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AUSTRALIAN STANDARD 101

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AS 1100.101—1992
Australian StandardR
Technical drawing
Part 101: General principles
This Australian Standard was prepared by Committee ME/72, Technical Drawing. It was
approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 25 August 1992 and published
on 16 November 1992.
The following interests are represented on Committee ME/72:
Association of Consulting Engineers, Australia
Australian Chamber of Commerce
Bureau of Steel Manufacturers of Australia
Confederation of Australian Industry
Department of Administrative Services
Department of Defence
Department of Employment and Technical and Further Education, South Australia
Institute of Draftsmen, Australia
Institute of Industrial Arts
Institution of Engineers, Australia
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Master Builders — Construction and Housing Association, Australia
N.S.W Technical and Further Education Commission
Public Works Department, N.S.W.
University of New South Wales
University of Queensland
Additional interests participating in preparation of Standard:
Australian Institute of Steel Construction
University of Technology, Sydney
Review of Australian Standards. To keep abreast of progress in industry, Australian Standards are subject to
periodic review and are kept up to date by the issue of amendments or new editions as necessary. It is important
therefore that Standards users ensure that they are in possession of the latest edition, and any amendments thereto.
Full details of all Australian Standards and related publications will be found in the Standards Australia Catalogue
of Publications; this information is supplemented each month by the magazine ‘The Australian Standard’, which
subscribing members receive, and which gives details of new publications, new editions and amendments, and of
withdrawn Standards.
Suggestions for improvements to Australian Standards, addressed to the head office of Standards Australia, are
welcomed. Notification of any inaccuracy or ambiguity found in an Australian Standard should be made without
delay in order that the matter may be investigated and appropriate action taken.
This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 90110.
AS 1100.101—1992
Australian StandardR
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Technical drawing
Part 101: General principles
For history before 1992, see Preface.
Second edition AS 1100.101—1992.
Incorporating Amdt 1-1994
PUBLISHED BY STANDARDS AUSTRALIA
(STANDARDS ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALIA)
1 THE CRESCENT, HOMEBUSH, NSW 2140
ISBN 0 7262 7806 8
PREFACE
This Standard was prepared by the Standards Australia Committee on Technical Drawing to
supersede AS 1101.101–1984. AS 1100.101–1984 was a revision and amalgamation of AS 1100
Part 1–1977; Part 2–1975; Part 3–1971; Part 4–1972; Part 5–1973; Part 6 first published 1973
and revised in 1980; Part 7 first published 1972 and revised in 1978; and Part 8–1975.
AS 1100 Parts 1 to 8 ran concurrently with AS CZ1.1 of 1976 which was withdrawn in 1982.
AS CZ1.1 was a revision of AS CZ1 which was first published in 1941, with further editions
published in 1944, 1946, 1951, 1966 and 1973. The 1966 edition also superseded AS Z8 of 1956
(endorsement of BS 308.2–1953 without amendment).
The AS CZ1 Standards were endorsements of The Institution of Engineers, Australia publications
entitled, Engineering Drawing Practice. The document from which these publications originated,
was published by the Institution under the title, Recommended Engineering Drawing Practice, but
this was not endorsed by this Association.
This Standard is one of a series dealing with technical drawing, the other Standards in the series
being as follows:
Part 201:
Part 301:
Part 401:
Part 501:
Mechanical drawing
Architectural drawing
Engineering survey and engineering survey design drawing
Structural engineering drawing
In the preparation of this Standard, the committee took account of changes in Australian technical
drawing practice and recommendations of the International Organization for Standardization.
Also considered were the equivalent British, American, and Canadian Standards.
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In its preparation many minor changes in the layout of the text and figures have taken place
resulting in greater consistency and improved ease of use of the document.
The committee considers it important that this document will be applicable to all sectors of the
technical field. For instance, although many of the examples are of a mechanical nature, the
principles are applicable to all fields of technical drawing. Accordingly, wherever necessary,
examples have been expanded to show other applications of the principles.
Clarity of expression in defining the designer’s requirements and in the interpretation of these
requirements has been considered at all times. The introduction of symbols now plays an
important part in drawing practice so that language barriers in reading drawings are reduced to a
minimum and the valuable drafting time spent inserting notes is minimized.
The section on dimensioning, which was formerly in AS 1101.201, has been rearranged to make it
easier to read and updated to Australian and International practice.
The use of computer–aided drafting (CAD) to produce technical drawings is acknowledged. In line
with the practice of international Standards committees dealing with areas related to technical
drawings, the requirements and principles of this Standard shall apply to users of CAD systems.
This Standard is in agreement with the following International Standards:
ISO 128
Technical drawings — General principles of presentation
ISO 129
Technical drawings — Dimensioning — General principles, definitions, methods of
execution and special indications
ISO 406
Technical drawing — Tolerancing of linear and angular dimensions
ISO 1101
Technical drawings — Geometrical tolerancing — Tolerancing of form orientation,
location and run–out — Generalities, definitions, symbols, indications on drawings
ISO 1660
Technical drawings — Dimensioning and tolerancing of profiles
ISO 3040
Technical drawings — Dimensioning and tolerancing — Cones
ISO 3098/1
Technical drawings — Lettering, Part 1: Currently used characters
ISO 5455
Technical drawings — Scales
ISO 5459
Technical drawings — Geometrical tolerancing — Datums and datum–systems for
geometrical tolerances
ISO 6410
Technical drawings — Conventional representation of threaded parts
CONTENTS
Page
SECTION 1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REFERENCED DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SURFACE TEXTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SECTION 2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
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4.1
4.2
4.3
SCALES
55
55
55
55
56
PROJECTIONS
IDENTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TYPES OF PROJECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SPATIAL GEOMETRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AXONOMETRIC PROJECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OBLIQUE PROJECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OTHER DETAILS — PICTORIAL DRAWINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SECTION 7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
LETTERS, NUMERALS AND SYMBOLS
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TERMINOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INDICATION OF SCALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SCALE RATIOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LARGE SCALE DRAWINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SECTION 6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
32
33
34
34
34
43
43
LETTERS AND NUMERALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
ITEM REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
SYMBOLS AND TERMINATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
SECTION 5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
15
15
16
16
17
LINES
TYPES OF LINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DIMENSIONS OF LINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LINE SPACING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LINE DENSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TYPICAL APPLICATION OF LINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SPECIAL APPLICATIONS OF LINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ORDER OF PRIORITY OF COINCIDENT LINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SECTION 4
5
5
5
6
6
MATERIALS, SIZES AND LAYOUT OF DRAWING SHEETS
SCOPE OF SECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TYPES OF DRAWINGS AND RELATED TERMINOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . .
MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SIZE OF DRAWING SHEETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LAYOUT OF DRAWINGS SHEETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SECTION 3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
SCOPE AND GENERAL
57
58
58
62
65
74
77
80
SECTIONS
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CUTTING PLANES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HATCHING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
82
82
83
87
Page
SECTION 8
DIMENSIONING
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
GENERAL DIMENSIONING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
GENERAL TOLERANCES AND RELATED PRINCIPLES . . . . . . . . . . . 119
DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING AND RELATED
PRINCIPLES—GEOMETRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
8.5 INTERPRETATION OF MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION . . . . . . . . 155
8.6 DATUM SPECIFICATION AND INTERPRETATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
8.7 VIRTUAL CONDITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
8.8 SCREW THREADS — ORIENTATION AND LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
8.9 GEARS AND SPLINES — ORIENTATION AND LOCATION . . . . . . . . 165
8.10 TOLERANCES OF POSITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
8.11 TOLERANCES OF FORM, PROFILE, ORIENTATION, AND
RUNOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
SECTION 9
9.1
9.2
9.3
CONVENTIONAL REPRESENTATIONS
SCOPE OF SECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
METHOD OF PRESENTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
REPRESENTATION OF FEATURES AND PARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
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APPENDICES
A SOME COMPARISONS OF ISO STANDARDS WITH THIS STANDARD
AND OTHER NATIONAL STANDARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B EXAMPLES OF GEOMETRY TOLERANCE DISPLAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C AXONOMETRIC PROJECTION — ADDITIONAL INFORMATION . . . . . .
D OBLIQUE PROJECTION — ANGLE OF LINE OF SIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E MAXIMUM MATERIAL PRINCIPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F ORIENTATION OF ACTUAL LINES AND SURFACES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
G COMPARISON OF COORDINATE AND POSITION TOLERANCING . . . .
H INTERPRETATION OF DATUMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
214
217
219
223
225
228
229
232
INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
E Copyright — STANDARDS AUSTRALIA
Users of Standards are reminded that copyright subsists in all Standards Australia publications and software. Except where the Copyright Act allows
and except where provided for below no publications or software produced by Standards Australia may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system in
any form or transmitted by any means without prior permission in writing from Standards Australia. Permission may be conditional on an appropriate
royalty payment. Requests for permission and information on commercial software royalties should be directed to the head office of Standards
Australia.
Standards Australia will permit up to 10 percent of the technical content pages of a Standard to be copied for use exclusively in–house by
purchasers of the Standard without payment of a royalty or advice to Standards Australia.
Standards Australia will also permit the inclusion of its copyright material in computer software programs for no royalty payment provided
such programs are used exclusively in–house by the creators of the programs.
Care should be taken to ensure that material used is from the current edition of the Standard and that it is updated whenever the Standard is amended or
revised. The number and date of the Standard should therefore be clearly identified.
The use of material in print form or in computer software programs to be used commercially, with or without payment, or in commercial contracts is
subject to the payment of a royalty. This policy may be varied by Standards Australia at any time.
5
AS 1100.101—1992
STANDARDS AUSTRALIA
Australian Standard
Technical drawing
Part 101: General principles
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SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
1.1 SCOPE This Standard sets out the basic principles of technical drawing practice.
Section 1 sets out abbreviations.
Section 2 specifies materials, sizes, and layout of drawing sheets.
Section 3 specifies the types and minimum thicknesses of lines to be used and shows typical examples of their
application.
Section 4 sets out the requirements for distinct uniform letters, numerals, and symbols.
Section 5 sets out recommended scales and their application.
Section 6 sets out methods of projection and of indication of the various views of an object.
Section 7 sets out methods of indicating section and provides information on conventions used in sectioning.
Section 8 sets out recommendations for dimensioning including size and geometry tolerancing.
Section 9 specifies conventions used for the representation of components and repetitive features of
components.
Appendices provide information on the various projection methods, geometry tolerancing and comparison with
other Standards.
NOTE: All drawings in this Standard are drawn in third angle projection unless otherwise stated. See Clause 6.3.3.
1.2 APPLICATION The basic principles given in this Standard are intended for adoption in the fields of
engineering, architecture, surveying, drafting technology, and education in the preparation and interpretation
of technical drawings, diagrams, charts, and tables for the purpose of conveying technical information.
Technical drawings include such things as:
(a) Detail drawings.
(b) Assembly drawings.
(c) Plans.
(d) Illustrations.
(e) Schematic diagrams.
(f) Pictorial drawings.
(g) Installation drawings.
1.3 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS The following documents are referred to in this Standard:
AS
1000
The International System of Units (SI) and its application
1100
Technical drawing
1100.201 Part 201: Mechanical drawing
1100.301 Part 301: Architectural drawing
1100.401 Part 401: Engineering survey and engineering survey design drawing
1100.501 Part 501: Structural engineering drawing
1103
Diagrams, charts and tables for electrotechnology
1103.1
Part 1: Definitions and classifications
1203
Microfilming of engineering documents (35 mm)
1654
Limits and fits for engineering (Metric units)
2536
Surface texture
COPYRIGHT
AS 1100.101—1992
AS
3702
B129
B199
ISO
3098
3098/1
6
Item designation in electrotechnology
Designs for geometric limit gauges (plain and screwed in inch units)
Undercuts and runouts for screw threads
Technical drawings—Lettering
Part 1: Currently used characters
1.4 ABBREVIATIONS
1.4.1 General Table 1.1 gives general abbreviations for words or word combinations which are in common
use on drawings for engineering, architecture, and surveying. In accordance with recommended practice,
upper-case letters shall be used except where otherwise indicated in the Table. Abbreviations which are
related only to a specific discipline are given in AS 1100.201 for mechanical drawing, AS 1100.301 for
architectural drawing, AS 1100.401 for engineering survey and design drawing, and AS 1100.501 for structural
engineering drawing.
Table 1.2 gives the decoding of the abbreviations given in Table 1.1.
Abbreviations should be used only where brevity and conservation of space make it necessary, and then only
when their meanings are unquestionably clear to the intended reader. WHEN IN DOUBT SPELL IT OUT.
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NOTES:
1 An abbreviation may or may not be recognized internationally.
2 The abbreviations given in Tables 1.1 and 1.2 are not exhaustive. Other abbreviations and other meanings for those given may be
used, provided that —
(a) their common usage in particular fields is clear;
(b) the meaning is clarified on the drawing; or
(c) the meaning is clarified in a reference document.
1.4.2 Use of abbreviations
1.4.2.1 Word combinations The parts of an abbreviation for a word combination shall not be isolated to
derive an abbreviation for a single word or another group of words. Single abbreviations may be combined
when necessary if there is no abbreviation listed for the combination.
1.4.2.2 Syntax Unless otherwise indicated herein, the same abbreviation shall be used for all tenses, the
possessive case, participle endings, the singular and plural, and noun and modifying forms.
1.4.2.3 Punctuation Punctuation marks which do not appear in this Standard shall not be used with the
abbreviation of a technical term.
1.4.2.4 Chemical elements Upper-case letters shall be used for the first letter of the abbreviation and
lower-case for the second letter (where used).
1.5 SURFACE TEXTURE Information on surface texture related to technical drawings is given in
AS 1100.201. For a more complete understanding of surface texture, reference should be made to AS 2536.
COPYRIGHT
7
AS 1100.101—1992
TABLE 1.1
ABBREVIATIONS—ENCODING
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Terms
*
Abbreviation
abbreviation
absolute
acceleration
access opening
access panel
accordance with
accumulator
acoustic
acrylic
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
active
addendum
adhesive
aggregate
agricultural
agricultural pipe drain
airblast circuit-breaker
air condition
air valve
alternating current
amendment
American National Standards Institute
anhydrous
approximate
aqueous
arrangement
asbestos
assembly
Association Francaise de Normalization
assumed datum
atmosphere
audio frequency
automatic
auxiliary
average
ABBR
ABS
ACCEL
AO
AP
A/W
ACC
ACST
ACRY
ABS
A
ADD
ADH
AGGR
AG
APD
ABCB
AIR COND
AV
AC
AMDT
ANSI
ANHYD
APPROX
AQ
ARRGT
ASB
ASSY
AFNOR
ASSD
ATM
AF
AUTO
AUX
AVG
baffle
baseplate
basin
bath
bearer
bearing
benchmark
bitumen
bitumen lined
block
board
boiling water unit
bottom
boundary trap
bracket
brass
brick
brickwork
Brinell hardness number
British Standards Institution
bronze
bucket
building
building line
bulkhead
bullnose
BAF
BPL
B
BTH
BRR
BRG
BM
BIT
BL
BLK
BD
BWU
BOT
BT
BRKT
BRS
BK
BWK
HB
BSI
BRZ
BKT
BLDG
BL
BHD
BN
cabinet
cadmium plated
calculated
canopy
cantilever
capacity
casing
cast iron
cast iron pipe
CAB
Cd PL
CALC
CAN
CANT
CAP
CSG
CI
CIP
Terms
Abbreviation
cast steel
caulking
cavity
cement
cement lined
centre-line
centre of gravity
centre-to-centre, centres
cheese head
chamfer
channel
chrome-plated
chute
circle
circuit
circuit-breaker
circular hollow section
circumference
clear glass
clock
closed-circuit television
coating
coefficient
cold-rolled steel
cold water
cold-water tank
column
composition
compression
computer-aided design/drafting
computer-aided engineering
computer-aided manufacture
concentrated
concentric
concrete
concrete block
concrete ceiling
concrete floor
constant
construction
construction joint
contact adhesive
contour
control valve
coordinating
corner
corrected
corrosion resistant (material)
corrugated
corrugated galvanized steel
countersink
countersunk head
crest
critical
cross recess head
crown (of road)
cup head
current transformer
cut-off valve
cylinder
CS
CLKG
CAV
CEM
CL
CL
CG
CRS
CH HD
CHAM
CHNL
CP
CH
CIRC
CCT
CB
CHS
CIRC
CG
CK
CCTV
CTG
COEF
CRS
CW
CWT
COL
COMPO
COMP
CAD
CAE
CAM
CONC
CONC
CONC
CB
CC
CF
CONST
CONSTR
CJ
CA
CTR
CV
COORD
CNR
CORR
CR
CORR
CGS
CSK
CSK HD
CST
CRIT
C REC HD
CRN
CUP HD
CT
COV
CYL
damp-proof course
dead load
detail
diagonal
diagram
diameter
inside
nominal
outside
DPC
DL
DET
DIAG
DIAG
DIA*
ID
DN
OD
When used in association with a numerical value, the preferred method of expressing this abbreviation is by a symbol. (continued)
COPYRIGHT
AS 1100.101—1992
8
TABLE 1.1 (continued)
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Terms
Abbreviation
diamond pyramid hardness number (Vickers)
dilute
dimension
Deutsches Institut fur Normung
direct current
disconnector trap
distance
distribution switchboard
drain
drawing
dwelling
HV
DIL
DIM
DIN
DC
DT
DIST
DSB
DR
DRG
DWG
each
earth (electrical wiring)
earthenware
earthenware pipe
easement
educt vent
effective
efficiency
effluent
electric, electrical
electromotive force
elevation
engine, engineering
equivalent
estimate
existing
expansion
expansion joint
external
extra-high voltage
extra-low voltage
extrude
EA
E
EW
EWP
EMT
EV
EFF
EFF
EFF
ELEC
EMF
ELEV
ENG
EQUIV
EST
EXST
EXP
EJ
EXT
EHV
ELV
EXTD
fibre-reinforced plastic
figure
fillister head
finished floor height
finished ground height
fire alarm
fire detector
fire extinguisher
fire hose rack/reel
fire hydrant
fire indicator panel
fire plug
fire resistant
fire service pipe
fire water service
flange
flat
floor
floor height
floor sump
flush fitting
forward
framework
frequency
audio
high
intermediate
low
medium
ultra-high
very-high
frequency modulated
FRP
FIG
FILL HD
FFHT
FGHT
FA
FD
FE
FHR
FH
FIP
FP
FR
FSP
FWS
FLG
FL
FLR
FHT
FS
FF
FWD
FWK
FREQ
AF
HF
IF
LF
MF
UHF
VHF
FM
galvanize
galvanized iron
galvanized iron pipe
GALV
GI
GIP
Terms
Abbreviation
garage
gas cock
gas main
gas meter
gas turret
gate valve
general arrangement
general purpose outlet
geometric reference frame
grade
grease trap
grid
ground
ground height
group
gully disconnector trap
gully pit
gully trap
GAR
GC
GM
GM
GT
GV
GA
GPO
GRF
GR
GT
GD
GND
GHT
GP
GDT
GP
GT
hand
hard
hardboard
hardcore
hardwood
head
cheese
cross recess
countersunk
cup
fillister
hexagon
hexagon socket
mushroom
raised countersunk
round
square
heater
heavy duty
height
hexagon
high frequency
high pressure
high strength
high-tensile steel
high voltage
hollow section
circular
rectangular
square
horizontal
hose cock
hot-rolled steel
hot water
hot water unit
hydrant
hydrant point
hydraulic
hydrogen ion exponent
HD
HD
HBD
HC
HWD
HD
CH HD
C REC HD
CSK HD
CUP HD
FILL HD
HEX HD
HEX SOC HD
MUSH HD
RSD CSK HD
RD HD
SQ HD
HTR
HD
HT
HEX
HF
HP
HS
HTS
HV
include
incorporate
indicator
induct vent
inspection chamber
inspection opening
inspection pit
insoluble
insulated or insulation
integrated circuit
interceptor trap
intermediate frequency
internal
International Electrotechnical Commission
International Organization for Standardization
INCL
INC
IND
IV
IC
IO
IP
INSOL
INSUL
IC
IT
IF
INT
IEC
ISO
CHS
RHS
SHS
HORIZ
HC
HRS
HW
HWU
H
HP
HYD
pH
(continued)
COPYRIGHT
9
AS 1100.101—1992
TABLE 1.1 (continued)
Accessed by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 29 Jul 2013 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed)
Terms
*
Abbreviation
International System of Units
(Systeme International d’Unites)
intersection point
invert
invert level (height)
isolator
SI
IP
INV
IH
ISOL
Japanese Industrial Standards Committee
joint
junction
JISC
JT
JUNC
landing
latent heat
least material condition
left hand
length
level
lining
liquefied natural gas
liquefied petroleum gas
liquid
live load
longitudinal
louvre
low frequency
low pressure
low voltage
lubricate
LDG
LAT HT
LMC
LH
LG
LEV
LNG
LNG
LPG
LIQ
LL
LONG
LVR
LF
LP
LV
LUB
machine
main switchboard
malleable iron
manhole
mark
masonry
material
maximum
maximum material condition
mechanical
medium pressure
melting point
meter (instrument)
minimum
miscellaneous
mixing value
modification
modulus of elasticity
modulus, section
moment of inertia
mounting
M/C
MSB
MI
MH
MK
MSRY
MATL
MAX
MMC
MECH
MP
MP
M
MIN
MISC
MV
MOD
E
Z
I
MTG
negative
neutral (electrical)
nickel plated
nominal
nominal diameter
nominal size
North
not to scale
number
NEG
N
NP
NOM
DN
NS
N
NTS *
NO
octagon
oil circuit-breaker
oil interceptor trap
opposite
oven
overall
overhead
OCT
OCB
OIT
OPP
O
OA
OH
parallel
parallel flange channel
part
partition
passivate
pattern
PAR *
PFC
PT
PTN
PASS
PATT
Terms
Abbreviation
pedestal
per annum
phase
pipe
pipeline
phosphor bronze
plasterboard
plate glass
plywood
pneumatic
polytetrafluoroethylene
polyvinyl acetate
polyvinyl chloride
portion
position
positive
potential difference
precast
precipitate (noun)
prefabricated
preliminary
pressure
pressure-relief pipe
printed circuit board
printed wiring board
push-button
PED
PA
PH
P
PL
PH BRZ
PBD
PG
PLY
PNEU
PTFE
PVA
PVC
PORT
POSN *
POS
PD
PC
PPT
PREFAB
PRELIM
PRESS
PRP
PCB
PWB
PB
quantity
QTY
radius
recovery peg
rectangular
rectangular hollow section
reference
reference line
reference mark
reflux valve
reinforced concrete
reinforced-concrete pipe
reinforcement
relative humidity
relief valve
required
right hand
right of way
road
Rockwell hardness
A
B
C
rolled-steel angle
rolled-steel channel
rolled-steel joist
round
runnel
RAD *
RP
RECT
RHS
REF
RL
RM
RV
RC
RCP
REINF
RH
RV
REQD
RH
ROW
RD
safety valve
satin chrome plated
schedule
screw
section
septic tank
sewer
sewer drain
sewer vent
sewer vent pipe
sheet
sketch
soakage pit
socket
solution
specification
spherical
spigot
SV
SCP
SCHED
SCR
SECT
ST
SEW
SD
SV
SVP
SH
SK
SKP
SOC
SOLN
SPEC
SPHER *
SPT
HRA
HRB
HRC
RSA
RSC
RSJ
RD
R
When used in association with a numerical value, the preferred method of expressing this abbreviation is by a symbol.
