
factors, usage factors, control factors and post construction prevention strength. To
estimate the factors affecting plumbing defects, Addleson (1977) concluded that
natural factors is also summarized into three group of dampness, movement and
chemical and biological change. Therefore the aim of this research is to identify the
numerous defects contributing to the current state of plumbing works and also the
way it's maintained in some selected buildings within the Eastern Region of Ghana
at case study area.
1.3 AIM OF THE STUDY
The aim of this research work is to assess the defect and poor maintenance in
plumbing works in some selected public buildings.
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1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
1. To identify the types of plumbing defects that occurs in the building.
2. To identify causes of plumbing defects in the building works.
3. To identify the underlying causes of poor maintenance of plumbing works
4. To provide measures that reduce occurrence of defects of plumbing works
in some selected buildings.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the types of plumbing defect in buildings?
2. What are the causes of plumbing defect in buildings works?
3. What are the underlying causes of poor maintenance of plumbing works?
4. What are the solution to reduce occurrences of defects of plumbing works
in a building?
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
In relation with the objectives of the study, the scopes of study are:
•
The study will be conducted at Koforidua Municipality of the Eastern Region
of Ghana as case study area.
•
The study will be carried out on data about defects of plumbing works which
occurs at case study area.
•
Questionnaire will be prepared and interview will be conducted with the parties
involved in construction industry and residents at case study area.
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1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is expected to increase the knowledge and up to date information on
defects and maintenance in plumbing works and its adverse impacts on the
occupant of the building.
The study will also contribute to already existing knowledge in the area of the study,
useful to researchers and scholars, as it would add to the scholarly research and
literature in the field. Thus only about 15% of the total maintenance is remedied. If
serious deterioration are not adequately taken care of future generations will be
faced with a major capital burden (Amobi, 2003).
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Though the research will be analyzing the defects and maintenance of plumbing
works in some selected building in the Eastern Region of Ghana but it won’t be
easy for some of the research work to be attained or achieved.
Some of the limitation are as follows;
Time given is limited, lack of finance, the problem of collecting information and
non-availability of books.
1.9 STRUCTURE OF STUDY
The structure of the research will be divided into interrelated five chapters. The
chapter one will contain the general introduction and background to the research.
The statement of problem and significance of the research as well as the aims,
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objectives and scope of the study will be presented. The chapter two will be
literature review which gives an extended coverage of the work. Chapter three will
be provided in debt to discuss on the methodology that will adopt for the study.
The chapter four presents data analysis from the field survey that answers all the
research objectives. Chapter five summarizes the research by reviewing the main
contribution of the study to knowledge.
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CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 THE CONCEPT OF DEFECT
Defects is defined as ‘frailty or shortcoming that prevents an item from being
complete, desirable, effective, safe, or of merit, or makes it to malfunction or fail
in its purpose (Business Dictionary.com)’. It is the non-conformity of an element
or fittings with respect to a standard or specific feature. It is to indicate only a
deviation from standard that may, but will not necessarily, result in failure (Kasim,
2009).
According to Alhajeri (2008), the word ‘defect’ is defined in the Oxford English
Dictionary as the lack of something essential or required, an imperfection. It is also
defined as “failing in”, as a “shortcoming” or a “blemish” whereby something falls
short. Douglas & Ransom (2007) state that, despite the growing awareness as to
many of the common causes and consequences, failures still seem to bedevil the
building industry. The word ‘defective’ is defined as having a defect or defects, i.e.
a state of being incomplete, imperfect, faulty, lacking or deficient.
In the construction context, the term ‘defect’ is generally refers to construction
faults that exceed ordinary imperfections, affecting a basic structural element of the
building works, and turning the building, installation, or structure into a state of
functional ruin (Alhajeri, 2008). Several defects arise as buildings age (Ransom,
1981).The number of defects shows the key indicator of quality that has been used
8
in the house building industry (Auchterlounie, 2009). Harrison (1993) reported that
quality was directly related to the number of defects found in a property. However,
there exist many terms similar to 'defect' in the literature of construction
management, such as rework (Love 2002), quality deviation (Burati et al., 1992),
nonconformance (Abdul-Rahman ,1995), quality failure (Barber et al. 2000), noncompliance (Pan and Garmston 2012), fault (Bonshor and Harrison 1982) and snag
(Love 2002; Sommerville et al. 2004).
British Standard (1984) defects are defined as the deterioration of building features
and services to unsatisfactory quality levels of requirement of the users. According
to California Civil Code 896, common types of plumbing defects include: defective
or faulty plumbing, inadequate drainage systems, leaking water pipes and pipe burst
but we are basing on plumbing, its defect and maintenance in some selected
domestic building. With regard to the concept of defect, Josephson and
Hammarlund (1999) used the definition ‘the non-fulfillment of intended usage
requirements’. Barrett (2008) defined defect as ‘a lack or absence of something
essential to completeness’.
The BSI (2004) defined defect as ‘fault or deviation from the intended condition of
a material, assembly or component’, where ‘fault’ is defined as ‘inability to
function properly’ and ‘deviation’ as ‘algebraic difference between a size and the
corresponding required size’
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Plumbers should have adequate training and the public should be made aware of
the dangers of poor plumbing components and work (Steele, 1984)
2.2 DEFINITION OF MAINTENANCE
British Standard (BS 3811: 1964) defines ‘maintenance’ as “The combination of
all technical and associated administrative actions intended to retain an item in, or
restore it to, a state in which it can perform its required function.”
The actions referred to are those associated with initiation, organization, and
implementation. It envisages two processes: ‘retaining’, i.e. work carried out in
anticipation of failure, referred to as ‘preventive maintenance’ and ‘restoring’, i.e.
work carried out after failure, referred to as ‘corrective maintenance’.
Maintenance has also been defined as ‘All actions taken to retain material in or to
restore it to a specified condition. It includes inspection, testing, servicing, and
classification as to serviceability, repair, rebuilding, and reclamation’ (Collins
English Dictionary, 2003).
The actions referred to are those associated with initiation, organization, and
implementation. It envisages two processes: ‘retaining’, i.e. work carried out in
anticipation of failure, referred to as ‘preventive maintenance’ and ‘restoring’, i.e.
work carried out after failure, referred to as ‘corrective maintenance’. There is also
the concept of an ‘acceptable standard’ which may be construed as acceptability to
the person paying for the work, to the person receiving the benefit or to some
outside body with the responsibility for enforcing minimum standards.
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2.2.1 Types of Maintenance (Source: BS 3811: 1984)
British Standard (BS 3811: 1964) categorizes building maintenance by means of
the following terms and definitions.
1. Planned maintenance: ‘The maintenance organized and carried out with
forethought, control and the use of records to a predetermined plan.”
2. Unplanned maintenance: “The plan carried out to no predetermined plan.” It
refers to work necessitated by unforeseen breakdown or damages. For example,
the pipe burst, through the action of mishandling, and its remedial action
constitute unforeseen damages. It can also be termed unexpected and
unavoidable maintenance.