COPYRIGHT
(continued)
AS 1100.101—1992
10
TABLE 1.1 (continued)
Accessed by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 29 Jul 2013 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed)
Terms
*
Abbreviation
Terms
Abbreviation
spring steel
sprinkler
square
square head
square hollow section
standard
standard temperature and pressure
station
steam trap
steel
sterilizer
stopcock
stop tap
stop valve
stormwater drain
stormwater pit
straight
street
structural floor level
surface level
switch
switchboard
symmetry
SPR STL
SPR
SQ
SQ HD
SHS
STD
STP
STA
ST
STL
STER
SC
ST
SV
SWD
SWP
STR
ST
SFL
SL
SW
SWBD
SYM
ultra-high frequency
undercut
underground
underside
universal beam
universal bearing pile
universal column
utility
UHF
UCUT
U/G
U/S
UB
UBP
UC
UTIL
vacuum
vapour barrier
vapour density
vapour pressure
vent pipe
ventilator
verandah
vertical
very-high frequency
Vickers hardness
vinyl tiles
vitrified clay
vitrified clay pipe
volume
VAC
VB
VD
VP
VP
VENT
VER
VERT
VHF
HV
VT
VC
VCP
VOL
tangent point
tank water level
telephone
television
temperature
tensile strength
thermoplastic insulated
thread
time switch
tolerance
tough plastics sheathed
tough rubber sheathed
transformer
transmitter
transverse
true position
true profile
typical
TP
TWL
TEL
TV
TEMP
TS
TPI
THD
TS
TOL
TPS
TRS
XFMR
TX
TRANSV
TP*
TP*
TYP
wallboard
wash trough
washing machine
waste pipe
water gauge
water level, waterline
water main
water meter
waterproof membrane
with (combination form)
without
wood
wrought iron
WBD
WT
WM
WP
WG
WL
WM
WMR
WPM
W/........
W/O
WD
WI
yield point
YP
zinc plated
Zn PLT
ultimate
ULT
When used in association with a numerical value, the preferred method of expressing this abbreviation is by a symbol.
COPYRIGHT
11
AS 1100.101—1992
TABLE 1.2
ABBREVIATIONS—DECODING
Accessed by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 29 Jul 2013 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed)
Abbreviation
Terms
Abbreviation
A
ABBR
ABCB
ABS
ABS
AC
ACC
ACCEL
ACRY
ACST
ADD
ADH
AF
AFNOR
AG
AGGR
AIR COND
AMDT
ANHYD
ANSI
AO
AP
APD
APPROX
AQ
ARRGT
ASB
ASSD
ASSY
ATM
AUTO
AUX
AVG
AV
A/W
active
abbreviation
airblast circuit-breaker
absolute
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
alternating current
accumulator
acceleration
acrylic
acoustic
addendum
adhesive
audio frequency
Association Francaise de Normalization
agricultural
aggregate
air condition
amendment
anhydrous
American National Standards Institute
access opening
access panel
agricultural pipe drain
approximate
aqueous
arrangement
asbestos
assumed datum
assembly
atmosphere
automatic
auxiliary
average
air valve
accordance with
B
BAF
BD
BHD
BIT
BK
BKT
BL
BL
BLDG
BLK
BM
BN
BOT
BPL
BRG
BRKT
BRR
BRS
BRZ
BSI
BT
BTH
BWK
BWU
basin
baffle
board
bulkhead
bitumen
brick
bucket
bitumen lined
building line
building
block
benchmark
bullnose
bottom
baseplate
bearing
bracket
bearer
brass
bronze
British Standards Institution
boundary trap
bath
brickwork
boiling water unit
CA
CAB
CAD
CAE
CALC
CAM
CAN
CANT
CAP
contact adhesive
cabinet
computer-aided design/drafting
computer-aided engineering
calculated
computer-aided manufacture
canopy
cantilever
capacity
Terms
CAV
CB
CB
CC
CCT
CCTV
Cd PL
CEM
CF
CG
CG
CGS
CH
CHAM
CH HD
CHNL
CHS
CI
CIP
CIRC
CIRC
CJ
CK
CL
CL
CLKG
CNR
COEF
COL
COMP
COMPO
CONC
CONC
CONC
CONST
CONSTR
COORD
CORR
CORR
COV
CP
C REC HD
CR
CRIT
CRN
CRS
CRS
CS
CSG
CSK
CSK HD
CST
CT
CTG
CTR
CUP HD
CV
CW
CWT
CYL
cavity
circuit-breaker
concrete block
concrete ceiling
circuit
closed-circuit television
cadmium plated
cement
concrete floor
centre of gravity
clear glass
corrugated galvanized steel
chute
chamfer
cheese head
channel
circular hollow section
cast iron
cast iron pipe
circle
circumference
construction joint
clock
cement lined
centre-line
caulking
corner
coefficient
column
compression
composition
concentrated
concentric
concrete
constant
construction
coordinating
corrected
corrugated
cut-off valve
chrome-plated
cross recess head
corrosion resistant (material)
critical
crown (of road)
centre-to-centre, centres
cold-rolled steel
cast steel
casing
countersunk
countersunk head
crest
current transformer
coating
contour
cup head
control valve
cold water
cold-water tank
cylinder
DC
DET
DIA
DIAG
DIAG
DIL
DIM
DIN
DIST
DL
DN
DPC
direct current
detail
diameter
diagonal
diagram
dilute
dimension
Deutsches Institut fur Normung
distance
dead load
nominal diameter
damp-proof course
(continued)
COPYRIGHT
AS 1100.101—1992
12
TABLE 1.2 (continued)
Accessed by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 29 Jul 2013 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed)
Abbreviation
Terms
DR
DRG
DSB
DT
DWG
drain
drawing
distribution switchboard
disconnector trap
dwelling
E
E
EA
EFF
EFF
EFF
EHV
EJ
ELEC
ELEV
ELV
EMF
EMT
ENG
EQUIV
EST
EV
EW
EWP
EXP
EXST
EXT
EXTD
earth (electrical wiring)
modulus of elasticity
each
effective
efficiency
effluent
extra-high voltage
expansion joint
electric, electrical
elevation
extra-low voltage
electromotive force
easement
engine, engineering
equivalent
estimate
educt vent
earthenware
earthenware pipe
expansion
existing
external
extrude
FA
FD
FE
FF
FFHT
FGHT
FH
FHR
FIP
FIG
FILL HD
FL
FHT
FLG
FLR
FM
FP
FR
FREQ
FRP
FS
FSP
FWD
FWK
FWS
fire alarm
fire detector
fire extinguisher
flush fitting
finished floor height
finished ground height
fire hydrant
fire hose rack/reel
fire indicator panel
figure
fillister head
flat
floor height
flange
floor
frequency modulated
fire plug
fire resistant
frequency
fibre-reinforced plastic
floor sump
fire service pipe
forward
framework
fire water service
GA
GALV
GAR
GC
GD
GDT
GHT
GI
GIP
GM
GM
GND
GP
GP
GPO
GR
GRF
GT
general arrangement
galvanize
garage
gas cock
grid
gully disconnector trap
ground height
galvanized iron
galvanized iron pipe
gas main
gas meter
ground
group
gully pit
general purpose outlet
grade
geometric reference frame
gas turret
Abbreviation
Terms
GT
GT
GV
grease trap
gully trap
gate valve
H
HB
HBD
HC
HC
HD
HD
HD
HD
HEX
HEX HD
HEX SOC HD
HF
HORIZ
HP
HP
HRA, HRB, HRC
HRS
HS
HT
HTR
HTS
HV
HV
HW
HWU
HWD
HYD
hydrant
Brinell hardness number
hardboard
hardcore
hose cock
hand
hard
head
heavy duty
hexagon
hexagon head
hexagon socket head
high frequency
horizontal
hydrant point
high pressure
Rockwell hardness (A, B, C)
hot-rolled steel
high strength
height
heater
high-tensile steel
diamond pyramid hardness number (Vickers)
high voltage
hot water
hot water unit
hardwood
hydraulic
I
IC
IC
ID
IEC
IF
IH
INC
INCL
IND
INSOL
INSUL
INT
INV
IO
IP
IP
ISO
ISOL
IT
IV
moment of inertia
inspection chamber
integrated circuit
inside diameter
International Electrotechnical Commission
intermediate frequency
invert level (height)
incorporate
include
indicator
insoluble
insulated or insulation
internal
invert
inspection opening
inspection pit
intersection point
International Organization for Standardization
isolator
interceptor trap
induct vent
JISC
JT
JUNC
Japanese industrial Standards Committee
joint
junction
LAT HT
LDG
LEV
LF
LG
LH
LIQ
LL
LMC
LNG
LNG
LONG
LP
LPG
LUB
latent heat
landing
level
low frequency
length
left hand
liquid
live load
least material condition
lining
liquefied naturel gas
longitudinal
low pressure
liquefied petroleum gas
lubricate
(continued)
COPYRIGHT
13
AS 1100.101—1992
TABLE 1.2 (continued)
Accessed by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 29 Jul 2013 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed)
Abbreviation
Terms
LV
LVR
low voltage
louvre
M
MATL
MAX
M/C
MECH
MF
MH
MI
MIN
MISC
MK
MMC
MOD
MP
MP
MSB
MSRY
MTG
MUSH HD
MV
meter (instrument)
material
maximum
machine
mechanical
medium frequency
manhole
malleable iron
minimum
miscellaneous
mark
maximum material condition
modification
medium pressure
melting point
main switchboard
masonry
mounting
mushroom head
mixing valve
N
N
NEG
NO
NOM
NP
NS
NTS
North
neutral (electrical)
negative
number
nominal
nickel plated
nominal size
not to scale
O
OA
OCB
OCT
OD
OH
OIT
OPP
oven
overall
oil circuit-breaker
octagon
outside diameter
overhead
oil interceptor trap
opposite
P
PA
PAR
PASS
PATT
PB
PBD
PC
PCB
pipe
per annum
parallel
passivate
pattern
push-button
plasterboard
precast
printed circuit board
PD
PED
PFC
PG
PH
pH
PH BRZ
PL
PLY
PNEU
PORT
POS
POSN
PPT
PREFAB
PRELIM
PRESS
PRP
PT
PTFE
PTN
potential difference
pedestal
parallel flange channel
plate glass
phase
hydrogen ion exponent
phosphor bronze
pipeline
plywood
pneumatic
portion
positive
position
precipitate (noun)
prefabricated
preliminary
pressure
pressure-relief pipe
part
polytetrafluoroethylene
partition
Abbreviation
Terms
PVA
PVC
PWB
polyvinyl acetate
polyvinyl chloride
printed wiring board
QTY
quantity
R
RAD
RC
RCP
RD
RD
RD HD
RECT
REF
REINF
REQD
RH
RH
RHS
RL
RM
ROW
RP
RSA
RSC
RSD
RSD CSK HD
RSJ
RV
RV
runnel
radius
reinforced concrete
reinforced-concrete pipe
road
round
round head
rectangular
reference
reinforcement
required
relative humidity
right hand
rectangular hollow section
reference line
reference mark
right of way
recovery peg
rolled-steel angle
rolled-steel channel
raised
raised countersunk head
rolled-steel joist
reflux valve
relief valve
SC
SCHED
SCP
SCR
SD
SECT
SEW
SFL
SH
SHS
SI
stopcock
schedule
satin chrome plated
screw
sewer drain
section
sewer
structural floor level
sheet
square hollow section
International System of Units
(Systeme International d’Unites)
sketch
soakage pit
surface level
socket
solution
specification
spherical
sprinkler
spring steel
spigot
square
square head
septic tank
steam trap
street
stop tap
station
standard
sterilizer
steel
standard temperature and pressure
straight
safety valve
sewer vent
stop valve
sewer vent pipe
switch
switchboard
stormwater drain
stormwater pit
symmetry
SK
SKP
SL
SOC
SOLN
SPEC
SPHER
SPR
SPR STL
SPT
SQ
SQ HD
ST
ST
ST
ST
STA
STD
STER
STL
STP
STR
SV
SV
SV
SVP
SW
SWBD
SWD
SWP
SYM
(continued)
COPYRIGHT
AS 1100.101—1992
14
TABLE 1.2 (continued)
Abbreviation
Terms
telephone
temperature
thread
tolerance
tangent point
true position
true profile
thermoplastic insulated
tough plastics sheathed
transverse
tough rubber sheathed
tensile strength
time switch
television
tank water level
transmitter
typical
UB
UBP
UC
UCUT
U/G
UHF
ULT
U/S
UTIL
universal beam
universal bearing pile
universal column
undercut
underground
ultra-high frequency
ultimate
underside
utility
VAC
VB
VC
vacuum
vapour barrier
vitrified clay
Terms
VCP
VD
VENT
VER
VERT
VHF
VOL
VP
VP
VT
vitrified clay pipe
vapour density
ventilator
verandah
vertical
very-high frequency
volume
vapour pressure
vent pipe
vinyl tiles
W/........
WBD
WD
WG
WI
WL
WM
WM
WMR
W/O
WP
WPM
WT
with (combination form)
wallboard
wood
water gauge
wrought iron
water level, waterline
washing machine
water main
water meter
without
waste pipe
waterproof membrane
wash trough
XFMR
transformer
YP
yield point
Z
Zn PLT
modulus, section modulus
zinc plated
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TEL
TEMP
THD
TOL
TP
TP
TP
TPI
TPS
TRANSV
TRS
TS
TS
TV
TWL
TX
TYP
Abbreviation
COPYRIGHT
15
SECTION 2
AS 1100.101—1992
MATERIALS, SIZES AND LAYOUT OF DRAWING SHEETS
2.1 SCOPE OF SECTION This Section specifies requirements for standard drawing sheets and
covers materials, designation, sizes, tolerances, and layout details. Certain information is also given
for roll drawings.
2.2 TYPES OF DRAWINGS AND RELATED TERMINOLOGY
2.2.1 Drawing—a document consisting of one or more drawing sheets presenting information
pictorially or by textual matter (or both).
NOTE: A drawing is normally identified by a drawing number and title.
2.2.2 Arrangement drawing—a drawing depicting in any form of projection the relationships of
major units or systems of the item depicted. Arrangement drawings may be with or without
controlling dimensions.
2.2.3 Assembly drawing—a drawing depicting an assembly or subassembly.
NOTE: An assembly drawing is sometimes referred to as a general assembly.
2.2.4 Control drawing—a drawing that establishes parameters for the development, procurement
or construction of an item, or for the co-functioning of items in an installation or layout.
Parameters include configurations and configuration limitations, performanceand test requirements,
access clearances, and mass and space limitations.
NOTE: Control drawings may be further classified as envelope, specification control, source control, interface control,
and installation control types.
2.2.5 Detail assembly drawing—a drawing depicting an assembly on which one or more parts
are detailed in the assembly view or on separate detail views.
2.2.6 Detail drawing—a drawing depicting end product requirements for the parts delineated on
the drawing.
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NOTE: Not to be confused with a ‘Detail’ (see Clause 6.3.8).
2.2.7 Diagrammatic drawing (or diagram)—a drawing delineating, by means of symbols and
lines, the characteristics and relationships of items forming an assembly or system.
2.2.8 General arrangement drawing—an arrangement drawing where the item depicted is the
end product.
2.2.9 Installation drawing—a drawing specifying complete information necessary to install an
item or items relative to the supporting structure or to associated items.
2.2.10 Monodetail drawing—a detail drawing delineating a single part.
2.2.11 Multidetail drawing—a detail drawing delineating two or more uniquely identified parts on
the same drawing sheet.
2.2.12 Tabulated drawing—a drawing showing similar configurations, parts, items or assemblies
with the variations in characteristics given in tabular form.
2.2.13 Electrotechnology drawings For electrotechnology drawings, see AS 1103.1.
2.2.14 Works as executed drawing—a record of work actually completed.
2.2.15 Assembly (subassembly)—a set of two or more items fitted together to perform a specific
function.
NOTE: A subassembly is a portion of an assembly.
2.2.16 End product—an item, either an individual part, assembly, structure, or project, in its final
or complete state.
2.2.17 Flow chart—a diagram in which objects are shown in a simplified way by means of
graphical symbols (and letter symbols) in order to make the functional relationships or the assembly
of an object clear.
2.2.18 Installation—a number of parts or subassemblies or any combination thereof fitted
together to perform a specific function, in association with an appropriate structure or enclosure.
2.2.19 Part—one piece (member) or two or more pieces (members) joined together which cannot
normally be separated without destruction or impairment of designed use.
NOTE: A part is sometimes described as a component.
2.2.20 Part number—a number assigned to identify uniquely a specific part. See also Note to
Clause 4.2.2.2.
COPYRIGHT
AS 1100.101—1992
16
2.2.21 System—a combination of parts and assemblies fitted together to perform a specific
operational function or functions.
2.3 MATERIALS Blanks or preprinted sheets for drawings and documents may be transparent,
translucent or opaque, but should be matt on the drafting surface. Their quality shall be chosen to
obtain the best contrast between background and lines. See also Clause 3.4.
NOTES:
1 If adhesive overlays are to be used, consideration must be given to the effects of dust, heat and ageing as these may
result in defects in the reprographic process.
2 Edge binding is not recommended unless the binding and the drafting materials are compatible for shrinkage.
2.4 SIZE OF DRAWING SHEETS
2.4.1 Preferred sizes The preferred size of drawing sheets shall be the ISO-A series for which
the designation and dimensions are as given in Table 2.1.
Preferred size drawing sheets, with slightly wider borders to take account of preprinting
considerations, shall have dimensions as given in Table 2.2. Such sheets shall be additionally
designated by the prefix R, i.e. RA0, RA1, RA2, RA3, and RA4.
Where drawing sheets of a greater length are required, they should be selected from and have
dimensions in accordance with one of the series given in Table 2.3. Such sheets shall be
designated A3 × 3, A3 × 4, A4 × 3, A4 × 4, and A4 × 5.
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2.4.2 Non-preferred sizes The non-preferred size of drawing sheets shall be the ISO-B series
for which the designations and dimensions are as given in Table 2.4.
Non-preferred size drawing sheets, with slightly wider borders to take account of preprinting
considerations, shall have dimensions as given in Table 2.5. Such sheets shall be additionally
designated by the prefix R, i.e. RB1, RB2, RB3, and RB4.
2.4.3 Roll drawings Standard widths of roll drawings shall be 860 mm and 610 mm. Lengths
of the roll drawing sheets shall be determined to suit the requirements of the individual drawings.
NOTE: Care should be taken to ensure that the chosen length of a roll drawing is suitable for microfilming (see
AS 1203), and for folding purposes.
2.4.4 Tolerances The cut sizes in Tables 2.1 to 2.5 shall be subject to the following tolerances:
For dimensions ≤600 mm—±2 mm.
For dimensions >600 mm—±3 mm.
Neither diagonal of any cut sheet shall exceed the diagonal of the appropriate maximum length and
width, nor shall it be less than the diagonal of the appropriate minimum length and width.
For the purpose of checking the sheet sizes, the material shall be conditioned at 20 ±2°C at a
relative humidity of 65 ±2 percent and measured under these conditions.
TABLE 2.1
DIMENSIONS OF PREFERRED SHEETS
Standard
designation
Cut sheet dimensions
mm
A0
A1
A2
A3
A4
841 × 1189
594 × 841
420 × 594
297 × 420
210 × 297
TABLE 2.2
DIMENSIONS OF PREFERRED SHEETS
WITH WIDER BORDERS
Designation
Ordering purposes
only
Standard
Cut sheet
dimensions
mm
RA0
RA1
RA2
RA3
RA4
A0
A1
A2
A3
A4
860 × 1220
610 × 860
430 × 610
305 × 430
215 × 305
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AS 1100.101—1992
TABLE 2.3
DIMENSIONS OF ELONGATED PREFERRED SHEETS
Cut sheet dimensions
mm
Designation
A3
A3
A4
A4
A4
×3
×4
×3
×4
×5
420 × 891
420 × 1189
297 × 630
297 × 841
297 × 1051
TABLE 2.4
DIMENSIONS OF NON-PREFERRED SHEETS
Designation
Cut sheet dimensions
mm
B1
B2
B3
B4
707 × 1000
500 × 707
353 × 500
250 × 353
TABLE 2.5
DIMENSIONS OF NON-PREFERRED SHEETS
WITH WIDER BORDERS
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Designation
Ordering purposes
only
Standard
Cut sheet
dimensions
mm
RB1
RB2
RB3
RB4
B1
B2
B3
B4
733 × 1019
510 × 723
361 × 510
255 × 361
2.5 LAYOUT OF DRAWINGS SHEETS
2.5.1 Size of borders
2.5.1.1 Sheets without filing margin Where no filing margin is required, the drawing frame and its location in
relation to the edges of the sheet should be as shown in Figure 2.1.
NOTE: The borders shown in Figure 2.1 are of minimum size.
2.5.1.2 Sheets with filing margin Where provision for a filing margin is required, the drawing frame and its location
in relation to the edges of the sheets should be as shown in Figure 2.2.
NOTE: The borders and the filing margin shown in Figure 2.2 are of minimum size.
2.5.1.3 Roll drawings Where borders are required for roll drawings, the borders of sheets should conform to the
dimensions shown in Figure 2.3.
2.5.2 Print trimming line Where drawing sheets complying with Table 2.2 or Table 2.5 are used, a method of
indicating the print trimming line shall be marked on the sheets. This may be by means of broken lines forming a
frame as in Figure 2.4 dimensioned to the cut-sheet dimensions of preferred or non-preferred series sheets specified
in Table 2.1 or Table 2.4, or by other suitable methods of indication.
2.5.3 Camera alignment marks Camera alignment marks shall be provided at the centre of each of the four sides
of the drawing sheet. Marks shall be in the form of an outline arrowhead pointing outwards and should be placed
outside the drawing frame. A typical example showing the allowable 6 mm wide tolerance zone for microfilm centring
is given in Figure 2.5.
The camera alignment marks on roll drawings shall be placed so that they comply with the requirements of AS 1203.
The drawing information in the overlap regions of the microfilm frames shall be minimal.
2.5.4 Grid referencing The provision of a grid reference system is recommended for all sizes, in order to permit
easy location on the drawing of details, additions, and modifications.
The number of divisions should be divisible by two and be chosen in relation to the complexity of the drawing. It is
recommended that the length of any side of the rectangles comprising the grid be not less than 25 mm and not more
than 75 mm.
The rectangles of the grid should be referenced by means of capital letters along one edge and numerals along the
other edge. The numbering direction may start at the sheet corner opposite to the title block and be repeated on the
opposite sides.
The letters and numerals shall be placed in the borders, close to the frame at a minimum distance of 5 mm from the
edges of the trimmed sheet, and shall be written in upright characters according to Section 4 (see Figure 2.5).
If the number of the lettered divisions exceeds that of the alphabet, the reference letters with the extra divisions
should be doubled (AA, BB, CC, etc).
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AS 1100.101—1992
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FIGURE 2.1 SIZE AND LOCATION OF DRAWING FRAME ON DRAWING SHEETS WITHOUT FILING MARGIN
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AS 1100.101—1992
FIGURE 2.2 SIZE AND LOCATION OF DRAWING FRAME ON DRAWING SHEETS WITH FILING MARGIN
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AS 1100.101—1992
20
millimetres
Nominal width of borders
Standard width of
roll*
Top and bottom
On both sides
a
b
860
29.5
20 min.
801
610
28
20 min.
554
W
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Width of
rectangular
drawing frame
A
* See Clause 2.4.3.
FIGURE 2.3 DIMENSIONS OF DRAWING FRAME—ROLL DRAWINGS
FIGURE 2.4 OVERSIZE DRAWING SHEET WITH PRINT TRIMMING LINE INDICATION
2.5.5 Sheet designation The sheet size designation number shall be indicated on the drawing, preferably in the
right-hand bottom corner of the drawing frame (see Figure 2.6).
Drawings prepared for microfilming shall contain means of determining the original size. This should be achieved
preferably by indicating the drawing frame dimensions. These may be shown outside the drawing frame near a
corner (see Figure 2.6). Alternatively a graduated line at least 150 mm long should be shown in a suitable location
(see Figure 2.8).
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AS 1100.101—1992
2.5.6 Other information The following information should be displayed on each drawing sheet in a prominent
position as illustrated in Figures 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, and 2.9:
(a) Indication of system of projection.
(i) For third angle projection, which is the preferred system, either —
(A)
or
(B)
3RD ANGLE PROJECTION
(ii)
For first angle projection, either —
(A)
or
(B)
1ST ANGLE PROJECTION
(b) Prohibition of scaling —
(c) Dimensional units —
DO NOT SCALE
DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES
or other units as appropriate.
(d) The Standard to which the drawing is prepared.
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2.5.7 Fold lines Where required, fold lines should be indicated on drawing sheets according to the method of
folding used.
2.5.8 Layout
2.5.8.1 General Examples of layouts of drawing sheets are given in Figures 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, and 2.9. It is recognized
that considerable latitude is necessary in the arrangement and position of title blocks, material and parts lists, and
other text, and consequently the layouts illustrated should be regarded only as typical of practice. They may be
modified in detail to suit the needs of any particular organization.
2.5.8.2 Detail drawings Figure 2.8 shows a sheet suitable for detail drawings. Normally, for production in quantity,
only one part is shown on such a sheet, the size of which will vary to suit the actual part. The drawing and the
contents of the title block should provide all the information needed for the manufacture of the part and indexing of
drawing.
2.5.8.3 Assembly and multidetail drawings Figures 2.7 and 2.8 are examples of sheets suitable for assembly
drawings or for drawings which show a number of parts on the same sheet. In either case, only general information
is given in the title block, and particular information for the individual parts is tabulated in a material or parts list.
2.5.9 Title block Spaces shall be provided in the title block for the following information (see Figure 2.9):
(a) Name of firm, organization, department.
(b) Title or name of drawing.
(c) Drawing number.
(d) Signatures or initials and dates.
In addition, the scale, method of projection, and other information considered relevant may be shown.
The title block should be located in the bottom right-hand corner of the drawing sheets. For convenience of drawing
layout however, the top right-hand corner may be used (see Figure 2.8).
The space for the drawing number shall be located in the title block near to the corner of the sheet. In addition, other
spaces for the drawing number may be located in other corners of the sheet or along the sides of the sheet to ensure
that it is visible when the drawing is filed or when a print is folded (see Figure 2.8).
2.5.10 Supplementary information It is recommended that spaces also be provided to the left of the title block
as may be required to provide for the inclusion of standard information relating to units of measurement, tolerances,
key to machining and other symbols, treatment, finish, tool and gauge references, issue number or letter, revision
information, material specification, reference drawing numbers, and other details.
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2.5.11 Material or parts list Where several parts are detailed on the one sheet or an assembly of parts is shown,
a tabulated material or parts list should be provided adjacent to the title block. Where the list is extensive or when
more convenient, a separate sheet distinct from detail or assembly drawings may be used. Such lists should be
prepared on standard size drawing sheets, with the same essential spaces as specified for the title blocks of
drawings (see Figures 2.7, 2.8, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, and 2.13).
The list should also include the following information:
(a) Items or part numbers.
(b) Description or name of part.
(c) Quantity required.
(d) Material, material specification.
(e) Drawing number of detail drawing.
(f) Stores reference number, if applicable.
The quantity column may be extended, as shown in Figure 2.10, where the same parts may be used in different
assemblies or groups, e.g. in different machines or different models.
2.5.12 Thickness of format lines The format lines specified in this Standard shall conform to the thickness given
in Table 2.6.
NOTE: Lines used in drawing practice are specified in Section 3.
TABLE 2.6
THICKNESS OF FORMAT LINES
Thickness of lines
mm
Features
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Sheet size
A0
A1
A2, A3, A4
B1
B2
B3, B4
1.4
1.0
0.7
1.0
0.7
0.5
Grid lines (see Clause 2.5.4)
0.7
0.5
0.35
Camera alignment marks (see Clause 2.5.3)
0.5
0.35
0.25
Fold lines (see Clause 2.5.7)
0.25
0.25
0.25
Other format lines
0.35
0.25
0.18
Border lines (see Clause 2.5.1)
Projection symbol (see Clause 2.5.6)
Principal lines in title block (see Clause 2.5.9)
2.5.13 Lettering in drawing layouts Lettering should comply with the requirements specified in Section 4.
2.5.14 Orientation of drawings The orientation of all tables, parts and lists, and drawings (including dimensions)
shall be placed so as to read either from the bottom or right-hand side of the drawing sheet (see Figures 2.10 and
2.11).
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FIGURE 2.5 TYPICAL CAMERA ALIGNMENT MARKS, REFERENCE SYSTEM, AND
FOLD LINES FOR PREFERRED AND NON-PREFERRED SERIES DRAWING SHEETS
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FIGURE 2.6 TYPICAL LAYOUT OF A DRAWING SHEET WITHOUT PARTS LIST
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Figure 2.7 TYPICAL LAYOUT OF A DRAWING SHEET WITH PARTS LIST
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FIGURE 2.8 TYPICAL LAYOUT OF A DRAWING SHEET WITH ALTERNATIVE LOCATION
OF TITLE BLOCK AND PARTS LIST
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FIGURE 2.9 TYPICAL TITLE BLOCKS
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FIGURE 2.10 TYPICAL LAYOUT OF A PARTS LIST
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FIGURE 2.11 TECHNICAL DATA SHEET FOR COMPONENTS—ELECTROTECHNOLOGY
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FIGURE 2.12 TECHNICAL DATA SHEET FOR RELAYS—ELECTROTECHNOLOGY
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FIGURE 2.13 TECHNICAL DATA CORRELATION SHEET — ELECTROTECHNOLOGY
AS 1100.101—1992
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SECTION 3 LINES
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3.1 TYPES OF LINES Lines on drawings shall be selected according to their application. Preferred types are
shown in Table 3.1 and shall be selected from one of the line groups given in Figure 3.1. Each type is designated
by a letter. Preferred types of the lines are shown in Table 3.1 and Figure 3.1 and typical applications in Figures 3.2
to 3.18.
TABLE 3.1
LINES AND APPLICATIONS
NOTES:
1
It is desirable to restrict line thickness to two on any one drawing. A medium thickness line may be used by some drafting disciplines
such as structural and electrical for additional clarity. Refer to drafting standards for particular disciplines for examples.
2
It is recommended that only one thickness of dashed line be used.
3
Proportions of spaces are as specified for Type G.
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3.2 DIMENSIONS OF LINES
3.2.1 Thickness The thickness of lines shall be selected from one of the line groups given in Figure 3.1, and shall
be such that the thickness of any line after reproduction shall be not less than 0.18 mm.
3.2.2 Dashes The length and spacing of dashes shall be consistent, but they may vary in length depending on
the complete length of the line and size of the drawing. Recommended dimensions are shown in Table 3.1.
FIGURE 3.1 LINE GROUPS
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3.3 LINE SPACING Parallel lines shall be drawn with a clear space between them of not less than twice the
thickness of the thickest line, with a minimum space of 1 mm.
Where a group of parallel lines intersect another group of parallel lines, the space between lines in each group
should be not less than 2 mm.
3.4 LINE DENSITY To facilitate good quality reproduction of drawings using dyeline or microfilming processes, all
lines on original drawings shall be matt, of constant density and have a high contrast with respect to the material
background.
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(I )
NOTE: Contrast is the difference between the optical density of a line and that of the sheet. The optical density of a medium is log10 0,
(I1)
where I0) is the amount of light falling on the surface of the medium and I 1 is the amount of light passing through the medium.
A suggested minimum value for optical density is 0.7.
3.5 TYPICAL APPLICATION OF LINES
3.5.1 Type A Type A lines shall be used for the following purposes:
(a) Visible outlines of features of an object (see Figure 3.3).
(b) General details of structures (see Figure 3.4).
(c) Landscaping and existing buildings in survey drawing (see Figure 3.2).
(d) Busbars and transmission paths in electrotechnology (see Figure 3.5).
3.5.2 Type B Type B lines shall be used for the following purposes:
(a) Fictitious outlines, such as minor diameters of external threads and major diameters of internal threads (see
Figure 3.3).
(b) Dimension lines and projection lines (see Figure 3.3).
(c) Hatching (see Figures 3.3 and 3.4).
(d) Leaders (see Figures 3.3 and 3.4).
(e) Outlines of revolved sections (see Figure 3.3).
(f) Imaginary intersection of surfaces (see Figure 3.6). Such lines should not meet the outlines.
(g) Fold or tangent bend lines (see Figure 3.7).
(h) Short centre-lines if Type G lines are not appropriate (see Clause 3.5.6).
(i) General purpose electrical conductors and symbols (see Figure 3.5).
(j) Line of intersection of principal planes (see Figure 6.18).
See also Clause 3.6.
3.5.3 Types C and D Lines of Types C and D shall be used to terminate part views (see Figures 3.3 and 3.4) and
part sections (see Figure 3.8).
Type C is recommended for short break lines and for the S-break in cylindrical members in exterior views. Type D
is recommended for long break lines, and shall extend beyond the outlines which they terminate.
Both types may be used in the one view (see Figure 3.3).
3.5.4 Type E Type E lines shall be used to indicate hidden outlines and hidden edges.
3.5.5 Type F Type F lines shall be used to indicate hidden outlines of internal features of an object that are not
otherwise shown, or where their use would assist or is necessary in the interpretation of the drawing (see Figure 3.9).
Features located behind transparent materials shall be treated as hidden parts.
It is important to guard against excessive use of hidden outlines. They should be confined to the view or views in
which they are needed.
The following further requirements in the use of Type F lines are illustrated in Figure 3.9:
(a) Hidden outlines should always begin and end with a dash in contact with the visible or hidden outline at which
they start and end, except where such a dash would form a continuation of a visible outline.
(b) Dashes should join at corners, and arcs should start with dashes at the tangent points.
(c) Dashes of parallel hidden outlines, when close together, should preferably be staggered.
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FIGURE 3.2 TYPICAL APPLICATION OF TYPES OF LINES — SURVEY
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FIGURE 3.3 TYPICAL APPLICATION OF TYPES OF LINES—MECHANICAL
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FIGURE 3.4 TYPICAL APPLICATION OF TYPES OF LINES—ARCHITECTURAL
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FIGURE 3.5 TYPICAL APPLICATION OF TYPES OF LINES—ELECTROTECHNOLOGY
3.5.6 Type G Type G lines shall be used for centre-lines and pitch lines, and for indicating features in front of a
cutting plane (see Figure 3.10). They may also be used for indication of repeated details.