3. Preventive maintenance: “The maintenance carried out at predetermined
intervals or corresponding to prescribed criteria and intended to reduce the
probability of failure or the performance degradation of an item.”
4.
Corrective maintenance: “The maintenance carried out after a failure has
occurred and intended to restore an item to a state in which it can perform its
required function.”
5.
Emergency maintenance: “The maintenance which it is necessary to put in
hand immediately to avoid serious consequences.” This is referred to as day-today maintenance, resulting from such incidents as drainage leaks.
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2.2.2 Objectives of Maintenance of Plumbing Works on the Economy
British Standard (BS 3811: 1964) some of the objectives of maintenance of
plumbing works on the economy are as follows;
1. It ensures the functional requirements of plumbing works are attained at all
times.
2.
It creates a conducive and tenantable accommodation for owners and
occupiers.
3. It enhances the quality of plumbing materials and workmanship to meet
modern day requirements.
4. To ensure the safety of the users and occupants.
5. To ensure that assets are kept at reasonable standards and at least cost.
2.2.3 Functions of Maintenance
According to Amobi (2006) maintenance functions comprise these separate
Components;
a) servicing and cleaning
b) rectification
c) repair and replace
d) renovation
e) rehabilitation
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Servicing
Servicing which is essentially a cleaning operation is undertaken at regular intervals
of varying frequency and is sometimes termed day to day maintenance.
As more sophisticated equipment’s is introduced, so more complicated service
schedule becomes necessary Amobi (2006).
Rectification
Rectification work usually occurs fairly early in the life of the domestic building
and arises from short comings in design, inherent faults, and unsuitability of
components, damage goods in transit or installation and incorrect assembly Amobi
(2006).
2.2.4 Aims of Maintenance
The primary aim of maintaining a building is to ensure that the building continue
to serve the purpose for which it was put up. The purposes for which maintenances
are undertaken include:
1. To maintain the value of a building- a better maintained building normally has
greater value, however, increased value may be marginal as location and size
of site all play an important in the determination of value(Afranie and OseiTutu, 1999)
2. To create or maintain suitable appearance- can make a positive contribution to
external environment and social conditions. Dilapidated buildings can
13
contribute to social deprivation and badly maintained services and facilities,
waste energy and resources and can affect the environment.
3. To maximize the life of main components and materials- maintenance can
reduce cost of subsequent maintenance by extending periods between repairs
and replacements (Usman, Gambo and Chen 2012).
2.2.5 Factors Influencing Decision to Undertake Maintenance
Miles and Syagga, (1987), identify the following factors as influencing
Inadequate finance-it is generally acknowledged that inadequate finance is a major
constraint on effective property management, partly because maintenance budgets
are the easiest to cut when money is scarce. According to him, maintenance
expenditure can be absorbed more easily in commercial and industrial
organizations where it may account for as little as 0.5% of turnover, but even in
these cases maintenance is taken for granted except when it threatens production or
profitability.
1. Poor building design- it is not uncommon to find that buildings are inherently
expensive to maintain because of inappropriate priorities applied during the
design phase. Poor detailing and the specification of unsuitable components and
materials are common complaints. In addition, construction errors arising from
inadequate drawings and specifications, coupled with poor workmanship
because of contracts awarded to incompetent contractors are frequent causes of
rapid physical deterioration in buildings. Good design should allow
14
accessibility and adequate working space for essential maintenance such as
cleaning, and minor repairs to pipes, ducts.
2. Availability of physical resources- the availability or non-availability of
physical resources affects decisions in that, when suitable materials for
maintenance are not available, it becomes difficult to undertake maintenance.
Again even if suitable materials are available but not in adequate quantities and
the alternative materials are not available, it will deter people from undertaking
maintenance activities. The level of craftsmanship in terms of both skills and
efficient numbers can also affect decisions to carry out maintenance (Usman,
Gambo and Chen 2012).
2.3 DEFINITION OF PLUMBING
"Plumbing" means the art of installing in buildings the pipes for distributing the
water supply, the fixtures for using water and drainage pipes for removing waste
water and sewage, together with fittings, appurtenances, and appliances of various
kinds, all within or adjacent to the building (Teresi et al.2002)
2.4 DEFINITION OF PLUMBING MATERIALS
" means the following: appliances and water heaters; the water supply distributing
pipes; the fixtures and fixture traps; the soil, waste and vent pipes; the house drain
and house sewer which are installed in the building according to their standard and
specification. Malvitz (2006)
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2.4.1 Materials Used For Plumbing Works:
a.
Copper
Copper pipe is the most popular type of piping used in domestic hot and cold water
systems. It is also used in domestic central heating systems. Copper is a good
conductor of heat, it is also relatively easy to bend when cold. It will not corrode to
any great extent. Copper connections can be easily soldered. Malvitz, (2006)
b.
Mild Steel
Mild steel or black iron pipe as it is normally known is used in large scale industrial
plumbing such as factories, schools and hospitals. Black iron pipes are generally
much larger in diameter than copper pipes. They are joined by threaded fittings or
by welding. The greatest disadvantage to black iron pipe is the fact that it will rust
and corrode easily. (William Collins Sons & Co.Ltd. 1971, 1988)
Sheet lead is used for a variety of different uses within the construction industry i.e.
flashing round chimneys and dormer windows. Flashing round where a flue
projects through the roof.
c.
Lead
Lead is no longer used in pipes as it can contaminate water and make it poisonous.
Plastic P.V.C. pipes are generally used as waste pipes from domestic sanitary ware.
They can be used in sinks, bathrooms and also in underground drainage. Vent pipes
16
are generally also known as P.V.C and has also taken over the rest of plumbing
materials formally used for fittings.
Several new types of plastic pipe have recently become available for cold water
systems although they have not become very popular as yet. (William Collins
Sons&Co.Ltd. 1971, 1988
2.4.2 Types of Plumbing Works
The plumbing industry offers a wide range of occupants in various specialities.
Explore the types of plumbing works available according to Arregui, Cabrera and
Cobacho, (2006)
a. Water Plumbing
Water plumbing consists of the installation, removal, repair and maintenance of hot
and cold-water pipes and fittings Malvitz, (2006).
b. Sanitary Plumbing
Installation, removal, renewal, repair and maintenance of pipes, including
ventilation of those pipes and fittings to receive and convey sewage. Malvitz,
(2006)
c. Drainage
Installation, removal, repair and maintenance of storm water and waste pipes and
fittings according to Arregui, Cabrera and Cobacho, (2006)
17
d. Mechanical Services
Work on heating, cooling or ventilation of buildings which may include
installation, removal, repair and maintenance of pipes, valves, regulators, tanks,
evaporative cooling, and ventilation and air conditioning systems according to
Arregui, Cabrera and Cobacho, (2006)
e. Gas Services
Installation, disconnection, repair and maintenance of pipes, fitting, appliances and
associated ventilation equipment involving gases such as fuel, liquefied petroleum,
manufactured and natural gases according to Arregui, Cabrera and Cobacho, (2006)
2.5 IMPORTANCE OF PLUMBING SYSTEMS
The World Health Organisation, the World Plumbing Council and others (WHO,
2006; Frankel, 2004) has defined a number of goals for water supply and plumbing
systems. The main requirements are summarised below:
1.