Centre-lines of a feature should not intersect in the spaces between dashes.
Centre-lines should project for a short distance beyond relevant outlines and, where necessary for dimensioning or
correlation of views, they may be extended. For short centre-lines, Type G lines should be used with a long dash
passing through the feature and a short dash at each end (see Figure 3.9). A Type B line may be used for a short
centre-line where there is no space for a dash or where there is no confusion with other types of lines.
For use of this line for developed views, see Figure 3.7.
Type G lines shall be used to show material to be removed, such as locating or holding bosses and lugs which are
subsequently cut off (see Figure 3.11).
3.5.7 Type H Type H lines shall be used to indicate the location of cutting planes in sectioning and the viewing
position for removed views and removed partial views. The short arrowed leaders indicating direction of viewing
position should be located with the arrow touching and normal to the thick ends of the Type H lines (see Figure 3.3).
3.5.8 Type J Type J lines shall be used to indicate that portion of a surface which has to comply with some
special requirement. For example, Figures 3.3 and 3.12 require a surface which has to comply with some special
tolerance requirement or requires special surface treatment such as surface hardening detailed by a note.
3.5.9 Type K Type K lines shall be used for the following purposes:
(a) Outlines of adjacent parts (see Figures 3.3 and 3.13). Where an adjacent part is shown in section, hatching
should be shown only to avoid confusion and then only along the outlines.
(b) Alternative and extreme positions of movable parts (see Figure 3.3).
(c) Centroidal lines (see Figure 3.18(b)).
(d) Tooling outlines. Alternatively, the component outline where tool drawings are involved (see Figure 3.14).
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FIGURE 3.6 IMAGINARY INTERSECTION OF SURFACES
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NOTE:
40
Section shown for hidden detail.
FIGURE 3.9 HIDDEN OUTLINE TECHNIQUES
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FIGURE 3.12 SURFACE TO MEET SPECIAL TOLERANCE REQUIREMENTS
AND SURFACE TREATMENT
FIGURE 3.13 ADJACENT PART
FIGURE 3.14 TOOL SHAPE IN OUTLINE
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AS 1100.101—1992
3.6 SPECIAL APPLICATIONS OF LINES
3.6.1 Representation of some plane faces A flat surface may be indicated by two diagonal Type B lines
as shown in Figure 3.15.
FIGURE 3.15 INDICATION OF FLAT SURFACES
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3.6.2 Representation of a rectangular opening A rectangular opening in a floor or a hatchway may be
indicated by two diagonal Type B lines as shown in Figure 3.16.
FIGURE 3.16 REPRESENTATION OF RECTANGULAR FLOOR OPENING
3.6.3 Partial views of symmetrical objects Where it is desired to draw a symmetrical object as a fraction
of the whole, the line of symmetry shall be indicated by two short parallel Type B lines, drawn normal to and
at each end of it (see Figure 3.17).
3.6.4 Other special applications Where special lines are used of types other than those shown in this
Standard, their purpose should be stated.
3.7 ORDER OF PRIORITY OF COINCIDENT LINES Where two or more lines of different type coincide,
the following order of priority should be observed (see Figure 3.18):
(a) Visible outlines and edges.
(b) Hidden outlines and edges.
(c) Cutting planes.
(d) Centre-lines.
(e) Centroidal lines.
(f) Projection lines.
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FIGURE 3.18 ORDER OF PRIORITY OF COINCIDENT LINES
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AS 1100.101—1992
SECTION 4 LETTERS, NUMERALS AND SYMBOLS
4.1 LETTERS AND NUMERALS
4.1.1 Character shapes and proportions
4.1.1.1 General Characters shall be uniform and capable of being produced at reasonable speed by hand,
stencil, machine, or other means. They shall remain legible and unambiguous in a direct photocopy print, in
a reduced copy, and as an image on a microfilm-viewing screen.
Characters shall be of simple form and preferably without serifs and other embellishments, and shall not be
of exaggerated proportions.
NOTE: Clarity, style, size, and spacing are important, particularly for numerals as, unlike letters, they rarely fall into self-identifying
patterns and hence are read individually.
4.1.1.2 Basic form The basic form of letters and numerals should proportionally conform to those illustrated
in Figures 4.1 and 4.2.
4.1.1.3 Freehand characters Although it is recognized that slight variations will naturally occur with freehand
characters, the characters should as much as possible conform to the basic forms given in Figures 4.1 and
4.2.
4.1.1.4 Stencil characters Suitable stencilled characters include the following types:
(a) Upright Gothic.
(b) Sloping Gothic.
(c) ISO 3098/1 Type B Upright.
(d) ISO 3098/1 Type B Sloping.
(e) Microfont.
NOTES:
1 See Figures 4.1 to 4.5 inclusive.
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2 ISO 3098/1 Type A characters which have a height equal to 14 times the line thickness are not normally used in Australia.
4.1.1.5 Machine made characters Machine-made characters as produced by mechanical means or a
transfer process should generally comply with the basic requirements specified in this Standard.
4.1.2 Height of characters The height (h) in millimetres (see Figures 4.1 to 4.5 inclusive) of characters
should be one of the following:
2.5 3.5 5 7 10 14 20
NOTES:
1 For special requirements, other heights may be used, provided that the minimum height complies with the requirements of this
Clause.
2 The height of lettering used for tolerances shall be the same height as the particular dimension to which they are applying.
The recommended height of the characters should be not less than the height stated in Table 4.1 for the sheet
sizes indicated. Where the drawing is to be reduced, the character height (h) shall be selected so that the
height as reproduced is not less than 1.7 mm.
TABLE 4.1
RECOMMENDED MINIMUM HEIGHT OF CHARACTERS ON DRAWINGS
Character height (h), mm
Sheet size
Character use
Titles and drawing numbers
Subtitles, headings, view and section designations
General notes, material lists, dimensions
A0, B1
A1, A2, A3, A4
B2, B3 & B4
7
5
3.5
5
3.5
2.5
NOTE: The recommended minimum character heights are for upper-case lettering only. For upper-case and
lower-case combinations, the minimum character height should be one size larger than that specified.
4.1.3 Thickness of character lines The maximum thickness of the lines used to form the characters shall
be 0.1h, where h is the height of the characters as shown in Figures 4.1 and 4.2 and as specified in
Clause 4.1.2. The line thickness of both lower-case and upper-case letters shall be the same (to facilitate
lettering).
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FIGURE 4.2 SLOPING GOTHIC (ITALIC) CHARACTERS
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*
AS 1100.101—1992
Either of these characters is acceptable by ISO, but ‘a’ and ‘7’ are not recommended for use in Australia.
FIGURE 4.3 ISO 3098/1 TYPE B UPRIGHT CHARACTERS
4.1.4 Spacing
4.1.4.1 Spacing of characters Characters forming a word or a number should be spaced so that the
distance between the characters (see Figure 4.6) is approximately twice the thickness of the line forming such
characters or 1 mm, whichever is the greater.
Numerical values shall be expressed in accordance with AS 1000.
4.1.4.2 Space between words The space between words shall be not less than 0.6h and should be not
more than 2h.
4.1.4.3 Space between lines of lettering The space between lines of lettering shall be not less than 0.6h.
4.1.5 Use of characters Only one style of character should be used generally throughout a drawing.
Vertical characters should be used for titles, drawing numbers, and reference numbers.
Upper-case letters should be used. Lower-case letters shall be used for conventional signs and symbols
normally requiring such characters, e.g. mm, kg, kPa.
Underlined lettering should be avoided. Special emphasis, where required, may be given by the use of larger
characters, or a change of style.
Where necessary for clarity or to prevent misinterpretation between upper-case ‘I’ and lower-case ‘l’ and the
numeral ‘1’, serifs may be added.
The letters ‘O’ and ‘I’ should not be used in combination with numbering owing to the liability of confusion with
the numerals ‘0’ and ‘1’.
All characters in a drawing shall be kept clear of lines.
NOTE: Where a line precludes this requirement, the line may be interrupted sufficiently to accommodate characters (see Figure 4.7).
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FIGURE 4.5 MICROFONT CHARACTERS
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AS 1100.101—1992
FIGURE 4.7 CHARACTERS CLEAR OF LINES
4.1.6 Decimal form
4.1.6.1 Decimal sign The decimal sign for technical drawings and associated documents should be the dot,
either on the line or at midheight. An example is shown in Figure 4.8.
The diameter of the dot should be twice the thickness of the line used to form the character, and shall be not
less than the line thickness. It should be given a full character space.
NOTES:
1 The preferred location of the dot is on the line.
2 The decimal comma is commonly used in some countries.
4.1.6.2 Decimal fractions Where the quantity is less than unity, the decimal sign shall be preceded by zero
(0) (see Figure 4.8).
0.45
FIGURE 4.8 EXAMPLE OF DECIMAL FRACTION
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4.1.7 Vulgar fractions The minimum height of the numerator and denominator of a vulgar fraction shall
be as given in Clause 4.1.2, and should be separated by a horizontal line. Where space is limited, a sloping
line may be used.
4.2 ITEM REFERENCES
4.2.1 General Item references shall be assigned in sequential order to each component part shown in
assembly or detailed item on the drawing.
Identical parts shown on the same drawing shall have the same item reference.
Item references shall be cross-referenced to an item list giving the appropriate information of the items
concerned.
Each complete subassembly to be incorporated in the assembly shown on the drawing may be identified by
one item reference.
4.2.2 Terminology
4.2.2.1 Item—a non-specific term used to denote a unit of product including materials, parts, assemblies,
structures, equipment, accessories and attachments.
4.2.2.2 Reference (item) number—a number assigned to an item or detail on a drawing for the purpose of
cross-referencing to another drawing or a parts list, item list, or item description.
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NOTE: For electrotechnology item designation, see AS 3702.
4.2.3 Use Item references should generally be composed of Arabic figures only. They may be augmented
by capital letters when necessary.
Item references on any one drawing shall have the same height of lettering. They shall be clearly distinguished
from all other indications by—
(a) being double the height of those other indications; or
(b) being enclosed in circles having the same diameter (see Figure 4.10).
Where the relation between the item reference and its associated item is not obvious, the connection between
them should be shown by a leader line.
Leader lines shall not intersect. They should be kept as short as practicable and generally they should be
drawn at an angle to the item reference. The leader line for circled item references shall be directed towards
the centre of the circle (see Figure 4.10).
For the sake of clarity and legibility of the drawing, item references should be arranged in vertical columns or
horizontal rows (see Figure 4.9).
Item references of related items may be shown against the same leader line, e.g. bolt, nut and washer (see
Figure 4.9, Items 8, 9 and 10).
Item references of identical items should only be shown once, except in special cases such as complicated
assembly where for clarity such references may be shown more than once.
It is also recommended to arrange, as far as possible, the item references on the drawing in such a way as
to facilitate their identification (see Figure 4.9).
4.3 SYMBOLS AND TERMINATORS
4.3.1 General Where symbols and terminators are used in technical drawings, the size of characters and
the spacing of lines and characters shall comply with this Section together with Section 3.
A comparison of the symbols used by ISO and those adopted by Australian and other national Standards
bodies is given in Appendix A.
4.3.2 Terminology
4.3.2.1 Symbol—a mark, character, letter or combination thereof which is accepted for indicating an object,
idea or process.
NOTES:
1 This applies particularly to SI units and their multiples, chemical elements, letter symbols for quantities, mathematical signs, and the
like.
2 Letter symbols are the same in the plural as in the singular.
4.3.2.2 Terminator—a mark or character used for terminating leaders and dimension lines.
4.3.3 Arrowheads Arrowheads shall be well defined. They may be open or solid and should comply with
the forms and proportions shown in Figure 4.11. The length should be from 3 mm to 5 mm.
4.3.4 Dots
4.3.4.1 Dots terminating line Dots used for terminating dimension lines shall be of a diameter that is
approximately 3 times the thickness of the dimension line which they terminate, but not less than 1.5 mm.
4.3.4.2 Dots terminating leaders Dots used for terminating leaders shall be of a diameter that is
approximately twice the thickness of the leaders which they terminate, but not less than 1 mm.
4.3.4.3 Dots used as decimal signs See Clause 4.1.6.1.
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FIGURE 4.10 NUMBERS FOR REFERRING TO ITEM LISTS
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FIGURE 4.11 ARROWHEADS
4.3.4.4 Use of arrowheads and dots In drawings of individual items, leaders from notes should terminate
in arrowheads; however, in assembly drawings dots are preferred for the termination of leaders from notes
and item numbers. Such dots should be within the outline of the items (see Figures 4.12 and 4.13).
Where arrowheads are used to terminate leaders, the point of the arrowhead should touch the first point of
reference belonging to the particular item as illustrated in Figure 4.13, thus avoiding any misinterpretation
where an outline is common to more than one item, e.g. that common to Items 8 and 9, and that common to
Items 9 and 10 in Figure 4.13.
On any one drawing, all leaders should have the same terminator, i.e. either dots or arrowheads.
NOTE: For arrowheads used to show direction of viewing, see Section 6.
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4.3.4.5 Slashes Slashes may be used on dimension lines in place of arrowheads, e.g. on architectural
drawings, but slashes are not preferred.
FIGURE 4.12 LEADERS TERMINATING IN DOTS WITHIN THE OUTLINES OF THE OBJECTS
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FIGURE 4.13 LEADERS TERMINATING IN ARROWHEADS TOUCHING OUTLINES
4.3.4.6 Dimensioning and tolerancing Symbols used for dimensioning and tolerancing and their applications
are shown in Figure 4.14. The dimensions of these symbols for the various values of the character height h
are given in Table 4.2.
Definitions of tolerancing symbols are given in Section 8.
4.3.4.7 Graphical symbols For the shape and proportion of graphical symbols used in general engineering
and electrotechnology, refer to the appropriate Standards.
4.3.4.8 Use of notes to supplement symbols Situations may arise where the desired geometric requirement
cannot be completely conveyed by the symbols described. In such cases, a note may be used to describe the
requirement, either separately or supplementing a geometric tolerance.
TABLE 4.2
DIMENSIONS OF SYMBOLS FOR DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING
millimetres
h
0.5h
0.7h
1.4h
2h
2.5h
2.8h
3h
2.5
3.5
5.0
7.0
10
14
20
1.3
1.8
2.5
3.5
5.0
7.0
10
1.8
2.5
3.5
5.0
7.0
10
14
3.5
5.0
7.0
10
14
20
28
5.0
7.0
10
14
20
28
40
6.3
8.8
12.5
17.5
25
35
50
7.0
10
14
20
28
40
56
7.5
10.5
15
21
30
42
60
LEGEND:
h = character height.
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NOTE: Sloping lines are at 60 degrees to the horizontal unless otherwise indicated.
FIGURE 4.14 SHAPE AND SIZE OF SYMBOLS
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AS 1100.101—1992
SECTION 5 SCALES
5.1 GENERAL Many technical drawings are drawn to scale. The scale to be chosen for a drawing shall
permit easy and clear interpretation of the information depicted.
5.2 TERMINOLOGY
5.2.1 Scale—the ratio of the linear dimension of an element of an object as represented in the drawing to
the linear dimension of the same element of the object itself.
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5.3 INDICATION OF SCALES
5.3.1 Methods The complete designation of a scale on a drawing shall be by one of the following methods:
(a) A ratio prefixed by the word ‘SCALE’, e.g. ‘SCALE 1:100’.
(b) A block or graduated scale, e.g.
(c) Where the drawing is not drawn to scale, a note ‘NOT TO SCALE’ or a diagonal line drawn through the
space reserved for the scale ratio.
Where a drawing has no scale, a scale notation is unnecessary, e.g. a circuit diagram.
5.3.2 Single scale Where only one scale is used in a drawing, it should be indicated in or near the title
block.
5.3.3 Multiple scales Where one scale predominates, the indication of that scale should be shown in or near
the title block together with ‘OR AS SHOWN’, and other scales should be indicated adjacent to the view or
views concerned.
Where more than one scale is used in a drawing, the scales shall be clearly shown adjacent to the view or
views concerned. A notation ‘SCALES AS SHOWN’ should also be indicated in or near the title block.
Where different scales are used for horizontal and vertical dimensions, such as in road profiles, each scale
should be clearly indicated on the drawing sheet, e.g.
HORIZONTAL SCALE 1:500
VERTICAL SCALE
1:100
5.4 SCALE RATIOS
5.4.1 Engineering and architectural drawing scales The recommended scales for use in engineering
drawing practice and in architectural and building drawings are specified in Table 5.1.
TABLE 5.1
ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING SCALES
Category
Enlargement
scales
Recommended scales
50:1
5:1
20:1
2:1
Full size
Reduction
scales
10:1
1:1
1:2
1:20
1:200
1:2 000
1:5
1:50
1:500
1:5 000
1:10
1:100
1:1 000
1:10 000
NOTE: If, for special applications, there is need for a larger enlargement scale or a smaller reduction scale than those
shown in the table, the recommended range of scales may be extended in either direction, provided that the required
scale is derived from a recommended scale by multiplying by integral powers of 10. In exceptional cases where for
functional reasons the recommended scales cannot be applied, intermediate scales may be chosen.
5.4.2 Surveying and mapping scales The recommended scales for surveying and mapping purposes are
specified in Table 5.2.
In addition the following surveying and mapping scales are currently in use and are acceptable for special
purposes in certain areas:
1:125
1:400
1:750
1:800
1:1 250
1:3 000
1:4 000
1:8 000
1:12 500
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TABLE 5.2
SURVEYING AND MAPPING SCALES
Reduction ratios
1:2 00
1:2 000
1:250
1:2 500
1:25 000
1:250 000
1:50
1:500
1:5 000
1:50 000
1:500 000
1:100
1:1 000
1:10 000
1:100 000
1:1 000 000
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5.5 LARGE SCALE DRAWINGS It is recommended that, for information, a full size view be added to the
large scale representation of a small object. The full size view may be simplified by showing the outlines of
the object only.
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SECTION 6 PROJECTIONS
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6.1 IDENTIFICATION Features, cutting planes, sectional views, sections and special views should be
identified by letters of the alphabet according to the following rules:
(a) Letters I, O, and Q shall not be used.
(b) When the other 23 letters have been exhausted, combinations of 2 letters shall be used, e.g. AA, AB, AC.
(c) Letters or letter combinations shall be used only once on any drawing, irrespective of the purpose; e.g.
if ‘A’ is used to designate a view, it shall not be used on a feature, cutting plane, sectional view or section.
(d) Identifying letters or letter combinations for cutting planes shall be applied at each end of such planes, and
in the corresponding notes for sectional views and sections the same identifying letters or letter
combinations shall be used separated by a hyphen, e.g. SECTION A-A, SECTION B-B, SECTION AB-AB.
Views shall be designated as shown in Figure 6.1.
View
View
View
View
View
View
in
in
in
in
in
in
direction
direction
direction
direction
direction
direction
A is designated: FRONT VIEW
B is designated: TOP VIEW
C is designated: LEFT SIDE VIEW
D is designated: RIGHT SIDE VIEW
E is designated: BOTTOM VIEW
F is designated: REAR VIEW
FIGURE 6.1 DESIGNATION OF VIEWS
6.1.1 Views
6.1.1.1 Top view (plan)—the horizontal section or projection of any object, such as a building, or the
projection on a horizontal plane of a site, building or component, viewed from above at right angles to the
plane of section or projection.