Drinking water at the consumer’s tap should be available reliably and in
adequate quantities. The water should be safe at all times.
2.
The supply plumbing system should not be able to degrade the quality of
drinking water. Plumbing materials should not contain harmful substances that
can leach into the water creating health hazards.
3.
Plumbing systems should be durable, resistant to internal and external pressures
and environmental factors.
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4.
Plumbing components and workmanship should comply with the requirements
of standards.
5.
Water leakage and wastage should be minimised. Plumbing components should
be designed, maintained, used and installed with the objective of minimising
leakage and wastage.
Plumbing fixtures should be sufficiently durable to give satisfactory service over a
long period (Jordan, 2004; Frankel, 2004 - WHO, 2006). They should be user
friendly and hygienic and their surfaces should be free of sharp surfaces that may
cause injury (Jordan, 2004).
2.6 DEFECTS IN PLUMBING
Plumbing materials have changed through the years for the better becoming safer,
cheaper, stronger, lighter and easier to install. All of which adds up to make your
home a better place to live (InspectApedia.com).Plumbing defects are one such
problem than may go undetected and cause serious and lasting damage. Plumbing
defect are costly inconvenience but they can cause other serious problems to a
residential or domestic buildings. Malvitz, (Jan. 2006)
1.
Septic Defect
Septic system defect is caused by sewer odours in building. Backdrafting refers to
indoor conditions that create sufficient negative air pressure inside the building
such that gases may be drawn into the building from a plumbing drain system or
19
such that heating appliances may lack adequate combustion air and may produce
dangerous carbon monoxide DoL. (2008). It is caused by rain, wet weather and
local flooding can cause sewer gases to backup through building drains, moving
properly up through building vent piping to above the building roof, or moving
improperly into the building through dry traps and drains and it’s no different from
what’s happening at our case study area where Sewer gas re-entry into the building
occurs when a plumbing vent is improperly located too close to a window, door,
soffit vent or even a bath or kitchen vent duct. Clayton (2005). Back drafting in
building causes sewer gas odours: bath or other building exhaust fans may draw
sewer gases up from drain piping, especially if there are dry plumbing traps. Cobra
(2008). Moreover, the situation in our case study area which we identified were that
most septic tanks and their soak ways have problems which sooner or later, will
often in period, falling heavy rain, with the septic tank overflowing ,septic tank
effluent appearing at ground level ,seeping into ditches or backing-up the pipes.
These septic system defect is as a result of poor determination of the slope or
gradient, poor connection and improper materials been used. Clayton (2005).
2.
Plumbing Fixtures Defect
The fixture and faucet fixture normally occurs in basin, sinks and laundry tubs in
buildings. Its occurs as a result poor design and workmanship during the design
stage of the building.it is as a result of poor cross connections, leaks, overflows
20
missing, rust and inappropriate fixing of the component in the building which turn
to slow or clog drain from flowing normally which turns to make the building loose
the purpose is built for Manas, V. T. P. E. (1957). The most common problem
associated with faucets is leaking. Water leaks from pipes underneath your sink not
only annoying but they can also damage your flooring and walls.
(InspectApedia.com)
Your sinks drain is also vulnerable to clogging. Clogs can result in severe water
backup and minor flooding. (Rss Schwenksville Plumber/Ray A.Shaffer, Inc.)
Faucets problems are caused by an increased build-up of certain minerals like
calcium and magnesium in your main supply which turns to deposit minerals to
accumulate causing your plumbing fixtures to clog and eventually corrode (2015
Morris publishing, Inc.) When it happens like that the drastic reduction in water
pressure and cause unsightly stains on your sink and bathtubs Macnamara, R.
(Editor). (2007).
3.
Shower stalls defect
Modern construction of building provides a desirable finish for a hobbles shower
as it is easy to access. Shower stall is as a result to pooling water on the floor, rust,
sill and threshold problems, slow drains as a result of improper connection and
cracks. Walker, Erskine, Still and Hazelton, (2007). This forms part of most
modern houses however if the waterproof membrane and methodology of
installation have not been installed in the correct manner, then leaking shower can
21
occur. The evidence of leaking shower can be from various sources (2015 Morris
publishing, Inc.)
2.7 CAUSES OF THE DEFECTS IN PLUMBING WORKS
Defects are caused by underlying problems and not necessarily from a single effect
e.g. leakages in plumbing materials could be a symptom of maybe leakages in any
plumbing services or inefficient workmanship or poor design of concrete mix. As
a result it does not only affect the building aesthetically but users safety may
sometimes be required (Che-Ani et al., 2011). Stephenson, Morrey, Vacher and
Ahmed (2002) state that the causes of defects fall into the following basic
categories:
•
Poor Plumbing material Supplies
•
Design errors;
•
Workmanship errors
•
Faulty materials
•
Procedural errors
•
Failure to maintain properly, and
•
Abuse or misuse of the plumbing facilities
•
Contractor errors
•
Inadequate laborers skills
•
Inappropriate specifications
22
a. Poor Plumbing material Supplies
Plumbing defects are caused by poor building supplies. In such cases plumbing
defects are caused by shoddy building supplies. For instance, in 2010, the
construction defect center began investigating copper residential plumbing pipes
that was used in new construction projects built after 2005 (Che-Ani et al., 2011).
the concern was that the copper pipes were marked as made in the USA as opposed
to marked in china and that these copper pipes were known to fail at unprecedented
levels and did not meet us standard of acceptance plumbing arterials as compared
to the situation in Ghana, property owners who have experienced inexplicable
plumbing leaks, especially problems with copper pipes (2015 Morris publishing,
Inc.)
b. Poor Quality Of Material And Improper Installation
Poor quality of pipes materials and improper installation will shorten the pipes
lifetime and make them more prone to leaches and poor pipe quality may facilities
the infiltration of chemical into the drinking water and make pipes more sensible
for corrosion. (Che-Ani et al., 2011).
c. Corrosion:
Depending on the properties, water can cause chemical reactions with metals and
cement pipes, which are called corrosion. Pipes that are corroding release metals
into the drinking water. There is also a risk that the pipe will start to leak or crack,
increasing the risk of infiltration from microorganisms. Corrosion control is used
23
to manage acidity, alkalinity and besides the interior corrosion, exterior Corrosion
of the pipes can also happen, caused by the reaction of soil and water. Therefore, a
protection layer, of e.g. bitumen, is often applied on the exterior side of the network
pipes. (Che-Ani et al., 2011).
d. Poor Workmanship
According to Baiden and Tuuli (2004), “defects and variations in construction
products from standards is persistently a problem of concern in the construction
industry in Ghana”. Defects in construction project could also be seen as
incompliance or lack of conformity with contract agreement which include;
working drawing, specification, quality of workmanship, and any-other condition
not expressly stated such as “durability, aesthetic, performance or design”.