6.1.1.2 Side, front and rear view (elevation)—the projection on a vertical plane of any object, such as a
building or component viewed at right angles to the plane of projection.
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6.2 TYPES OF PROJECTION A drawing of a component, assembly, structure, or part thereof shall be
drawn using one or more of the projection methods shown in Table 6.1.
TABLE 6.1
METHODS OF PROJECTION
Distinctive
feature
Parallel lines
of sight
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Converging lines of
sight
Projection type
Generic
Application
Particular
Orthogonal
Third angle
(preferred)
First angle
Axonometric
Isometric
Dimetric
Trimetric
Oblique
Cavalier
Cabinet
General
Perspective
One-point
(parallel)
Two-point
(angular)
Three-point
(oblique)
Two-dimensional
multiview drawings
Three-dimensional
single-view ‘pictorial
drawings’
6.3 ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION
6.3.1 Terminology—Orthogonal projection The projection of an object in which the line of sight is
perpendicular to the plane of projection. Figure 6.2 illustrates the derivation of the terms ‘First Angle Projection’
and ‘Third Angle Projection’, as applied to orthogonal projection.
6.3.2 General Third angle projection is the formation of an image of a view upon a plane of projection
placed between the object and the observer. First angle projection places the object between the observer and
the plane of projection.
FIGURE 6.2 ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION
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6.3.3 Methods The two methods of orthogonal projection in use, known as ‘third angle and first angle’, are
as follows:
(a) Third angle projection Each view is placed so that it represents the side of the object near to it in the
adjacent view (see Figure 6.3).
(b) First angle projection Each view is placed so that it represents the side of the object remote from it in
the adjacent view (see Figure 6.4).
The third angle method of projection is preferred.
All drawings in this Standard are third angle unless otherwise stated.
The drawings shall be marked to indicate the method of projection (see Clause 2.5.6). The directions in which
the views are taken should be clearly indicated.
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6.3.4 Selection of views
6.3.4.1 Principle of selection Views shall be selected according to the following principles:
(a) To reduce the number of views required to fully delineate the information to be specified.
(b) To avoid the need for hidden outlines.
(c) To avoid unnecessary repetition of detail.
6.3.4.2 Disposition and number of views The normal disposition of views in third angle projections is shown
in Figure 6.3 and that in first angle projection is shown in Figure 6.4. The number of views drawn shall be
sufficient to portray the shape of the object without possibility of misinterpretation. For many objects three
views are sufficient. Any three adjacent views may be used.
NOTE: The views of Figures 6.3 and 6.4 do not necessarily define completely all features of an object. Full definition may require
the application of other following clauses, the use of notes and sometimes, the use of sections.
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Some objects may, however, be completely represented by less than three views where the information, which
would have been given by the omitted views, is supplied by notes or other means. For example, some objects
may be represented adequately even by one view if the necessary dimensions are suitably indicated (see
Figure 6.5).
6.3.5 Deviation from method of projection Views deviating from the method of projection being used on
a drawing shall be adequately titled. The use of sections instead of an outside view may obviate the need for
deviation.
The direction in which the object is viewed shall be indicated by an arrow approximately twice the size of those
used to terminate dimensions, and letters one size larger than the characters used in dimensions and notes.
See Figure 6.6.
FIGURE 6.5 SINGLE VIEW DRAWINGS SUITABLY DIMENSIONED
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FIGURE 6.6 INDICATION OF VIEW DEVIATING FROM METHOD OF PROJECTION
6.3.6 Partial views Partial views may be used where full views do not improve the full delineation of the
information to be specified. The partial view shall be cut off by a continuous thin freehand line (Type C) or
straight lines with zig-zags (Type D). The principle of partial views may also be applied to auxiliary views (see
Clause 6.3.7).
Examples of partial views are shown in Figure 6.7.
FIGURE 6.7 EXAMPLES OF PARTIAL VIEWS
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6.3.7 Auxiliary views Objects having inclined faces may have such faces projected to show the true shape
of the inclined surface. The view is obtained by looking perpendicularly at the inclined face and projecting a
true shape view of it on to an auxiliary plane perpendicular to the line of sight.
Auxiliary views should be drawn in third angle projection, irrespective of the method of projection used
throughout the particular drawing.
Examples of auxiliary views are shown in Figure 6.8 where (a) is a normal (perpendicular) auxiliary view and
(b) is a removed auxiliary view. In the latter example, the removed view shall be identified and the direction
of viewing shall be indicated. Its orientation should not be changed, but if this is also necessary, the number
of degrees through which it is rotated should be stated, as in Figure 6.8(c).
6.3.8 Removed views and details Removed views (details) are auxiliary views removed from their true
projected positions in order to provide added clarity. They may be drawn as full or partial views and the scale
may be the same as that of the main view or larger.
Removed views to the same scale shall be identified and the direction of viewing shall be indicated by letter(s)
(see Figure 6.8 and Clause 7.4.8).
The element of the actual view of the object to which the removed view applies may be indicated by a circle
or a rectangle drawn with a Type B line (see details on Figure 6.9). Removed views to a larger scale shall be
identified and the scale ratio shown.
If the removed view is close to the element of the actual view, the circle or rectangle may be linked to the
indicator by a leader (see details on Figure 6.9(b)).
6.3.9 Rounded and filleted intersections Intersections between surfaces are often required to be rounded
or filleted. An intersection of this nature, which theoretically shows no line, may be indicated by a conventional
line, the location of which should be at the intersection of the principal surfaces disregarding the fillet or round.
The contour shall be shown as illustrated in Figures 6.10 and 6.11 (see also Figure 3.6).
6.3.10 Views of symmetrical parts To save time and space, symmetrical objects may be drawn as a
fraction of the whole (see Figure 6.12).
The line of symmetry is identified at its ends by two thin short parallel lines drawn at right angles to it (see
Figure 6.12(a), (b), and (d)).
Another method is to show the lines representing the object extending a little beyond the line of symmetry (see
Figure 6.12(c)). In this case, the short parallel lines may be omitted.
NOTE: In the application of this practice, it is essential that due care is taken to avoid loss of understanding of the drawing.
6.3.11 Simplified representation of repetitive features
simplified as permitted by Clause 9.3.1.
The presentation of repetitive features may be
6.4 SPATIAL GEOMETRY
6.4.1 Terminology Spatial geometry, or descriptive geometry, is the technique of solving three-dimensional
problems by orthogonal projection onto perpendicular planes.
6.4.2 The coordinate system The coordinate system is used to represent the location of a point in space
by the use of three axes, viz x, y and z, with associated unit scales.
The axes of the coordinate system are each orthogonal, with their relative orientation shown in Figure 6.13(a).
The positive and negative direction on each axis are shown in Figure 6.13(b).
The top view of the coordinate axes shall be used to represent unit dimensions on two axes only (see
Figure 6.13(c)). Lower-case italics shall be used to represent the position of a point in two dimensions. In this
case the identification of the z-axis is omitted. This top view is used to describe points involving two
dimensions.
The unit values for the x, y, and z axes respectively shall be used to specify the coordinates for points in
three-dimensional space. The projection of a point A shall be as shown in Figure 6.14. For working with two
principal axes only to describe the position of a point, the unit values in x and y directions shall be specified
for the point which is (x,y), as illustrated in Figure 6.15.
6.4.3 Principal planes Two perpendicular principal planes may be positioned relative to a point, line, plane,
solid, or set of coordinate axes to provide viewing and reference planes for orthogonal projection. The two
principal planes shall be designated the ‘principal horizontal plane’ and ‘principal vertical plane’, or xy and xz
reference planes respectively, as appropriate to the application.
The projection of the principal trace(s) and points in a plane in two-dimensional space is shown in Figure 6.16.
Principal planes may be positioned relative to the coordinate reference axes x, y, and z, so that two of the
reference axes are parallel to one of the principal planes (see Figure 6.17).
There is no restriction, upon the arrangement of principal planes relative to points, lines, and solids.
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FIGURE 6.8 AUXILIARY VIEWS
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FIGURE 6.9 REMOVED VIEWS
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FIGURE 6.10 ROUNDED CORNERS AND FILLETS
6.4.4 Notation of principal planes and points Notation identifying planes, lines and points may be used
to solve complex problems. The convention shall be as follows:
(a) The principal horizontal plane shall be represented by the letter H.
(b) The principal vertical plane shall be represented by the letter V.
(c) Lines and points shall be represented by alphanumeric symbols, using upper-case letters for points on a
pictorial view, and lower-case for points on a projected view (see Figure 6.18(a) and (b)).
(d) Where appropriate, subscripts shall be used to distinguish between two or more projections of a point (see
Figure 6.18(c)).
(e) Where the projection of two or more points coincide, notation of the projected point(s) closest to the
direction of view shall take precedence (see Figure 6.18(c), projections to points av ev and bvdv).
6.4.5 Auxiliary planes of projection The intersection of two planes is known as a trace. Traces of principal
planes shall be represented by a Type B line (see Figure 6.19). For the special case of cutting planes, see
Clause 6.4.6.
Traces of auxiliary planes shall be identified by upper-case letters according to the reference planes which
have been intersected, and in accordance with the sequence of these intersections (see Figure 6.20).
6.4.6 Cutting planes Cutting planes shall be represented by a Type H line. Figure 6.21 illustrates the
cutting of a solid by an auxiliary plane, simply inclined to the principal horizontal plane. The portion nearest
the plane of projection shall be shown removed in the adjacent view. When the true shape of sections are
projected, they shall not be hatched.
6.5 AXONOMETRIC PROJECTION
6.5.1 Terminology—Axonometric projection—the projection of an object in which the lines of sight are
perpendicular to the plane of projection and where the object is orientated so that its three principal axes are
all inclined to the plane of projection (see Figure 6.22).
6.5.2 Methods There are three methods of axonometric projection as follows:
(a) Isometric—where the three angles between the projections of the three principal axes of the object on the
plane of projection form equal angles of 120°.
(b) Dimetric—where two of the angles between the projections of the three principal axes of the object on the
plane of projection form equal angles and the third angle is different.
(c) Trimetric—where the angles between the projections of the three principal axes of the object on the plane
of projection form unequal angles.
Isometric projection is recommended for depicting objects having characteristic features in all directions;
dimetric and trimetric projections are recommended for depicting objects having characteristic features in two
directions.
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FIGURE 6.11 ROUNDED AND FILLETED INTERSECTIONS
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FIGURE 6.12 SYMMETRICAL PARTS—OMISSION OF UNNECESSARY DETAIL
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FIGURE 6.14 ILLUSTRATION AND
PREFERRED NOTATION OF A POINT
IN THREE DIMENSIONS
FIGURE 6.15 ILLUSTRATION OF PREFERRED
NOTATION OF THE PROJECTION OF A
POINT IN TWO DIMENSIONS
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FIGURE 6.17 USUAL POSITIONING OF PRINCIPAL PLANES RELATIVE
TO THE COORDINATE AXES
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FIGURE 6.19 REPRESENTATIONS OF INCLINED PLANES
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AS 1100.101—1992
FIGURE 6.21 PICTORIAL AND ORTHOGONAL REPRESENTATIONS OF A SOLID
CUT BY SIMPLY INCLINED PLANE
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FIGURE 6.22 AXONOMETRIC PROJECTION
6.5.3 Choice of axes
6.5.3.1 One principal axis The axes may be placed in a variety of positions. By convention the projection
of one of the principal axes of the object is selected as a vertical axis.
6.5.3.2 Other principal axes Other principal axes are placed as follows:
(a) Isometric projection The other two principal axes are fixed by definition.
(b) Dimetric and trimetric projection It is recommended that in order to avoid the appearance of distortion
on large flat areas, the angle which that face makes with the plane of projection should be increased.
It is also recommended that for more important faces of objects where details must be shown more clearly,
the angle between that face and the plane of projection should be decreased.
Figure 6.23(b) shows an improvement resulting from an increase in this angle because—
(i) the horizontal plane is less distorted; and
(ii) the vertical face is shown more clearly and with more detail.
Dimetric drawings may be orientated with the equal angles disposed on either side of any principal axis.
6.5.4 Examples and guidelines
6.5.4.1 Isometric drawing Figure 6.24 illustrates a typical isometric drawing of an object.
Lengths parallel to the principal axes shall be drawn in true length to any selected scale, i.e. the ratio of equal
lengths on the axes shall be—
x:y:z = 1:1:1
NOTES:
1 The true axonometric projection of an object orientated as defined in Clause 6.5.1(a) is an isometric projection, and will be smaller
than an isometric drawing of the object because the scales parallel to all three axes are foreshortened in projection in the ratio 2: 3,
i.e. 0.816:1 approximately.
2 For information on the representation of circles in isometric projection, see Appendix C.
6.5.4.2 Dimetric drawing Figure 6.25 is a typical dimetric drawing of the same object as in Figure 6.24.
Lengths parallel to the two principal axes shall be drawn in true length to any selected identical scale. Lengths
parallel to the third principal axis will be a different scale depending on the selected orientation.
For convenience, the ratio of equal lengths on the axes is selected so that—
x:y:z = 1:1:0.5 (See Appendix C)
NOTES:
1 For information on the representation of circles in dimetric projection and special aids, see Appendix C.
2 In many cases when the angle α is small, such as in Figure 6.25, a circle is sufficiently accurate instead of an ellipse in the segment
xy or in planes parallel thereto.
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FIGURE 6.24 ISOMETRIC DRAWING
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FIGURE 6.25 DIMETRIC DRAWING
6.5.4.3 Trimetric drawing Figure 6.26 illustrates a typical trimetric drawing of the same object as in
Figure 6.24.
The length parallel to one selected principal axis shall be in true length to any selected scale. Lengths parallel
to the other principal axes will be to two different scales resulting from the selected orientation.
NOTE: For information on special scales for use with trimetric projections, see Appendix C.
6.6 OBLIQUE PROJECTION
6.6.1 Terminology—Oblique projection—the projection of an object in which the lines of sight are parallel
to each other but inclined to the plane of projection where the object is orientated with the principal face
parallel to the plane of projection, thus making this face and parallel faces show in true shape. (See
Figure 6.27.)
6.6.2 Methods There are three methods of oblique projection, each dependent on the comparative scales
of the front axes and the receding axis, as follows:
(a) Cavalier—the lines of sight make an angle of 45° with the plane of projection. The same scale is used on
all axes. Figure 6.28 is an example of this type of projection.
(b) Cabinet—the lines of sight make an angle of 63°26’ with the plane of projection. The scale on the receding
axis is one-half of the scale on the other axes. Figure 6.29 shows an example of this type of projection.
(c) General oblique—the lines of sight make any angle other than 45° or 63°26’ with the plane of projection.
For practical purposes, the angle should lie between 45° and 60°; under these conditions, the scale on
the receding axis will be between 1 and 0.5 times the common scale of the other axes. Figure 6.30 shows
an example of this type of projection.
The projection of the receding axis on the plane of projection may be at any angle to the horizontal. For
convenience, an angle of 30°, 45°, or 60° is recommended.
NOTE: For information on the effect of the angle of the lines of sight, see Appendix D.
6.6.3 Choice of method and orientation Cylinders and cones should have their axes on the receding axis
to reduce distortion and to make it possible to draw circles in true shape. Distortion may be decreased by
reducing the scale of the receding axis.
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FIGURE 6.27 OBLIQUE PROJECTION
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FIGURE 6.29 OBLIQUE PROJECTION—CABINET TYPE
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FIGURE 6.30 OBLIQUE PROJECTION—GENERAL
6.7 PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION
6.7.1 Terminology—Perspective projection—the projection of an object in which thelines of sight converge
to a point of sight located so that the projection plane is between the object and the observer. (See
Figure 6.31.)
FIGURE 6.31 PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION
6.7.2 Methods There are three methods of perspective drawings, each dependent on the orientation of the
object to the plane of projection, as follows:
(a) One-point perspective or parallel—two of the principal axes of the object are parallel to the plane of
projection and the third, therefore, is perpendicular to the plane of projection.
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(b) Two-point perspective or angular—one of the principal axes (usually a vertical axis) is parallel to the plane
of projection, and the other axes are inclined thereto.
(c) Three-point perspective or oblique—all three principal axes are inclined to the plane of projection.
NOTES:
1 The only features that can be readily scaled are those of the object that actually lie on the plane of projection.
2 The plane of projection is also known as the picture plane (see Figure 6.32).
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6.7.3 Examples and guidelines Figure 6.32 illustrates the general principles of perspective views. (The
example shown is a two-point perspective.)
Figure 6.33 illustrates the three types of perspective drawings.
It is recommended that the point of sight should be located so that the cone of rays having its apex at the
point of sight and including the entire object, has an angle at the apex not greater than 30°.
Perspective drawings may be conveniently produced by photographic methods and grids.
For architectural and CAD work where the object is close to the horizon, it is recommended that—
(a) a greater angle be used;
(b) the point of sight be located centrally in front of the object; and
(c) the point of sight be located at sufficient height to show the desired amount of detail on the horizontal
surfaces.
FIGURE 6.32 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION
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FIGURE 6.33 PERSPECTIVE DRAWING
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6.8 OTHER DETAILS—PICTORIAL DRAWINGS
6.8.1 Sectioned views Section planes should pass through centre-lines and should be parallel to one or
more of the principal planes of the object (see examples in Figure 6.34).
Hatching of half-sections should be drawn in such directions that they would appear to coincide at the planes
when folded together as illustrated in Figure 6.34(b).
FIGURE 6.34 SECTIONAL VIEWS AND HATCHING
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6.8.2 Fillets and rounds Fillets and rounded edges may be emphasized by means of straight or curved
lines as illustrated in Figure 6.35.
FIGURE 6.35
6.8.3 Intersections
FILLETS AND ROUNDS
Intersections should be drawn correctly and shown by lines as illustrated in Figure 6.36.
FIGURE 6.36
INTERSECTIONS
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6.8.4 Screw threads Screw threads may be represented by a series of ellipses or circles uniformly spaced
along the centre-line of the thread. Screw threads should be evenly spread, but it is not necessary to
reproduce the actual pitch (see example in Figure 6.37).
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FIGURE 6.37 REPRESENTATION OF THREADS
6.8.5 Dimensioning Drawings shall be dimensioned where required by the same general methods as for
orthogonal projections, although the scales vary with the method of projection used.
Each dimension line, the associated projection lines and the line being dimensioned shall lie in the same
plane, as illustrated in Figure 6.38.
Dimensions shall be inserted by one of the following methods:
(a) Unidirectional—when all letters and numerals are read from the bottom of the drawing, as illustrated in
Figure 6.38(a).
(b) Pictorial plane dimensioning—where all letters and numerals lie in one of the principal planes, as illustrated
in Figure 6.38(b).
FIGURE 6.38 DIMENSIONING
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SECTION 7 SECTIONS
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7.1 GENERAL
7.1.1 Terminology—Section—the view of an object at the cutting plane which may typically include that
detail beyond the cutting plane. (See Figure 7.1.)
7.1.2 Method of indicating sections Sections are generally indicated by hatching of cut surfaces and a
label as detailed in this Section.
7.2 CUTTING PLANES
7.2.1 Selection Cutting planes should be selected to pass through the principal features of the object, and
preferably be shown through an external view and not through a section.
Where the cutting plane is taken through a section, the resulting section should be drawn as if the original
section was a full view.
7.2.2 Indication—General Except where otherwise specified below, cutting planes shall be indicated by
Type H lines drawn right across the object. The direction of viewing shall be indicated by arrowheads, and
identifying letters as specified in Clause 6.1 shall be placed adjacent to the tail of arrows (see Figure 7.1).
FIGURE 7.1 SECTIONS
7.2.3 Indication—Other methods Where clarity is not impaired, the cutting plane line may be simplified
as illustrated in Figure 7.2.
A typical method of indicating sections in architectural and structural drawings is illustrated in Figure 7.3.
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FIGURE 7.2 SIMPLIFIED INDICATION OF CUTTING PLANE
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Where the cutting plane is a principal plane of symmetry, the indication, other than a centre-line, may be
omitted as shown in Figure 7.4.
Where only one cutting plane is involved on a drawing, the identifying letters may be omitted.
Where the resulting sections or sectional views are symmetrical or are drawn in correct projection as indicated
on the drawing, the arrowheads may be omitted (see Figure 7.18(a)).
7.3 HATCHING
7.3.1 Single part The cut or broken surface of sections shall be indicated by hatching except where the
intent of the drawing is clear without it and where indicated in Clause 7.3.5.
It is recommended that as far as practicable, hatching should consist of a series of equally spaced Type B
parallel lines drawn at 45° approximately to the edge of the drawing sheet, as illustrated in Figure 7.5(a). If
the shape or position of the part is such that 45° hatching would be parallel to one of the sides, another angle
may be chosen, as illustrated in Figure 7.5(b). The lines should be suitably spaced in relation to the area to
be covered. Provided that there is no loss of clarity, wide spacing is recommended.
Sectioning of different areas of the same part shall have hatching at the same angle and spacing (see
Figure 7.18).
Methods of identifying particular materials by hatching, on architectural and structural drawings, are shown in
AS 1100.301 and AS 1100.501.
7.3.2 Adjacent parts Where two adjacent parts in an assembly are sectioned, the hatching on each part
should be at different angles, normally mutually at right angles, as illustrated in Figure 7.6(a).
Where more than two adjacent parts in an assembly are sectioned, and it is necessary to clearly distinguish
them, such distinction may be made by varying the spacing of the hatching or by the use of angles other
than 45° (see Figure 7.6(b) and (c)).
7.3.3 Existing adjacent part Where it is necessary to show a section of an existing adjacent part, hatching
should be shown only to avoid confusion, and then only along the outlines.
7.3.4 Large areas Where large areas of sectioned material have to be shown, especially those hatched
freehand, such as concrete, earth, rock, it is recommended that only the edges be sectioned, as indicated in
Figure 7.7.
7.3.5 Interruption for lettering and numerals Interruptions for lettering and numerals shall be carried out
in accordance with Figure 4.7 and Figure 7.8.
7.3.6 Thin areas Areas in sections which by virtue of the scale of the drawing are too thin for normal
hatching such as structural shapes, sheet metal, packing, gaskets, damp courses and electrical insulation,
shall be filled in solid, as illustrated in Figure 7.9.
Where adjacent areas are similarly treated, a thin space of not less than 1 mm shall be left between them.
7.3.7 Offset, contiguous, discontiguous, or curved sectioning In order to include features which are
not in a true plane, the cutting plane may be offset or curved so as to include several lines or curved surfaces.
Discontinuities on cutting planes should not be indicated in section. Where the cutting plane is discontinuous
or curved, the hatching should be continuous (see Figure 7.10).
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FIGURE 7.3 ALTERNATIVE METHOD INDICATING A CUTTING PLANE
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FIGURE 7.6 HATCHING OF ADJACENT PARTS
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FIGURE 7.9 HATCHING AS SOLID AREA
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FIGURE 7.10 CONTINUITY OF HATCHING
7.4 SECTIONS
7.4.1 General Sectional views should be orientated as for normal views in third angle projection (or first
angle as appropriate). See Figure 7.1.
Each sectional view or section shall be identified with its appropriate cutting plane, where identified, by
inscribing a subtitle below the view or section; e.g. ‘SECTION A-A’, ‘SECTION B-B’. See Figures 7.1 and 7.13.
Where clarity is not impaired, either the subtitles SECTION or SECTION A-A may be omitted. See Figures 7.4,
7.17 and 7.18.
All hidden outlines in the section should be omitted except in special cases (see Figure 7.13).
7.4.2 Full sections Where the cutting planes extend right across the object as in Figure 7.1, a full section
is obtained.
7.4.3 Half sections Objects which are symmetrical about a centre-line may be drawn having one half in
outside view and the other half as a section as illustrated in Figure 7.11.
FIGURE 7.11 HALF SECTION
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7.4.4 Local or part sections Local or part sections may be taken at convenient places on the actual view
of the object to show hidden detail, the boundary of such sections being shown by a Type C line, as illustrated
in Figure 7.12 (see also Figure 3.8).
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FIGURE 7.12 LOCAL OR PART SECTION
7.4.5 Aligned sections Aligned sections are the result of using discontinuous or curved cutting planes as
stated in Clause 7.3.7 where the ends of the cutting plane are not parallel. In these cases, the non-parallel
plane shall be revolved into the plane of projection. Figure 7.13 shows examples of an aligned section A-A
and an auxiliary aligned section B-B.
7.4.6 Revolved sections Revolved sections show the shape of the cross-section in the actual view of the
object, the cutting plane being revolved in position, as illustrated in Figure 7.14. The outline of a revolved
section shall be a thin line, i.e. Type B. Further identification is unnecessary.
7.4.7 Interposed sections Interposed sections are similar to revolved sections with the other drawing detail
in the immediate vicinity of the sections removed. An example is shown in Figure 7.15. The outline of an
interposed section shall be a Type A line. Further identification is unnecessary.
7.4.8 Removed sections
7.4.8.1 Usual method Removed sections are similar to revolved sections except that the cross-sections are
removed from the actual view of the object. The sections are placed on centre-lines extending from the cutting
plane. An example is shown in Figure 7.16. The outline of a removed section shall be a Type A line. Further
identification is unnecessary.
A removed section may be enlarged and the scale indicated.
7.4.8.2 Alternative methods If the method described in Clause 7.4.8.1 is not practicable, the section or
sectional views may be removed to some other convenient position on the drawing. Such a section shall be
clearly identified and labelled as a section, unless there is no possibility of misinterpretation. The section may
be rotated in the same manner as a rotated removed auxiliary view (see Figure 7.17(b)).
This also applies to sectional views.
NOTES:
1 Figures 7.17(a) and (b) are alternative methods. Only one method should be used.
2 Figure 7.17(a) shows a removed section, translated without rotation.
3 Figure 7.17(b) shows a removed section, translated and rotated. This method should only be used when space is restricted.
7.4.8.3 Disposition of successive sections If, through lack of space, successive sections cannot be arranged
in normal projection as illustrated in Figure 7.18(a), the arrangement as removed sections illustrated in
Figure 7.18(b) may be used.
7.4.9 Other conventions used in sectioning
7.4.9.1 Fastening elements Where the cutting plane through an assembly contains the centre-line of
fastening elements such as bolts, pins, rivets, keys, washers, nuts, screws, or other elements such as shafts,
rods, ball and roller bearings, and similar shapes which in themselves do not require sectioning, the elements
shall not be sectioned but shall be shown in full outline (see Figure 7.19).
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NOTE: For explanation of double-spaced hatching on the right-hand side of section A-A, see Clause 7.4.9.2.
FIGURE 7.13 ALIGNED AND AUXILIARY ALIGNED SECTIONAL VIEWS
7.4.9.2 Relatively thin elements Where the cutting plane through an object passes longitudinally through
a relatively thin element of the object such as a web, rib, lug or spoke, the outline of the feature may be drawn
without hatching in order to avoid a false impression of solidity (see Figure 7.20).
Alternatively, the hatching between the outline of the thin element and the main body may be double-spaced,
as shown in Figure 7.13. This is recommended where other similar thin sections are involved on the part which
is shown in sectional view. Where this method is used, the boundary between the thin and thick sections shall
be shown as a hidden outline.
Where sections do not cut the rib or spoke, e.g. a wheel with three spokes, the oblique spoke should be drawn
as being on the cutting plane.
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FIGURE 7.15 INTERPOSED SECTIONS
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FIGURE 7.17 PLACEMENT OF SECTIONAL VIEWS
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FIGURE 7.19 SECTION WITH AXIAL FEATURES
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FIGURE 7.20 WEB IN LONGITUDINAL SECTION NOT HATCHED
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7.4.9.3 Holes In a sectional view of an element, holes may be shown, even if not in the cutting plane. Holes
in circular elements should be shown at the true pitch from the centre rather than at the projected distance
(see Figure 7.21).
FIGURE 7.21 HOLES IN ELEMENTS
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7.4.9.4 Features located in front of a cutting plane Where it is necessary to represent features located in
front of the cutting plane, these features should be indicated with Type G lines (see Figure 3.10).
The representation of features located in front of cutting planes is not recommended for drawings of machine
parts.
7.4.9.5 Breaks Break lines as illustrated in Figure 7.22 may be used to shorten a view of elongated objects.
The lines shall be Type C or Type D.
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NOTE: Long break lines may be at any convenient angle with outlines or centre-lines of objects or assemblies, provided that clarity
or interpretation of the view is not impaired.
FIGURE 7.22 USE OF BREAK LINES ON ELONGATED OBJECTS
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SECTION 8 DIMENSIONING
8.1 SCOPE This Section sets out recommendations for the dimensioning, including size and geometry
tolerancing, of technical drawings.
These recommendations relate to drawings which define products in their completely finished state as required
by the designer. Such drawings do not necessarily define the manufacturing methods which may be used to
comply with the design requirements. Many of the principles and practices, however, can be applied to process
drawings which may define products in a partly finished state.
The tolerances for form, location, and orientation are indicated on the drawing by using symbolic notation to
identify the group, the characteristic to be toleranced, the magnitude of the tolerance, and the applicable
datums.
Practices unique to architecture, civil, surveying, electrical, and mechanical engineering, as well as welding
and surface texture, are included in the appropriate Standards.
8.1.1 Terminology
8.1.1.1 Dimension—
(a) a characteristic such as length or angle, of which the magnitude is specified in the appropriate unit of
measurement; or
(b) the numerical value used on the drawing or specification to define the size of the characteristic in Item (a)
(see Figure 8.12).
8.1.1.2 Tolerance—the total amount of variation permitted for the size of a dimension, a positional
relationship, or the form of a profile, or other design requirement.
8.1.2 Fundamental rules Dimensioning and tolerancing shall clearly define intent and shall comply with
the following:
(a) Each necessary dimension of an end product shall be specified. No more dimensions than those
necessary for complete definition shall be given. The use of auxiliary dimensions on a drawing shall be
minimized.
(b) Dimensions shall be selected and arranged to suit the function and mating relationship of a part, and shall
not be subject to more than one interpretation. Such dimensions are termed functional dimensions.
(c) The drawing should define a part without specifying construction and inspection methods. Thus, only the
diameter of a hole is given without indicating whether it is to be drilled, reamed, punched, or made by any
other operation. However, in those instances where manufacturing, processing, quality assurance, or
environmental information is essential to the definition of requirements, it shall be specified on the drawing
or in a document referenced on the drawing.
(d) Dimensions should be arranged to provide required information for optimum readability. Dimensions should
be shown in true profile views and refer to visible outlines.
(e) A 90° angle is implied where centre-lines and lines depicting features are shown on a drawing at right
angles and no angle is specified.
(f) A 90° basic angle applies where centre-lines of features in a pattern, or surfaces shown at right angles,
on the drawing are located or defined by basic dimensions and no angle is specified.
(g) Unless otherwise specified, all dimensions are applicable at 20°C. Compensation may be made for
measurements made at other temperatures.
(h) Each dimension should have a tolerance, except for those dimensions specifically identified as basic,
auxiliary, maximum or minimum. The tolerance may be applied directly to the dimension (or indirectly in
the case of basic dimensions), indicated by a general note, or located in a supplementary block of the
drawing layout. (See Clause 8.3.8.3.)
(i) Dimensions for size, form, orientation, and location of features shall be complete to the extent that there
is full understanding of the characteristics of each feature. Neither scaling (measuring the size of a feature
directly from a technical drawing) nor assumption of a distance or size is permitted.
(j) Geometry tolerance shall be specified where essential, i.e. in light of functional requirements,
interchangeability, and probable manufacturing circumstances.
NOTE: Undimensioned drawings (e.g. loft, printed wiring, templates, master layouts, tooling layout maps) prepared on stable material
are excluded, provided that the necessary control dimensions are specified.
8.2 GENERAL DIMENSIONING
8.2.1 Dimensioning symbols Some general symbols used for dimensioning and tolerancing and their
application are given in Table 8.1. The shape and size of these symbols are given in Figure 4.14.
8.2.2 Terminology
8.2.2.1 Functional dimension—a dimension which directly affects the functioning of the product. (See
Figures 8.1 and 8.2.)
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FIGURE 8.2 EXAMPLE OF FUNCTIONAL DIMENSIONS FOR KITCHEN CUPBOARD
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TABLE 8.1
DEFINITION AND APPLICATION OF DIMENSIONING SYMBOLS
Symbol
Application
Indicates that a dimension refers to the diameter of a circle or cylinder. It shall be placed in front of the
dimension.
Indicates that a dimension refers to a radius of part of a circle or cylinder. It shall be placed in front of
the dimension.
Indicates that a dimension refers to the width across flats of a square section. It shall be placed in front
of the dimension.
Indicates a taper and its direction. The centre-lines shall be parallel with the axis or plane of symmetry
of the tapered feature. It shall be placed in front of the slope ratio.
Indicates a slope and its direction. The base shall be parallel to the datum plane. It shall be placed in
front of the slope ratio.
Indicates the centre-line of a part, feature, or group of features. It shall be located adjacent to, or on,
the centre-line.
Indicates the diameter of spherical surface. It shall be placed in front of the dimension.
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Indicates the radius of a spherical surface. It shall be placed in front of the dimension.
Indicates countersink. It shall be placed in front of the dimension.
Indicates counterbore or spotface. It shall be placed in front of the dimension.
Indicates depth of a feature. It shall be placed in front of the dimension.
Indicates that a dimension refers to the arc length. It shall be placed above the dimension.
8.2.3 Projection and dimension lines and leaders
8.2.3.1 Projection lines Projection lines shall be Type B lines (see Table 3.1) projected from points, lines,
or surfaces to enable the dimensions to be placed outside the outline wherever possible.
Projection lines shall extend a little beyond the dimension line.
Where projection lines are extensions of outlines, they shall start just clear of the outlines.
Figure 8.3 illustrates these features and shows recommended dimensions for the extension beyond the
dimension line and the clearance mentioned above.
Where projection lines refer to points on surfaces or lines, they shall pass through or terminate on the points
as shown in Figure 8.4, and, for clarity, oblique projection lines may be used as shown.
Where projection lines refer to imaginary points of intersection, they shall pass through or terminate on the
points as shown in Figure 8.5, and the points may be emphasized by dots as shown.
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FIGURE 8.4 PROJECTION LINES FROM POINTS ON SURFACES
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FIGURE 8.5 IMAGINARY POINTS OF INTERSECTION
EMPHASIZED BY PROMINENT DOTS
8.2.3.2 Dimension lines Dimension lines shall be Type B lines drawn parallel to the direction of measurement
and, wherever practicable, shall be placed outside the view of the object, as in Figure 8.3. The space between
the first dimension line and part outline should not be less than 3h; the spaces between succeeding dimension
lines should not be less than 2h (where h equals the character height). Dimension lines may be interrupted
for the insertion of the dimensions when using the aligned method, and they shall be interrupted where
necessary when using the unidirectional method (see Clause 8.2.5.1). Arrowheads shall conform to
Clause 4.3.3, and shall touch the projection or other limiting line.
Where several dimensions are to be given from a common surface, line or point, one of the methods shown
in Figure 8.6 shall be used. Where Method (b) or Method (c) is used, a prominent dot shall be placed on the
common line.
If the surface, line or point is a datum for the dimensions (including basic dimensions) then the dot is replaced
by a datum indicator symbol (see Clause 8.3.3.5 and Figure 8.51).
The dimension lines and arrowheads in Figure 8.6(b) may be omitted.
Where there are several parallel dimension lines given from a common line, the dimensions shall, where
practicable, be placed near the arrowhead remote from the common line (see Figure 8.6(a)).
A centre-line, or a line which is an extension of a centre-line or of an outline, shall not be used as a dimension
line (see Figure 8.7).
8.2.3.3 Leaders A leader is a line used in conjunction with a terminator to indicate where dimension notes,
item numbers, or feature identifications are intended to apply (see Figure 8.8). Leaders shall be Type B lines.
A leader used to indicate where a dimension applies shall originate at either the beginning or the end of the
dimension and terminate in an arrowhead (see Figures 8.7 and 8.19(a)). A leader indicating a dimension may
terminate on the dimension line without an arrowhead (see Figure 8.8(b)).
A leader from a note may terminate in an arrowhead (see Figure 8.8(a)) or in a dot (see Figure 8.8(c)),
whichever is appropriate.
Arrowheads shall always terminate on a line and dots shall be within the outlines of the object. Arrowheads
shall conform to Clause 4.3.4.
Leaders shall not be visually parallel to adjacent dimension lines or projection lines, and shall be nearly normal
and not more than 45° from the normal to the lines to which they refer (see Figure 8.9).
Long leaders should be avoided even if it means dimensioning identical features as in Figure 8.10(a) or using
letter symbols adjacent to the features as shown in Figure 8.11(a).
Dimensional information may be shown by leaders as in the left-hand figure of Figure 8.11.
8.2.4 Dimensions
8.2.4.1 Numerical values The decimal sign should be a dot in accordance with Clause 4.1.6.1.
Dimensions should be expressed to the full number of decimal places necessary for complete definition of the
design requirements. Where the quantity is less than one, the decimal sign shall be preceded by zero, e.g.
0.25
A full space shall divide each group of three numerals to the right or to the left of the decimal sign, e.g.
125 000
2 500
2.498 5
2.498 55
NOTE: For further information of presentation of numerical values, see AS 1000.
Where a dimension is an integral number of units, both the decimal sign and the zeros following the decimal
sign shall be omitted, e.g.
50 not 50.0
Numerical values shall be clearly indicated adjacent to a dimension line or a leader or in a note.
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FIGURE 8.7 CENTRE-LINES AND EXTENSION LINES NOT TO BE USED AS DIMENSION LINES
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FIGURE 8.9 LEADERS TOUCHING LINES
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8.2.4.2 Linear dimensions Linear dimensions consist of two elements, the numerical value and the unit of
measurement.
The preferred unit for linear dimensions on drawings shall be the millimetre.
Units shall be clearly indicated by one of the following methods:
(a) Where only one unit is used — by the display of a prominent note, e.g.
DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES
(b) Where two or more units are used, but one unit occurs more frequently than the other unit(s) —
(i) most frequently used unit — by a prominent note, e.g.
UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED
DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES
(ii) other unit(s) — by placing the appropriate unit symbol after the numerical value, separated by a
single space, e.g.