The problem of defective construction witnessed in the construction sector was
tackled by the introduction of “Quality Assurance (QA) techniques” which was
initiated by other industries, however, the technique is still being improved on to
be suitable in the construction companies.
In some situations, a plumber will fail to adhere to applicable building code
requirements or may not perform the work at the adequate standard workmanship.
If this is the case, plumbing leaks and other plumbing defects can occur. (Che-Ani
et al., 2011). Not only do plumbing leaks cause damage to the water supply line
and fixtures but they can also result in significant water damage, which can, in turn
24
leads to dangerous mold growth and contamination of your home and personal
property. (InspectApedia).
Once a plumbing leak is discovered, it is important to repair the damage plumbing
system, but also to remedy the water damage in a timely manner. (Che-Ani et al.,
2011). You may also want to conduct a complete investigation of your home for
related mold growth and contamination. Thompson (2006).Defects in building can
therefore arise from either or a combination of the occurrence of following
situation; error in design by the Architect, flaws from the manufacturer, defects in
materials, wrong use or inappropriate installation of equipment’s, and inconformity
to specification by the contractor, among others. Webster (1957)
General forms of defects in construction includes either or a combination of the
following; defects in structure giving rise to cracks or collapse; defects or faults in
electrical and plumbing installations; inadequacy of drains for proper disposal;
insufficient provision for ventilation; poor cooling and/or heating system; poor
sound insulation system, and insufficient fire prevention or protection mechanism.
In addition, defects in building may also be as a result of the following; fungus,
termite, or vermin infection, fungus, wood rot, mold, and dry rot. Webster, S. (1957
Damages as a result of earth settlement or land movement may also result to defect
to building. Ascertainment of defects in building can only be done by an expert,
such as architect or engineer, who by training and experience will be able to confirm
the causes of the problem, either resulting from poor design, low quality of material
25
or poor workmanship. According to Abdul Rahman et al. (1996), workmanship was
classified as one of the most frequent non-conformance on construction site and
therefore through literatures, six variables that related to the causes of poor quality
of workmanship in construction projects had been found out. These are:
1. Lack of experience and competency of labours
2. Language barrier to communication and lack of communication
3. Unsuitable construction equipment’s
4. Poor weather condition
5. Limited time
a) Limited cost
e. Dampness
Dampness is generally defined as unwanted and excessive water or moisture. The
existing of dampness in building is one of the most damaging failures that really
must be taken care of Ransom (1981).It can cause damage in brickwork by
saturating them, decaying and breaking up of mortar joints, rotting in the timber
structures, defecting by the corrosion of iron and steel materials and also destroying
the equipment in the building. Dampness in walls has been taken in consideration
in recent years. Ransom (1981)
According to Belgrade (1975), dampness can be a serious matter, particularly to the
building located near water sources. Somehow, the water can enter the building bit
26
by bit through different routes resulting in dampness. Furthermore, prevailing wet
wind and rain will due to water penetrations that occur through walls.
The other factor such as leaking gutters or down pipes, defective drains, burst
plumbing, and condensation due to inadequate ventilation also can be the factors
yielding to dampness occurrence. The moisture of wall occurs due to many causes.
There are water leakages, drain block, roof leakage and so on, Low and Chong
(2004)
There are three common causes of mold:
•
Water leakage
Water leakage will happen by the plumbing that is not installed properly. Sometime
water leakage also comes from the toilet. Besides that, the gutter of roof also can
cause the mold that will attach itself to the wall. Frankel (2004)
•
Water damage
Source of water comes from overflowing tub, leakage in the toilet or shower, seep
out of plumbing or roof, storm damage, cracks around a chimney, and the list goes
on. All of these will eventually cause to the rust of nails, and some other dirt or
debris. Frankel (2004)
•
Water Hammer
Water hammer may be due to high water pressure but can happen even under
normal conditions.it is caused by a combination of factors such as inadequate air
27
cushions in the water lines to temper the sudden stoppage of water flow when a
faucet or valve closes or improperly installed piping. Haarhoff and Rietveld (2008)
the faulty formation and the defects of plumbing works occur because of the many
factors such as:
1. The inappropriate use of plumbing components or materials.
2. The plumbing materials or component being subject to forces or agents not
considered in the design.
3. Inaccurate information from manufacturers.
4. Poor manufacturing quality.
5. Poor workmanship coupled with lack of adequate supervision during the
construction period.
According to Rhodes and Smallwood (2002), the causes of defects can be related
to design, construction, procurement and prevailing environmental conditions.
They also describe the origin of defects as being inadequate management and
technical skills.
2.8 EFFECTS OF DEFECT IN PLUMBING WORKS
1. Water Leakages in the Plumbing System: This is when Pipes or any
plumbing components may leak or burst, resulting in financial losses to the
building owner and or water supply authority due to water losses, damage to
property, temporary loss of use of a property, and possible replacement of the
plumbing system. (Jonathan, 2005)
28
2. Malfunctioning of water Heaters: A leak or burst on a hot water pipe may
also result in serious injury due to scalding, and cases of death have been
reported. For instance, in November 2006, a ten-month-old baby in the UK
suffered 95% burns when a fault in the plumbing system caused hot water to be
released in the bedroom where she was sleeping and died a month later due the
severe injuries (BBC News, 2008).
3. Bad Odour in the Plumbing System: Various substances, such as lead,
copper, cyanide, arsenic, iron, manganese, and zinc, biological and organic
matter may enter the water through leaching from plumbing materials or
interactions between the plumbing material and water (Jonathan, 2005)
4. It Leads to Explosion: Under certain conditions, inadequate plumbing systems
can cause explosion of high pressure geysers, with potential injury to people
and damage to property when care is not taken to address the problems of
plumbing defect in our domestic buildings in the future. (Jonathan, 2005)
5. Leakage’s In Pipes
Pipe burst or leak for a number of reasons, including a pipe connection that has
come undone. Since many pipes connection that has come undone. Since many
pipes in a home are hidden within walls or between floors, when leak occurs, it
may mean water coming down from a ceiling beneath a bathroom or down the
top of a wall beneath the leak. (Jonathan, 2005)
29
2.9 REMEDIES FOR PLUMBING DEFECT
1. Plumbing components and workmanship should comply with the requirements
of standards. British Standard BS 79813 (1998)
2. All new plumbing installations should be tested and disinfected.
3. Water leakage and wastage should be minimised. Plumbing components should
be designed, maintained, used and installed with the objective of minimising
leakage and wastage.
4. Hot water systems should be designed and installed in a way to avoid health
hazards such as explosion and overheating.
30
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 INTRODUCTION
According to Creswell (2003), research methodology refers to the method adopted
in carrying out the research. Research methods are generally used in academic
research to test hypothesis or theories. In the developed world, research methods
are employed to gather data or information for various purposes including
feasibilities studies, planning, monitoring and evaluation (Tabiri, 2012).