14 m
(c) Where neither (a) nor (b) applies — by placing the appropriate unit symbol after the numerical value,
separated by a single space.
8.2.4.3 Angular dimensions Angular dimensions shall be expressed either in degrees and decimal parts
thereof, in degrees and minutes, or in degrees, minutes and seconds, e.g.
22.5°
22°30’
2°30’30”
2°4’5
Where an angle is less than one degree it shall be expressed as follows —
0.5°
0°30’
0°30’30”
0°0’30”
Angles of 90° need not be dimensioned unless required for clarity.
Leading zeros may be used before minutes and seconds when these figures are less than 10, e.g.
2°04’05”
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8.2.5 Arrangement of dimensions
8.2.5.1 General General criteria for the arrangement of dimensions are as follows:
(a) Dimensions shall be placed on drawings using either the unidirectional method (see Figure 8.12(a) and
(c)) or the aligned method (see Figure 8.12(b) and (c)). In the unidirectional method, dimensions are
inscribed parallel to the bottom edge of the drawing, with vertical or inclined dimension lines being
interrupted for insertion of dimensions, if space permits. In the aligned method, each dimension is inscribed
parallel to its dimension line so as to be read from the bottom edge or from the right side of the drawing
avoiding the hatched area shown.
Dimensions and notes shown with leaders shall be inscribed by the unidirectional method (see Figure
8.12(a)).
NOTE: Drawings and sketches for use in publications such as handbooks should be dimensioned by the unidirectional method.
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(b) Where there are several parallel dimension lines, the dimensions should be staggered for clarity as in
Figure 8.13.
(c) Overall dimensions shall be placed outside the intermediate dimensions as in Figure 8.14.
(d) Various methods of dimensioning narrow spaces are shown in Figure 8.12.
(e) The free or floating end of a dimension line defining a feature not completely shown on a drawing shall
be terminated by a double arrowhead (see example in Figure 8.22).
8.2.5.2 Tabular presentation of dimensions Where there are a number of features on a single drawing
defined by coordinates from X and Y datums, the dimensions of each feature may be given in tabular form
(see Figure 8.15).
Where one drawing is used to specify the dimensional requirements of a number of parts with similar
configurations, the dimensions may be given in tabular form (see Figure 8.16).
FIGURE 8.12 PLACING OF DIMENSIONS IN RELATION TO DIMENSION LINES
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FIGURE 8.14 OVERALL DIMENSIONS PLACED OUTSIDE INTERMEDIATE DIMENSIONS
8.2.5.3 Not-to-scale dimensions Where it is necessary or desirable to indicate that a particular dimension is
not to scale, the dimension shall be underlined with a full thick line, i.e. Type A (see dimension ∅ 49 in
Figure 8.14).
Dimensions over breaks, dimensions locating inconveniently placed centres and associated radii, and
dimensions which from the context of the drawing or by method of inscription may not be to scale shall not
be underlined.
8.2.5.4 Terminology — Auxiliary dimension An auxiliary dimension is a dimension given solely for information
or reference, but which is not necessary for function or assembly.
8.2.5.5 Auxiliary dimensions — General Where the overall dimension is shown, one of the intermediate
dimensions is redundant, and shall not be dimensioned (see Figure 8.14). Exceptions may be made where
such dimensions would provide useful information, in which case they should be given as ‘auxiliary’
dimensions. Where all the intermediate dimensions are shown, the overall dimension should generally be given
as an auxiliary dimension. (See Figure 8.17.)
Auxiliary dimensions shall be enclosed in parentheses, and shall not be toleranced (see Figures 8.17
and 8.18).
Auxiliary dimensions relating to position shall be based on the dimensions which define the true theoretical
positions of the features concerned. Where they relate to size, they shall normally be based on the mean sizes
of the features concerned. In other cases, the basis of calculation shall be clearly stated on the drawing.
Auxiliary dimensions shall not govern acceptance or rejection of the product.
An auxiliary dimension is sometimes called a reference dimension.
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FIGURE 8.15 TABULAR PRESENTATION OF DIMENSIONS OF A COMPONENT
8.2.6 Methods of dimensioning common features Many of the methods of dimensioning features
described in this Clause are equally applicable to dimensioning of features other than those shown.
8.2.6.1 Diameters Criteria for presentation of diameters are as follows:
(a) Symbol A dimension indicating the diameter of a circle, cylinder, or spherical surface shall be preceded
by the symbol ∅, separated by a space (see Figure 8.19).
(b) Arrangement Dimensions of diameter shall be placed on the most appropriate view to ensure clarity, as
for instance on a longitudinal view in preference to an end view consisting of a number of concentric
circles (see Figure 8.20).
(c) Method of dimensioning Circles representing circular features in end view shall be dimensioned by one
of the methods shown in Figure 8.19.
The diameter of circular features in longitudinal view shall be dimensioned by one of the methods shown
in Figures 8.20, 8.21, and 8.23.
(d) Restricted space Where space is restricted, one of the methods shown in Figure 8.22 may be used.
(e) Spherical surfaces The diameter of a spherical surface shall be dimensioned using the symbol S∅ (see
Figure 8.23).
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PART
NO
1
2
3
4
5
6
millimetres
A
B
C
D
E
10
10
10
10
12
12
20
20
20
20
25
25
30
35
30
35
40
50
15
15
12
12
20
20
42
47
40
45
55
65
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FIGURE 8.16 TABULAR PRESENTATION OF DIMENSIONS OF SIMILAR COMPONENTS
FIGURE 8.17 OVERALL LENGTH ADDED AS AN AUXILIARY DIMENSION
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FIGURE 8.19 PLACEMENT OF DIAMETER DIMENSIONS IN END VIEW
8.2.6.2 Radii Criteria for the presentation of radii are as follows:
(a) Symbol A dimension indicating the radius of part of a circle, cylinder or spherical surface shall be
preceded by the symbol R, separated by a small space.
(b) Arrangement Radii shall be dimensioned by a dimension line which passes through, or is in line with, the
centre of the arc. The dimension line shall have one arrowhead only, that touching the arc. Radii of arcs
which need not have their centres located shall be dimensioned by one of the methods shown in
Figure 8.24.
(c) Locating inconveniently placed centres Where the centre of an arc cannot conveniently be shown in its
correct position, and yet needs to be located, one of the methods shown in Figure 8.25 shall be used. The
portion of the dimension line which touches the arc shall be normal to the arc.
(d) Radius of a spherical surface The radius of a spherical surface shall be dimensioned using the symbol
SR. Examples are shown in Figure 8.26.
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8.2.6.3 Squares A dimension indicating the size of a square should be preceded by the symbol
by a single space, as shown in Figure 8.27.
, separated
FIGURE 8.27 SQUARE SECTION
8.2.6.4 Holes Criteria for the presentation of holes are as follows:
(a) Form or shape Form or shape should be defined by an appropriate symbol, e.g. ∅ or
.
NOTE: The word ‘hole’ or ‘holes’ may be used for clarity.
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(b) Sizes The depth of a hole refers to the depth of the full form hole. Holes with unspecified depths shall be
construed as through holes (see Figure 8.28). The depth of a hole may be preceded by the depth
symbol
.
FIGURE 8.28 HOLES
(c) Location The location of holes may be defined by specifying the diameter of pitch circles as shown in
Figure 8.29 or by specifying the rectangular coordinates or centre distances as shown in Figure 8.30.
Holes which are drawn with a common axis as shown in Figure 8.28(d) imply a requirement of
concentricity (see Clause 8.10.4). Holes which are drawn with a common centre-line as shown in
Figure 8.30(a) imply a requirement of symmetry (see Clause 8.10.5).
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FIGURE 8.29 POSITIONING OF HOLES BY ANGULAR DIMENSIONING ON A PITCH CIRCLE
8.2.6.5 Equal dimensions When a dimension is divided into several parts the preferred method is shown in
Figure 8.31(a). The word ‘equal’ or symbol ‘=’ shall not be used to indicate those dimensions which are
nominally equal (see Figure 8.31(b)).
8.2.6.6 Positioning of curved surfaces Circumferential dimensioning of the spacing of features on a curved
surface shall be indicated by a curved dimension line as shown in Figure 8.32 with the arc symbol above the
dimension. The curved dimension line shall be drawn relative to the curved surface as in Figure 8.32(a). It may
be desirable in certain cases to indicate the surface on which the dimension is to be taken by dots as shown
in Figure 8.32.
Chordal dimensioning of the spacing of features on a curved surface shall be indicated as shown in
Figure 8.32(c).
8.2.6.7 Chamfers Chamfers shall be dimensioned by one of the methods shown in Figure 8.33. However,
chamfers of 45° should be dimensioned by one of the methods shown in Figure 8.33(b). Small 45° chamfers
may be dimensioned as shown in Figure 8.33(c).
8.2.6.8 Countersinks, counterbores, spotfaces and depth Countersinks, counterbores, spotfaces, and depth
shall be dimensioned in accordance with the examples given in Figure 8.34.
8.2.6.9 Screw threads Criteria for the presentation of screw threads are as follows:
(a) Designation Screw threads shall be specified by using the designation shown in the appropriate Standard,
e.g.
M6 x 1-6g
When specifying special screw threads, the limits of which need to be shown, the dimensions for the
major, pitch, and minor diameters shall be given as in Figure 8.35.
(b) Undercuts Undercuts, where required, should be dimensioned on the drawing in accordance with
AS B199.
(c) Length of thread The length of full thread or the distance to the end of full thread shall be specified using
one of the methods shown in Figures 8.36 to 8.39.
Where it is necessary to limit the length of full threads and runouts, the method shown in Figures 8.38
and 8.39(c) shall be used.
NOTES:
1 The end of a full thread is the point at which the thread profile ceases to be fully formed.
2 Methods of indicating incomplete threads are shown in Figures 8.36, 8.37, 8.38, and 8.39(c) and (d). Two methods are shown,
Type B lines at 30° to the axis in all but Figures 8.39(c) in which the extent of the incomplete threads is shown by a note.
(d) Threaded holes Threaded holes shall be dimensioned by one of the methods shown in Figure 8.39. Holes
with unspecified depths shall be construed as threaded right through. (See Figure 8.39(b).)
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FIGURE 8.30 POSITIONING OF HOLES BY COORDINATES
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FIGURE 8.32 CURVED SURFACES
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FIGURE 8.33 CHAMFERS
8.2.6.10 Tapers Tapers should be dimensioned by either of the following methods:
(a) By indicating the design taper or angle and one diameter or width positioned relative to some datum
surface (see Figure 8.40(a)).
(b) By specifying two diameters or widths positioned relative to a single datum surface (see Figure 8.40(b)).
The taper shall be expressed as a ratio, e.g.
0.2:1 1:10 3:100
NOTES:
1 Taper is the change in diameter or width per unit axial length.
2 There is also a further method of dimensioning tapers known as the three-toleranced dimension method, which is not recommended.
For further information, see Clause 8.3.13.5.
8.2.6.11 Profiles and curved surfaces A curved line composed of circular arcs should be dimensioned by radii
as in Figure 8.41. Coordinates, as in Figure 8.42, should be used only if the preferred method is impracticable.
Where the coordinate method is used, the coordinates shall be close enough to ensure that the design
requirement is satisfied. The coordinates may be rectangular or polar, and, where convenient, may be given
in tabular form. When dimensioning cam profiles, it is often convenient to give the dimensions in association
with a replica of the follower (see Figure 8.43).
8.2.6.12 Taper and slope symbols Symbols used for specifying taper and slope for conical and flat tapers
are shown in Figures 8.16 and 8.44.
These symbols are always shown to conform to the ISO method.
8.2.7 Notes on drawings Notes may be classified as general or local as follows:
(a) General notes General notes may be used with advantage to specify requirements which would otherwise
need to be repeated many times on a particular drawing. It is recommended that such notes be grouped
together. A typical example is—
CASTING RADII ARE 5 mm UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED
(b) Local notes Local notes refer to local requirements and should be placed near the point to which they
refer. Figure 8.8 shows a typical example of a local note.
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FIGURE 8.34 COUNTERSINKS, COUNTERBORES, SPOTFACES AND DEPTH
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FIGURE 8.39 DIMENSIONING OF THREADED HOLES
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8.3 GENERAL TOLERANCES AND RELATED PRINCIPLES
8.3.1 General This Clause establishes terminology and practices for expressing tolerances on linear and
angular dimensions, material condition modifiers and their application, and interpretations governing limits and
tolerances.
8.3.2 Terminology
8.3.2.1 Axis (of a feature) — the locus of the median points of all cross-sections of the considered feature.
8.3.2.2 Basic dimension A theoretically exact dimension defining a positional or angular relationship between
two or more features, or the form of a surface or profile. This dimension is shown in a box. (See Figure 8.45.)
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8.3.2.3 Datum—a perfect geometric element, such as a point or a line or a plane which alone or in
combination with others of its kind defines precisely the basic shape of the geometric reference frame for a
particular group of features. See Figures 8.46 and 8.47. Appendix H provides further information on datums.
NOTE: The plural in this context is ‘datums’ not ‘data’.
8.3.2.4 Datum dimension—a basic dimension establishing true position of a datum or a datum target. (See
Figure 8.48.)
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FIGURE 8.46 DATUM, DATUM FEATURE, AND SIMULATED DATUM—EXAMPLE 1
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FIGURE 8.48 DATUM DIMENSION (SHOWN IN BOX)
8.3.2.5 Datum feature—a real feature of an item (such as a surface, a hole) which is used to establish the
location of a datum. (See Figures 8.46 and 8.47.)
NOTE: Datum features are subject to manufacturing errors and variations and should be assigned tolerances appropriate to their
design functions.
8.3.2.6 Datum, simulated—a feature or features of equipment such as a surface plate, Australian height
datum, construction datum or survey bench mark or from which the corresponding datum point, line or plane
is derived. (See Figures 8.46 and 8.47.)
8.3.2.7 Datum target—a specific point, line or area on the item used to establish a datum.
8.3.2.8 Feature—an individual characteristic such as a flat surface, a cylindrical surface, two parallel surfaces,
shoulder, screw thread, slot, profile, window, culvert, building, property boundary, road, river or railway.
8.3.2.9 Group (of features)—two or more features which are functionally related.
8.3.2.10 Size—term denoting magnitude of any kind.
8.3.2.11 Size, actual—the size determined from a number of local sizes of a dimension of an individual
feature.
8.3.2.12 Size, least material—
(a) For an external feature—the minimum limit of size specified on the drawing.
(b) For an internal feature—the maximum limit of size specified on the drawing.
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8.3.2.13 Size, limits of—the maximum and minimum sizes permitted for a dimension (see Figure 8.50,
Method A).
NOTE: The difference between the limits of size is equal to the tolerance.
8.3.2.14 Size, local—any individual measurement of the dimension of a feature. (See Figure 8.49.)
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FIGURE 8.49 LOCAL SIZE
8.3.2.15 Size, mating
(a) For an external feature—the dimension of the smallest similar perfect feature which can be circumscribed
about the feature so that it just contacts the surface at the highest points.
(b) For an internal feature—the dimension of the largest similar perfect feature which can be inscribed within
the feature so that it just contacts the surface at the highest points.
NOTE: Mating size only refers to spherical, cylindrical, and plane parallel features. See Figure 8.85.
8.3.2.16 Size, maximum material—
(a) For an external feature—the maximum limit of size specified on the drawing (see Figure 8.85).
(b) For an internal feature—the minimum limit of size specified on the drawing.
8.3.2.17 Size, nominal—the size by which an item is designated as a matter of convenience.
Examples: M20 screw thread; 75 mm × 50 mm timber wall plates.
8.3.2.18 Tolerance—see Clause 8.1.1.2.
8.3.2.19 Tolerance, bilateral—a tolerance in which variation is permitted only in both directions from the
specified dimension. (See Figure 8.53, Method C.)
8.3.2.20 Tolerance, unilateral—a tolerance in which variation is permitted only in one direction from the
specified dimension. (See Figure 8.53, Method B.)
8.3.2.21 Tolerance zone—a zone within which the surface or median plane of axis of a feature is to be
contained.
8.3.3 Application of tolerancing symbols
8.3.3.1 General This Clause establishes the symbols for specifying geometric characteristics and other
dimensional requirements on engineering drawings.
8.3.3.2 Symbol construction Information related to the construction, form, and proportion of individual symbols
described herein is contained in Clause 4.3.
8.3.3.3 Feature symbols The use of feature symbols is as follows:
(a) Feature identification The feature identification symbol consisting of the rectangular frame symbol
containing the feature identification letter is used to identify a feature as shown in Figure 8.50(a).
(b) Datum feature identification Consists of the datum feature symbol located on the datum feature and joined
to a feature identification symbol containing the datum identification letter (see Figure 8.50(b)).
NOTE: The datum identification symbol may be unfilled.
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8.3.3.4 Datum identifying letters Letters of the alphabet (except I, O, E, P, R, S, M, and Q) are used as
datum identifying letters. Each datum feature requiring identification shall be assigned a different letter. Where
datum features requiring identification on a drawing are so numerous as to exhaust the single alpha series,
the double alpha series shall be used — AA through AZ, BA through BZ, etc.
It is recognized that feature letters should not be duplicated for other purposes on the drawing.
8.3.3.5 Datum target symbol The datum target symbol is a circle divided horizontally into two halves (see
Figure 8.51). The lower half contains a letter identifying the associated datum, followed by the target number
assigned sequentially starting with 1 for each datum. Where the datum target is an area, the area size may
be entered in the upper half of the symbol; otherwise, the upper half is left blank. A radial line attached to the
symbol is directed to a target point (indicated by an ‘X’), target line, or target area, as applicable (see
Figures 8.115, 8.116, and 8.117).
8.3.3.6 Basic dimension symbol The feature identification symbol
is used to identify a basic dimension as
shown in Figure 8.45.
8.3.3.7 Maximum material condition symbol The symbol
is used to indicate ‘at maximum material
condition’ as shown in Figure 8.84. The use of this symbol in local and general notes is prohibited.
8.3.3.8 Projected tolerance zone symbol The symbol
is used to indicate a projected tolerance zone as
shown in Figure 8.94. The use of this symbol in local and general notes is prohibited.
8.3.3.9 Dimension datum symbol The datum identification symbol is used to indicate the origin of a dimension
between two features (see Figure 8.52).
8.3.3.10 Envelope symbol The symbol
is used to indicate the application of the envelope principle as
shown in Figure 8.58. The use of this symbol in local and general notes is prohibited.
FIGURE 8.52 DIMENSION DATUM SYMBOL
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8.3.4 Principle of independency This fundamental tolerancing principle states that each requirement
specified on a drawing, such as a dimensional tolerance or a geometrical tolerance, shall be met
independently without reference to any other dimension, tolerance, or characteristic unless a particular
relationship is specified by a separate indication.
Following the ‘principle of independency’—
(a) a toleranced size on a feature controls the size of the feature but not its form; and
(b) a toleranced size between features controls the position between the features but not the form of either
feature.
8.3.5 Envelope principle When applied to a feature this principle requires that if that feature is finished
everywhere at its maximum material limit of size, it must be perfect in form over a specified length of that
feature, where appropriate. It is indicated by the symbol
following the dimension, as shown in Figure 8.58.