This chapter discusses how the study was conducted. Specific areas covered are the
Research design, population, sample and sampling procedure, study variable,
instruments for data collection and the data analysis procedure. In order to obtain
the relevant data both primary and secondary data were used to address the specific
details under the study.
The primary data provided reliable, accurate and first-hand information relevant to
this study. It was obtained through the distribution of questionnaires to people
occupying domestic buildings in Koforidua municipality. In order to enrich the
questionnaire for the research, a review of journals, technical papers and text books
were used to identify the various efforts that have been made in the past to evaluate
the defects and poor maintenance of some selected domestic buildings in Koforidua
31
Municipality, Secondary sources of data were obtained from relevant literature that
covered research and publication on the subject matter.
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
Biklen and Bogman (2003) define research design as the overall plan for collecting
and analysing data including measures to enhance both internal and external
validity. The design therefore constitutes the blueprint for the collection,
measurement and analysis of data.
The design used for this study was a survey. Anderson and Taylor (2009) added
that quantitative research is generally done using scientific methods, which
includes the following steps:

Developing instruments and methods for measuring the data.

Experimental control and manipulation of variables.

Collecting the data.

Modeling and analyzing the data.

Evaluating the results.
The purpose of this study is to solve the research problems through the
interpretation of the data that have been gathered.
32
3.3 POPULATION
According to Burns and Groves (1993), a population is defined as all elements
(including individuals, objectives and events with common observable
characteristics that meet the sample criteria for inclusion in the study. The
population for the study comprises of occupants living in buildings in Koforidua
Municipality with direct exposure to defects in Plumbing works. Their population
was estimated to be not less than one hundred and ten (110) and it was obtained
from records of the building under studied.
3.4 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE AND SAMPLE SIZE
The purposive sampling techniques which were used to select the sample for the
research. These were adopted because it provided the chance to reach the samples
that will give the needed information that will satisfy the research objectives based
on logistical considerations.
Statistical formula was therefore used to determine the sample size required to
estimate a proportion with a specified level of confidence and precision. The sample
size for the research work were one hundred and ten (110).
Questionnaires were therefore issued to 110 respondents purposely selected from
the case study area. The number was chosen to make provision for non-responsive
respondents.
33
3.5 STUDY VARIABLES
The variables under study included background information of the respondents
such as Ages, Highest Educational Level of the respondent or occupant occupying
the selected building. Other variables under study were types and causes of
plumbing works and to ascertain the relationship between poor workmanship and
plumbing defects of plumbing works on some selected domestic building in
Koforidua Municipality.
3.6 DATA COLLECTION METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS
The data collection process involved two stages. The first stage (section B)
consisted of literature search for information on the types of plumbing defects and
causes of defect in plumbing works. This stage resulted in the identification of five
(5) cause of plumbing defect affecting some selected domestic buildings
respectively and (3) types of plumbing defects which occurs within the building.
The second stage involved the development of questionnaire incorporating these
types of defect which occurs in plumbing works and causes of these plumbing
defects identified in the questionnaire for data collection.
The questionnaire consisted of four sections based on the respondent’s profile; the
type of defect in plumbing works, causes and general condition of plumbing
elements in the building. It was carefully designed in light of getting high response
rate from respondents.
34
The sections A, B and C of the questionnaire were structured to comprise open
ended and close ended questions which respondents were asked to provide the
appropriate answers. The sections C were structured based on Likert scale of five
ordinal measures of relative importance towards each statement (from 1 to 5).For
the following questions, (In terms of 5 = ‘Strongly disagree’; 4 = ‘Disagree’; 3 =
‘neutral’; 2 = ‘Agree’; 1 = ‘Strongly agree’).The response categories of the
questions called quantifiers reflect the intensity of the particular judgement
involved and the numerical value shown beside the category of response represents
the intensity of the response (Naoum, 2007). The mean score of 3.0 and above were
considered significant and relatively important to the study.
The reasons for adopting this simple scale are:
• To provide simplicity for the respondent to answer, and
• To make evaluation of collected data easier.
Data will be collected from the population using the following data collecting
techniques or instruments, questionnaire, physical observation of the buildings
under study and photographs of plumbing defects relevant to the study were also
taken.
35
3.6.1 Primary Data Collection
Data were collected from the population using the following data collecting
techniques or instruments: questionnaires and physical observation of the buildings.
Furthermore, photographs of some of the buildings sampled were taken.
Shao (1999) defines a questionnaire as a formal set of questions or statements
designed to gather information from respondents that accomplish research
objectives. The questionnaire may have either structured or unstructured questions.
For the purpose of this research, the questionnaire contained structured questions.
3.6.2 Secondary Data Collection
Secondary sources of data relevant to the research were obtained from the World
Wide Web (internet), books and journal relating to the building types, its location
within the municipality.
3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
Data analysis is a practice in which raw data is ordered and organized so that useful
information can be extracted from it. Descriptive statistical tools such as Charts,
Graphs and Tables were used to present the data for easy explanation, while
descriptions and pictures will be used in the case of the qualitative analysis.
36
CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS, PRESENTATION AND DISSCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter focuses on the analysis of data collected through the use of
questionnaires. Analysis of responses was done according to the research objective
using SPSS 2016. Data was analyzed in relation to the objectives of the study as
the results of the analysis have been presented in tables showing frequencies,
percentages and figures of responses given by the respondents who were in
domestic building under study.
4.2 ANALYSIS OF RESPONSE
4.2.1 Questionnaire Distributed and Response
A total of one hundred and ten (110) questionnaires were distributed to sampled
population in our case study area. It was observed that out of a total of one hundred
and ten (110) questionnaires distributed, eighty-five (85) questionnaires were filled
and returned, which represents a total of approximately seventy-four percent (77%)
response rate. This is an acceptable response rate because it ensures that the survey
result is representative of the target population.
37
4.2.2 Bio Data of Respondents
4.2.3Background Information of Respondents of the Building
Data was gathered on the background information of the respondents under study
in order to determine the defect and maintenance of some selected building in
Koforidua. The background information included age, gender, educational level
and respondent category
4.2.4 Distribution of Age of Respondents
The percentage distribution of the various ages of the buildings also revealed that
those that are below 25 years represents 11.8%, followed by 26-30 years represents
32.9%, and 31-35 years represents 16.5%. Whilst, 36-45 years represents 17.6%
and finally, 45-55 years represents 21.2% as shown from table 4.1 below.
38
Table 4.1: Age Distribution of Respondents
Category of Age
Frequency
Percentage
Below 25 years
10
11.8
26-30 years
28
32.9
31-35 years
14
16.5
36-45 years
15
17.6
46-55 years
18
21.2
Total
85
100
Source: Field survey 2020
4.2.5 Gender of Respondents
Data on gender of the respondents reveals that 58.1% of the respondents were
male’s whiles 40.7% percent represents females. This implies that the males
dominate more than the females at our case study area as shown in table 4.2 below.
39
Table 4.2: Gender of respondents
Gender
Frequency
Percentage
Male
50
58.8
Female
35
41.2
Total
85
100
Source: Field survey 2020
4.2.6 Educational Level of the Respondents
Educational level was sought to determine whether the respondents occupying the
building have any knowledge on the defect in plumbing works and measure put in
place to rectify such defects. From the analysis it was revealed that most 17.6% of
the respondents have attained first degree, 35.3% had attained Master degree, 5.9%
attained SSSCE, 29.4% attained HND whilst the rest of the respondents had
attained O’ level/A’ level.
From the table 4.3, it can be deduced that all the respondents in Koforidua have
some form of educational background which can help in detecting defects
associated with plumbing work and how it can be maintained.
40
Table 4.3: Depicts The Level of Education of Respondents.
Levels
Frequency
Percentage
O’Level/A
10
11.8
SSSCE
5
5.9
Degree
15
17.6
HND
25
29.4
Master’s Degree
30
35.3
Total
85
100
Source: Field survey 2020
4.2.7 Category of Respondents (Values in Percentages)
The table below shows a descriptive statistic on respondents’ profile. It depicts that
on category of respondents, out of the total of eighty-nine (85) respondents,
majority of the respondents 47.1% were Contactors, 35.3% were Plumbers and
17.6% were Building owners. These respondents are the key occupants of the
domestic building under study. Having an acceptable response rate from this
respondent therefore validates the findings of the study as shown from table 4.4.
41
Table 4.4: Category of Respondents in Percentages
Category
Frequency
Percentage
Contractors
40
47.1
Plumbers
30
35.3
Building owners
15
17.6
Total
85
100
Source: Field survey 2020
4.2.8 Number of Year’s Respondents Occupied the Building
Number of years respondent has lived in the building was sought to determine
whether the year’s one serve, respondent faced any plumbing defects. Table 4.5
below depicts the responses received from respondents the number of years in the
building.
42
Table 4.5: Number of Year’s Respondent Occupied the Building
Number of years
Frequency
Percentage
1-5 years
31
36.5
5-10 years
18
21.2
10-15 years
15
17.6
Above 15 years
21
24.7
Total
85
100
Source: Field survey 2020
4.2.9 Defect Detected When Respondents Occupied the Building
Qualitatively, the study sought to find out whether or not the respondent detected
any plumbing defect when he/she occupied the building. Hence the questions of
whether any defects where detected when the respondent occupied the building
were asked. Below is the table of results analysed from the data collected with a
Yes or No response gathered from respondent. From the field study it reveals that
most respondent face a lot of defect with their plumbing works, Out of the total of
number, fourteen (14) responded Yes represents 16.5% and seventy-one (71)
responded No represent 83.5%, this tells us defects in plumbing works are normally
found in buildings as shown in table 4.6
43
Table 4.6: Defect Detected From Respondents
Types of defect
Frequency
Percentage
No
71
83.5
Yes
14
16.5
Total
85
100
Source: Field survey 2020
4.3 TYPES OF PLUMBING DEFECTS
This section of the analysis deals with the views of respondents on the types of
defects faced in plumbing works. The respondents responded to various types of
plumbing defect faced by their building, plumbing fixture defects 42.4% response
from respondents, septic system defects represents 30.6% of response and shower
stalls represents 27.0% from the research conducted from the population. The table
4.7 below Show the responses from the respondents.
44
Table 4.7: Various Plumbing Defects Faced By Respondents
Types of defect
Frequency
Percentage
Septic System defect
26
31.0
Plumbing fixtures Defect
36
42.0
Shower Stall Defect
23
27.0
Total
85
100
Source: Field survey 2020
Types of plumbing defects
27%
31%
42%
Septic System defect
Plumbing fixtures Defect
Figure 4.1: Various Plumbing Defects Faced By Respondents
45
Shower Stall Defect
Figure 4.1 above shows Percentage of types of defects in plumbing works in the
building under study.
4.4 CAUSES OF PLUMBING DEFECTS
From the field study it reveals that most of the defects or faults found in the
domestic buildings are as a result of design errors, workmanship error, Faulty
material, Abuse or misuse of the plumbing facilities, inadequate labourer’s skills
and inappropriate specification in the domestic buildings. In total 3 areas of defects
were identified, which were: bathrooms, bedrooms, and kitchen, W/C and drainage
system. All the 3 defects recorded were distributed unevenly throughout these
areas. The two areas with the largest numbers of defects were kitchens and
bathrooms. The table 4.8 below shows the causes of plumbing defects in building.
46
Table 4.8: Causes of Plumbing Defect in Buildings Works
Statement
Mean
Standard Deviation
Design errors
2.87
1.370
Workmanship errors
2.60
1.365
Faulty material
2.51
1.42
Procedural error
3.08
1.246
Abuse of the plumbing facilities 2.80
1.089
Inadequate labourer’s skills
2.60
1.449
Inappropriate specification
3.08
1.552
Source: Field survey 2020
4.4.1 Number of Year’s Defects Has Been Faced by Respondents
The number of years respondents have faced such plumbing defects have been
illustrate in the table 4.9 below. From the table 35.3% represents the respondents
have faced such plumbing defects for 1-3 years, 21.2% represent 3-5 years, 18.8%
represent 6-10 years and 24.7% represent above 15
47
Table 4.9: Respondents Response on Number of Years Defects Have Been Faced
Frequency
Percentage
1-3 years
29
35.3
3-5 years
18
21.2
6-10 years
16
18.8
Above 15 years
22
24.7
Total
85
100
Source: Field survey 2020
4.5
FACTORS
CONTRIBUTING OF
POOR MAINTENANCE
IN
PLUMBING WORKS
Some domestic buildings since independence have been in use up by some
respondents for some time now. Some of these properties even date back to the
colonial administration. Domestic building is therefore expected to have the natural
tendency to preserve, protect and maintain these properties. This is however not the
case as revealed by this study. The table 4.10 below shows factors contributing to
poor maintenance in plumbing works.
48
Table 4.10: Factors Contributing of Poor Maintenance in Plumbing Works
Statement
Mean
Standard Deviation
Non-Availability of
2.05
1.388
Lack of maintenance culture 3.55
1.052
Inadequate funds
3.56
1.267
Pressure on facility
3.24
1.269
Physical resources
due to number of occupants
Poor building design
2.09
1.436
Source: Field survey 2020
4.5.1 How often respondents maintain their plumbing facilities.
The field study revealed the percentages of how often respondents maintain their
plumbing facilities in the buildings,18% represents weekly followed by 35% for
monthly,27% represents daily,14% represents yearly and 6% represents not at all.
The majority of the respondent rated daily as a way of maintaining their plumbing
facilities in the building. The table 4.11 below shows how often respondents
maintain their plumbing facilities.
49
Table: 4.11: How Often Respondents Maintain their Plumbing Facilities.
Statement
frequency
percentage
Weekly
15
17.6
Monthly
30
35.3
Daily
23
27.1
Yearly
12
14.1
5
5.9
85
100
Not at all
Total
Source: Field survey 2020
4.5.2 Who Is Responsible For The Maintenance of The Plumbing Facilities?
The table below shows respondents responsible for maintenance of plumbing
facilities in the building. The table is a chart showing the percentages of
respondents responsible for the maintenance of plumbing works in the buildings.
The result shows that the majority been tenants represents 70.6%, followed by the
owners of the building representing 29.4%.The table 4.12 below shows the person
responsible of maintenance of the plumbing facility.
50
Table 4.12: Respondents Responsible For Maintenance of Plumbing Works
Responsible
Frequency
Percentage
Tenant
60
70.6
Owner
25
29.4
Total
85
100
Source: Field survey 2020
4.5.3 Maintenance Rule Guiding the Use of Your Plumbing Facilities
The study sought to find out whether or not the respondent has any maintenance
rule guiding the use of your plumbing facilities in the building. Below is the table
of results analysed from the data collected with a Yes or No response gathered from
respondent. From the field study it reveals that most respondents have maintenance
rule guiding their plumbing works because of various response gathered from the
categories, 83.5% represents Yes response rate and 16.5% represents No response
rates as shown from table 4.13 below.
51
Table 4.13: Do You Have Any Maintenance Rule Guiding the Use of Your
Plumbing Facilities
Response
Frequency
Percentage
Yes
71
No
14
Total
85
83.5
16.5
100
Source: Field survey 2020
16.5%
83.5%
Figure 4.2: The Diagram Shows the Percentage of Respondents on who Have
Maintenance Rule Guiding Your Plumbing Facilities.
52
4.5.4 Which Type of Maintenance Practice?
The responses gathered from the respondents during our research survey indicates
that response to the type of maintenance practice in the municipality is very high
accumulating 45.9 percent routine response as shown in table 4.14 below.
Table 4.14: Respondent Response on the Type of Maintenance Practiced
statement
Frequency
Percentage
Routine
39
45.9
Periodic
22
25.9
Preventive
24
28.2
Total
85
100
Source: Field survey 2020
53
Figure 4.3: Respondent Response on the Type of Maintenance Practice
The survey indicates that response to the type of maintenance practice in the
municipality is very high accumulating 45.9 percent routine response.
4.6 GENERAL CONDITION OF THE PLUMBING FACILITIES IN THE
BUILDING.
The plumbing works were classified into good, fair good, bad and very bad. This
section of the analysis deals with the views of respondents on the solution to defects
of plumbing works. The respondents responded to various solutions of plumbing
54
work. From the field study it reveals that when this measures are been taken it will
help materials and resources last longer as shown in table 4.15 below.
Table 4.15: General Condition of the Plumbing Facilities in the Building
Frequency
Percentage
Good
35
41.2
Fairly Good
15
17.6
Bad
24
28.2
Very Bad
11
12.9
Total
85
100
Source: Field survey 2020
4.7 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN TO REDUCE THE OCCURRENCES OF
DEFECTS OF PLUMBING WORKS IN A BUILDING
From the field study it reveals that most of the defects can be minimized in the
domestic buildings by proper supervision, use of quality plumber, Checking of
plumbing materials by standard authority before arrival in the country, Plumbing
design should be at the hands of competent personnel’s and Provision of orientation
services to plumbing facility users in the domestic buildings. The survey revealed
that Plumbing components and workmanship should comply with the requirements
of standards. All new plumbing installations should be tested and disinfected. Water
55
leakage and wastage should be minimised. Plumbing components should be
designed, maintained, used and installed with the objective of minimising leakage
and wastage. The table 4.16 below shows ways to reduce occurrence of plumbing
defects.
Table 4.16: The Table below Show Ways to Reduce Occurrences of the Defects of
Plumbing Works
Statement
Mean
Standard Deviation
Proper supervision
3.78
1.322
Use of qualify plumber
3.76
1.315
Checking of plumbing materials
3.60
1.079
Plumbing design should be at the
3.85
1.097
3.91
1.368
hands Of competent personnel’s
Provision of orientation services
to Plumbing facility users
Source: Field survey 2020
56
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter presents a summary of the findings, the recommendations made to
address the findings and finally the conclusions drawn from the analysis of this
research. The aim of this work is to identify the defects and poor maintenance of
plumbing’s works in some selected buildings. The study adopted a survey approach
and to that effect, descriptive and cross-sectional designs were adopted to study 85
building
construction
professionals
from
New
Juaben
Municipality.
Questionnaires were used to collect data from the sampled respondents and the
statistical tools used to analysed the data collected were SPSS and descriptive
statistics such as means, frequencies, and percentages were employed.
5.2 SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGS
The study examined types of plumbing defects in the building as first objective of
this project work, and the following results were discovered:
1. Plumbing fixtures defects
2. Septic system defects
3. Shower stall defects
57
On the second objective respondents answered the question on the causes of
plumbing defects in the building works. Their responses reveal the causes of
plumbing defects in the building works. The following are findings from the study:
1. Design errors
2. Workmanship errors
3. Faulty materials
4. Procedural errors
5. Misuse of plumbing facilities
6. Inadequate labourers skills
7. Inappropriate specifications
The third objective addresses the underlying causes of poor maintenance of
plumbing works; the study discovers the following:
1. Non-availability of physical resources
2. Lack of maintenance culture
3. Inadequate funds
4. Pressure on facility due to number of occupants
5. Poor building design
The last objective addresses solution to the defects of plumbing works in building,
the study discovers the following:
1. Proper supervision
2. Use of qualify plumbers
58
3. Checking of materials by standard authority
4. Plumbing design should be at the hands of competent personnel.
5. Provision of orientation service to plumbing facility users
5.3 CONCLUSIONS
Theoretically, this study has provided several explanations into the types of
plumbing defects in building. The findings of the study reveal that the types of
plumbing defects in building includes plumbing fixtures defects, septic system
defects and shower stall defects. The study concluded that the effective
mitigation measures to address the types of plumbing defects includes. Proper
supervision, Use of qualify plumbers, checking of materials by standard
authority, Plumbing design should be at the hands of competent personnel and
Provision of orientation service to plumbing facility users
5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS
The following are recommendations as a way of dealing with maintenance
problems with your plumbing facilities in the domestic buildings in Koforidua
Municipality:
1. There should be a monitory system to check implementation of appropriate
plumbing procedures to enhance effectiveness of plumbing practices.
59
2. There agency to certified plumbing material should up their game to avoid the
use of substandard materials in the building industry.
3. There should be an engagement of competent plumbing professionals on every
plumbing project to improve the practice of plumbing systems.
4. There should be a monitory system to check regular inspection of maintenance
on plumbing works to avoid lack of maintenance in the building industry.
60
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http://ir.knust.edu.gh/bitstream/123456789/6298/1/MALLAM%20ISS
AH%20ISSAHAKU.pdf (Accessed 21 June 2020).
Ahzahar, N., Karim, N.A., Hassan, S.H. and Eman, J. 2011. A study of
contribution factors to building failures and defects in construction
industry. In: Procedia Engineering. 2nd International Building Control
Conference, 11-12 July, Penang, Malaysia. Amsterdam:
Elsevier Science, 20, pp. 249-255.
Alhajeri, M.A. 2008. Defects and events giving rise to decennial liability in
building and construction contracts. In: Proceedings of COBRA 2008:
The Construction and Building Research Conference of the Royal
Institution of Chartered Surveyors, 4-5 September, Dublin Institute of
Technology. London: RICS, pp: 420-432.
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Ali, A.S. and Wen, K.H. 2011. Building defects: Possible solution for poor
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Arregui, F., Cabrera, E. Jr., Cobacho, R. (2006) Integrated Water Meter
Management, IWA Publishing. CETA. (2006). List of Qualifications,
Learnerships, Skills Programmes
Bogdan, R. C and Biklen, S. K. (2003). Qualitative Research for Education: An
introduction to Theories and Methods (4th ed.). New York: Pearson
Education group. (pp. 110-120).
British Standard Institution BS 3811 (1974), Glossary of general terms used in
Maintenance Organization, London 1974
British Standards Institution. BS 3811: 1984 Glossary of Maintenance Management
Terms in Terotechnology
Dabara, I. D., Adegoke, O. J., Ankeli, I. A., and Akinjogbin, I. O. (2014).
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Proceedings of the14th African Real Estate Society (AFRES) Annual
Conference, 2nd – 5th September 2014. Pg 146-164, Kramer Building,
University of Cape Town, Cape Town South Africa.
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Egboramy, (1981). University of Ife Ile-Ife Nigeria Master Plan. Arieh
Sharon.eldar Sharon –architects and town planners.
Fauzi, S.N.F.M., Yusof, N.A. and Abidin, N.Z. 2011. Common defects found in
build-then- sell houses. International Journal of Academic Research, 3(4),
pp. 494-497
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Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill.
Frankel, M. (2004). Facility Piping Systems Handbook. 2nd edition. Downloaded
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IOPSA (Institute of Plumbing South Africa) (2008a) About the Institute of
Plumbing. Available from http://www.iopsa.org.za/iopsa_about_us.htm
(Accessed 14 June 2020).
Jamieson, S. 2004. Likert scales: How to (ab) use them. Medical Education, 38(12),
pp. 1212-1218
JORDAN M (2004) SA Plumbers’ Handbook. South Africa: Pipe Trades Media
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Kothari, C.R, (2003), Research Methodology-Quantitative Techniques for
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Lee. M. (1987) Building Maintenance Management, Third Edition, Collin, London.
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Manas, V. T. P. E. (1957). National Plumbing Code Handbook. USA. McGrawHill Book Company.
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Bartram, J. and Kingston,
64
APPENDIX
KOFORIDUA TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
FACULTY OF BUILT AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR RESPONDENTS
Dear Sir/Madam.
The researcher is a final year student of Department of Building, Koforidua
Technical University. As a requirement for the award of the HND Building
Technology, the researcher is conducting a study on “Defect and Maintenance of
Plumbing Works in Some Selected Buildings in the Eastern Region of Ghana:
A case study in Koforidua municipality”. I will be very grateful if you could
spend few minutes of your busy time to complete this survey questionnaire. The
responses you give will be used for academic purposes only. You are also assured
of strict confidentiality.
Thank you.
65
This questionnaire is in Three (3) sections; A, Band C.
SECTION A: BIO DATA OF RESPONDENTS
SECTION B: TYPES OF DEFECT IN PLUMBING WORKS
SECTION C: UNDERLYING CAUSES OF POOR MAINTENANCE, CAUSES
OF DEFECTS AND SOLUTION TO REDUCE OCCURRENCES OF DEFECTS
OF PLUMBING WORKS
SECTION A: BIO DATA OF RESPONDENTS
1. Age:
[ ] Below 25 [ ]
26-30 [ ] 31-35 [ ] 36-45 [ ] 46-55
2. Sex
[ ] Male [ ] Female
3. Highest Educational Level:
[ ] ‘O’ Level / A’ Level [ ] SSSCE [ ] Degree [ ] HND [ ] Master Degree
4. Indicate from which category you belong to by ticking the right one
[ ] Building Owner [ ] Plumber [ ] Tenant [ ] other (please specify)
SECTION B: TYPES OF DEFECT IN PLUMBING WORKS
5. How long have you occupied these building?
[ ] 1-5years [
] 5-10years
[
] 6-15year
66
[
] Above 15
6. Have you detected any type of defect on the plumbing facilities when you
occupied the building?
a. Yes [ ] b. No [ ]
7. What types of defect do you face with your plumbing works? Please tick all that
apply
[
] Septic system Defect [ ] Plumbing fixture defect [
] Shower stalls defect
8. How many years have you faced these type of plumbing Defects.
[ ] 1-3years [
] 3-5years [
] 6-10 years [
67
] above 15years
SECTION C: UNDERLYING CAUSES OF POOR MAINTENANCE AND
SOLUTION TO REDUCE OCCURRENCES OF DEFECTS OF PLUMBING
WORKS
Please tick appropriately how you consider the following as factors
contributing to poor maintenance of plumbing works in buildings?
Underlying Causes Of Poor Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly
Maintenance
Disagree
Agree
Non-Availability of
physical resources
Lack
of
maintenance
culture
Inadequate funds
Pressure on facility
due to number of
occupants
Poor building design
10. How often do you maintain your plumbing facilities?
[
] Weekly [
] Monthly [
] Daily [ ] Yearly [
68
] Not at all
11. Who is responsible for the maintenance of the plumbing facilities?
[
] Tenant [ ] Owner
12. Do you have a regular maintenances rule guiding the use of the plumbing
facilities?
[
] Yes
[ ] No
13. If yes, which type?
[
] Routine
[ ] Periodic
[
] Preventive
14. How will you classify the general condition of your plumbing facilities?
[ ]
Good [ ]
fairly good [
]
bad
[
] very bad
Any comment, Please state
……………………………………………………………………………………
69
Use the five point liker scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree, to
measure the following causes of defect in plumbing works.
Causes
of
defect
in Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly
plumbing works
Disagree
Plumbing material Supplies
providing
substandard
materials
Design errors
Workmanship errors
Faulty materials
Procedural errors
Abuse or misuse of the
plumbing facilities
Inadequate laborers skills
Inappropriate specifications
70
Agree
Use the five point liker scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree, to
measure the following propose solution to plumbing defect in building works.
Measures to be taken
Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly
Disagree
Proper supervision
Use of qualify plumbers
Checking
of
plumbing
materials
by
standard
authority before arrival in the
country
Plumbing design should be at
the
hands
of
competent
personnel’s
Provision
of
orientation
services to plumbing facility
users.
71
Agree
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