8.3.6 Maximum material principle The maximum material principle is a tolerancing principle which takes
into account, where indicated in appropriate cases, the mutual dependence of tolerances of size, location, and
orientation, and permits additional tolerance as the considered feature of a particular part departs from its
maximum material condition. It shall be specified on the drawing by the symbol
following the dimension
as shown in Figure 8.86(A).
8.3.7 Tolerance indication methods Tolerances may be expressed as follows:
(a) By specific limits of size or by limits of tolerance applied directly to the dimension.
(b) By referencing the appropriate national or other Standards or specifications.
(c) Indirectly by association with a geometry tolerance.
(d) In a general tolerance note referring to those dimensions and geometry requirements on a drawing for
which tolerances are not otherwise specified.
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NOTE: Tolerances are not applicable to basic dimensions shown in a rectangular frame on the drawings.
8.3.8 Direct tolerancing methods
8.3.8.1 Linear dimensions of features The tolerance of a linear dimension of a feature shall be expressed
by one of the methods shown in Figure 8.53. There is no difference in the interpretation of these methods of
expression, each of which does no more than define the maximum and minimum limits of size.
When using Method A (see Figure 8.53), the larger limit of size shall be placed above the lower limit of size,
and both dimensions shall be given to the same number of decimal places.
When using Method B and one of the limits of tolerance is zero, this limit shall be expressed by the figure ‘0’
and shall not be preceded by + or −.
When using Method B or Method C, the dimensions shall be expressed as in Clause 8.2.4.1.
NOTE: The following method is sometimes found convenient in design offices but is not recommended for use on drawings issued
for purposes of manufacture:
For shafts: 40 e7 or 40 e7
(-0.05 )
(-0.075)
For holes: 40 H8 or 40 H8
(-0.039)
(0
)
The relevant symbols and limits are taken from AS 1654.
Where it is necessary to specify only one limit of size of a dimension (e.g. the minimum length of full thread
or the maximum radius that is permitted in a corner), the abbreviation ‘MAX’ or ‘MIN’ shall be used, e.g.
20 MIN LENGTH FULL THREAD
R 0.5 MAX
8.3.8.2 Angular dimensions The tolerances for angular dimensions limit the general direction of lines and
surfaces. Such tolerances do not limit form deviations of the features forming the angles. The angle between
two surfaces shall be defined as the angle between planes representing each surface. The direction of each
plane is defined as the direction of the two parallel planes enclosing a surface, these two parallel planes being
the minimum distance apart. A similar definition applies to the angle between two lines. (See also Appendix F.)
Tolerancing of angular dimensions shall be expressed in a similar way to tolerancing of linear dimensions (see
Figure 8.54).
NOTE: Unless otherwise specified, where a general tolerance note on the drawing includes angular tolerances, it applies to features
shown at specified angles and at implied angles, e.g. 90°.
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FIGURE 8.53 TOLERANCING OF LINEAR DIMENSIONS
8.3.8.3 General tolerance notes Examples of tolerancing by general notes or reference to national and other
Standards are shown in Figure 8.55.
NOTE: For guidance on general tolerances of machined components, see AS 1100.201.
8.3.9 Interpretation of limits of dimensions
8.3.9.1 Dimensional limits For the purpose of determining conformance within limits, the measured value is
compared directly with the specified value and any deviation outside the specified limiting value signifies
non-conformance with the limits. Regardless of the number of decimal places, dimensional limits are to be
interpreted as if they were continued with zeros.
Examples:
12.2
12.0
12.01
12.00
means
means
2.20
12.00
12.010
12.000
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.0
.0
.0
.0
8.3.9.2 Plated or coated parts Where a part is to be plated or coated, the drawing or referenced document
shall specify whether the dimensions are before or after plating. Typical examples of notes are as follows:
(a) DIMENSIONAL LIMITS APPLY AFTER PLATING.
(b) DIMENSIONAL LIMITS APPLY BEFORE PLATING.
(For coatings other than plating, substitute the appropriate term.)
8.3.9.3 Interpretation of toleranced linear dimensions The interpretations of the toleranced linear dimensions
on the thin rectangular plate shown in Figure 8.56(a) are as follows:
(a) Length and width dimensions of the plate Following the interpretation of size dimensions (see
Clause 8.3.3) and using a two point method of measurement, the distance between the vertical sides of
the plate is to be in the range 495 to 505. The tolerance for this dimension is obtained from the general
tolerance note, i.e. 500 − 5 = 495 and 500 + 5 = 505. The distance between the horizontal sides of the
plate is determined likewise and it is to be in the range 249 to 250. These dimensions are illustrated in
Figure 8.56(b).
Note that these two dimensions imply no control of form (flatness) or orientation (squareness, parallelism)
of the sides of the plate. However, the general angle tolerance note requires the angles between the sides
of the plate to be within the range 89° to 91°. An example of the angle tolerance applied to two of the four
sides of the plate are shown in Figure 8.56(b).
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Tolerance except where
otherwise stated:
Linear
Angular
Flatness and
straightness
Runout
±0.2
±1°
±0.2
0.2
AS 1100.101—1992
Tolerances on dimensions
(except where otherwise
stated):
Up to 6
Over 6 up to 30
Over 30 up to 120
Over 120 up to 315
All angles
(a)
All screw threads to
AS 1275
±0.1
±0.2
±0.3
±0.5
±1°
(b)
Tolerance on casting thickness
±1%
(c)
(d)
FIGURE 8.55 EXAMPLES OF GENERAL TOLERANCE NOTES
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(b) Size and position of the hole in the plate Following the interpretation of size dimensions (see
Clause 8.3.3), the diameter of the hole is to be in the range 50 to 51 at all two point measurements around
the hole as shown in Figure 8.56(c).
There is no form specification on the shape of the hole, e.g. circularity, cylindricity.
The centre of the hole is given by the axis of the largest cylinder that will fit into the actual hole (see
Paragraph (c)). The position of the hole is the shortest distance between the left vertical side and lower
horizontal side of the plate and the axis of this cylinder. These dimensions are to be in the ranges 99
to 101 and 120 to 130 as shown in Figure 8.56(d).
Note that each of the above dimensions apply independently of all the other dimensions on the drawing.
(c) Positioning the axis of a datum and non-datum cylindrical feature The axis of a cylindrical feature is the
axis of the largest inscribed cylinder of a hole or the smallest circumscribed cylinder of a shaft. It is located
so that any possible movement of the cylinder in any direction is equalized. This is illustrated in
Figure 8.57 for a hole.
The interpretation applies to both datum and non-datum cylindrical features.
8.3.10 Envelope principle (see Clause 8.3.5) With the envelope condition the maximum material limit of
size (i.e. the high limit of size of an external feature or the low limits of size of an internal feature) defines a
limit of perfect form for the relevant surfaces. In other words, if a feature is everywhere on its maximum
material limits of size, it must be perfect in form. If the feature is not on its maximum material size, errors of
form are permitted, provided that no part of the finished surface crosses the maximum material limit of form
and the feature is in accordance with its specified limits of size.
This principle corresponds to the ideal control exercised by correctly designed full form gauges.
In the interest of using standardized gauge blanks, it shall be assumed that, unless otherwise stated, the
length over which the above interpretation applies (L) is given by the following equation:
L = 33.2(1.145 − e−0.04D )
where D is the maximum material size of the feature. For information on gauge blank sizes, see AS B129.
Figure 8.58 shows typical extreme errors of form which could be permitted without contravening the above
principle.
8.3.11 Tolerances between features
8.3.11.1 General Tolerances on dimensions that position features may be applied to those dimensions by
the position tolerancing method described in Section 8.10, or directly as follows.
8.3.11.2 Dimensional limits related to a datum In certain cases it is necessary to indicate that a dimension
between two features shall originate from one of these features and not the other. Such a case is illustrated
in Figure 8.59, where a part having two parallel surfaces of unequal length is to be mounted on the shorter
surface. In this example, the datum identification symbol described in Clause 8.3.3.10 signifies that the
dimension originates from the shorter surface and dimensional limits apply to the other surface. Without such
indication either surface can be selected as the datum.
8.3.11.3 Interpretation of toleranced centre distances Limits of centre distances may be expressed by one
of the methods shown in Clause 8.3.8.1.
The interpretation of toleranced centre distances in Figure 8.60(a) is shown in Figure 8.60(b). Each of the
three position requirements indicated in Figure 8.60(b) shall be satisfied independently. For example, the axis
of the left-hand hole must lie within the tolerance zone shown in Figure 8.60(b)(i) and independently within
that shown in Figure 8.60(b)(ii). Except where otherwise indicated, the limits of centre distances shall be
observed regardless of the actual finished sizes of the features concerned. Refer to Appendix H for location
of axis of holes.
8.3.11.4 Application In cases where toleranced centre distances are used and the functional requirement is
for—
(a) control of pitch of adjacent holes, then chain dimensions as shown in Figure 8.61(a) shall be used; or
(b) control of position of each hole relative to a datum surface, then progressive dimensions as shown in
Figure 8.61(b) shall be used.
Toleranced centre distances are suitable for defining the distance between two features, e.g. for the position
of a hole relative to a flat surface or the distance between a pair of holes, particularly where the magnitude
of the tolerance is different in two directions. Typical applications of toleranced centre distances are shown
in Figure 8.62.
NOTES:
1 It should be noted that toleranced centre distances are normally checked individually, i.e. from feature to feature. Therefore, where
there are more than two features which need to be related together in a group, the use of position tolerances should be considered
because they avoid accumulation of tolerances and enable the requirements to be specified more precisely. (See Appendix G.)
2 Where only arrowheads are used, as in Figure 8.61, there is no preferred datum for the dimension and it should be measured point
to point.
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FIGURE 8.56 INTERPRETATION OF LINEAR DIMENSIONS
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FIGURE 8.57 POSITIONING THE AXIS OF A CYLINDRICAL FEATURE
8.3.12 Angular surfaces—Tolerancing and interpretation
8.3.12.1 General An angular surface may be located by a combination of linear dimensions and an angle
or by linear dimensions alone. Each arrangement of dimensions and tolerances has the effect of specifying
a particular tolerance zone within which the surface must lie. The shape and extent of the zone thus specified
depends on the dimensioning method chosen, and on the way tolerances are arranged around the locating
dimensions.
8.3.12.2 Cumulative angular tolerancing If an angular surface is located by a combination of linear and
angular dimensions, both of which are toleranced as in Figure 8.63(a), each dimensional requirement shall
be satisfied separately. In this example —
(a) any point on the top surface must lie between 9.8 mm and 10.0 mm above the horizontal datum face as
in Figure 8.63(b)(i);
(b) the angular surface must intersect the horizontal datum face along a line, the points of which are between
27.8 mm and 28.0 mm from the right-hand datum face, as in Figure 8.63(b)(ii); and
(c) the angle (dihedral angle) between the angular surface and the horizontal face must lie between 109°30’
and 110° as in Figure 8.63(b)(iii).
8.3.12.3 Basic angular tolerancing The basic angle tolerance method is illustrated in Figures 8.64(a) and
8.65. No specific tolerance is placed on the angle which is indicated as basic. This means that the actual
variation permitted to the angle is defined by the tolerance on the
0
associated linear dimension, viz.28-0.2 (in Figure 8.64(a)). This toleranced dimension together with the angle
define a tolerance zone within parallel boundaries as shown in Figure 8.63(b) and no part of the actual surface
shall exceed these boundaries.
8.3.13 Tapers
NOTE: This Clause applies not only to cones but also to all tapered features.
8.3.13.1 Methods of specifying tapers The following methods of specifying the required accuracy of tapered
features are recommended:
(a) Basic taper (or basic angle) method — where the accuracy of taper is controlled solely by a tolerance of
size and where perfect form is required at MMC.
NOTE: The envelope principle is embodied in a basic taper specification. Hence the symbol
is not required.
(b) Toleranced taper (or angle) method — where the angle or taper is directly toleranced independently of the
tolerance of size.
(c) Fitting to gauge or mating part.
There is also one further method known as the ‘three toleranced dimensions method’. This is detailed in
Clause 8.3.13.5.
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AS 1100.101—1992
FIGURE 8.58 (in part) EXAMPLES OF EXTREME ERRORS OF FORM ALLOWED
BY DIMENSIONAL LIMITS
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FIGURE 8.58 (in part) EXAMPLES OF EXTREME ERRORS OF FORM ALLOWED
BY DIMENSIONAL LIMITS
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FIGURE 8.59 RELATING DIMENSIONAL LIMITS TO A DATUM
8.3.13.2 Basic taper (or basic angle) method The term ‘basic taper’ (or ‘basic angle’) means that the
tolerance specified for the size of the feature applies at all cross-sectional planes throughout its length and
so limits errors of size. Basic angle (or basic taper) is indicated as shown in Figure 8.65(a).
Figure 8.65(a) shows a tapered feature dimensioned by a basic angle and with its size specified by a
toleranced dimension at one end. The tolerance diagram in Figure 8.65(b) illustrates how the tolerance of 0.05
applies at all cross-sectional planes throughout the length of the tapered feature.
Figure 8.66(a) shows a tapered feature dimensioned by a basic taper and with its size specified by a
toleranced dimension at a plane located by a datum dimension. The tolerance diagram in Figure 8.66(b)
illustrates how the tolerance of 0.05 applies to all cross-sectional planes throughout the length of the tapered
feature.
Figure 8.67(a) illustrates the use of a basic taper in conjunction with a datum dimension which defines a
cross-sectional plane which must be located within specified limits in relation to the left end of the piece.
Figure 8.67(b) gives the tolerance diagram that results from the application of the 0.01 tolerance to the location
of all cross-sectional planes throughout the length of the tapered feature.
The tolerance diagrams Figure 8.66(b) and Figure 8.67(b) show that the nature of the control of size, form and
location is the same whenever a basic taper (or angle) is specified.
Where the method of dimensioning shown in Figure 8.66(a) or Figure 8.67(a) is used, either the diameter or
the distance must be a datum dimension. If both were directly toleranced, the tolerances would be cumulative
in their effect on the location of the tapered surface in relation to the end of the datum face.
NOTE: For simplicity, the interpretation in all figures shows the least material envelope symmetrically disposed with respect to the
maximum material envelope. In practice, this will not be far from the truth, although there is, in fact, no least material limit of perfect
form.
Any error of form may be present within the maximum material envelope, provided that the taper is everywhere within its least material
limits of size at all sections (see Figure 8.68).
8.3.13.3 Toleranced taper (or angle) method In the tolerance taper method, a tolerance is applied directly
to the taper (or the included angle) independently of the tolerance which is specified for the size of the feature
(see Figures 8.69 and 8.71). Therefore, the tolerance of size applies only at the plane at which the dimension
is shown on the drawing and NOT at every cross-sectional plane as is the case with the basic taper method.
This method is used where the allowable variation of taper (or angle) is very much more restrictive than the
allowable variation in size. The tolerance on taper shall be applied to the numerator of the ratio.
In this method, the tolerancing of size shall be expressed as either a tolerance on diameter (or width) at a
datum reference plane, which may be within or external to the component (see Figure 8.69(a)), or as a datum
diameter (or width) at a toleranced distance from some reference plane (see Figure 8.70(a)).
The criteria for acceptance is that each dimensional requirement is satisfied independently, i.e. when using
a toleranced diameter as shown in Figure 8.69(a), the diameter, ∅ X (or width) at the specified reference plane
shall be within the limits of size as shown in Figure 8.69(b)(ii) and the angle between the generator and the
axis shall be within the limits of size as shown in Figure 8.69(b)(i).
Using a toleranced length, instead of a toleranced diameter, a similar interpretation is shown in Figure 8.70(b).
An alternative method applying to steep internal tapers is shown in Figure 8.71.
NOTE: With this method it may be necessary in special cases to specify a control on circularity errors at all sections of the cones
(see Clause 8.11.4.4).
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FIGURE 8.60 INTERPRETATION OF TOLERANCED CENTRE DISTANCES WITH
DATUM SYMBOL
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FIGURE 8.62 DIMENSIONING POSITIONS BY TOLERANCED CENTRE DISTANCES
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FIGURE 8.63 CUMULATIVE ANGULAR TOLERANCING
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FIGURE 8.66 BASIC TAPER (OR BASIC ANGLE) METHOD USING A DATUM LENGTH
AND TOLERANCED WIDTH
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FIGURE 8.69 TOLERANCED TAPER METHOD — USING A DATUM LENGTH AND
TOLERANCED DIAMETER
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AS 1100.101—1992
FIGURE 8.71 TOLERANCED ANGLE METHOD — FOR STEEP INTERNAL TAPER
8.3.13.4 Fitting to gauge or mating part Where it is necessary to specify that a tapered surface must fit a
gauge, or another component, notes such as those shown in Figures 8.72 and 8.73 should be used.
Whenever this method of specification is used, instruction as to the method of inspection should be included
to ensure that the functional requirements are met.
8.3.13.5 Three toleranced dimensions method The method of dimensioning tapers shown in Figure 8.74 may
be adopted where the diameter at each end and the length are all toleranced.
NOTE: This method is not recommended for precision tapers since it introduces an accumulation of tolerances. It may be used for
castings, forgings, sheet metal work, and other non-functional tapers.
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FIGURE 8.74 DIMENSIONING TAPERS BY THREE TOLERANCED DIMENSIONS METHOD
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8.3.14 Radii with unlocated centres Radii with unlocated centres shall be toleranced by one of the methods
in Clause 8.3.8.1.
The interpretation of toleranced radii, where both upper and lower limits of size are given as in Figure 8.75(a),
is shown in Figure 8.75(b). Provided that the actual profile lies within the tolerance zone defined by the upper
and lower limits of size, the profile is acceptable.
Where only the low limit of size is given as in Figure 8.76(a), any profile is acceptable, provided that it does
not become smaller than the radius specified in Figure 8.76(b).
Where only the high limit of size is given as in Figure 8.76(a), any profile is acceptable, provided that it lies
within the zone represented by R0 and R5 as shown in Figure 8.77(b).
In any of the above cases, where it is essential that the radius represent a smooth transition from one point
to another, this shall be indicated by a note, such as ‘BLEND’ as shown in Figure 8.78(a). The interpretation
of this requirement is shown in Figure 8.78(b) where the actual profile must be contained within the zone
defined by the upper and lower limits of size.
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NOTE: If the form of the radius is critical, this should be specified by additional notes.
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FIGURE 8.79 TOLERANCE ZONES AND POINTS OF DISCONTINUITY
8.3.15 Profile and curved surfaces — tolerancing and interpretation The form of a profile shall be
toleranced by one of the following methods:
(a) Where the profile is specified by coordinates, cartesian or polar, including over a replica of a follower, basic
dimensions can be arranged to the abscissae or angle and toleranced dimensions to the ordinates or radii
respectively (see Figures 8.80 to 8.83).
(b) Assigning geometry tolerancing as specified in Clause 8.4.
If the controlled profile includes a sharp corner, the corner represents a discontinuity of the tolerance boundary
and the boundary is considered to extend to the intersection of the boundary lines as shown in Figure 8.79.
At such corners the tolerance zone will permit considerable rounding of the corner. If this is undesirable, the
drawing shall indicate the design requirement by specifying the maximum or minimum acceptable radius (or
both).
NOTE: One important difference between the two methods is that the geometry tolerancing method provides a uniform material
tolerance normal to the profile, whereas in the toleranced ordinate method, the material tolerance normal to the surface will vary with
the shape of the profile.
8.4 DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING AND RELATED PRINCIPLES — GEOMETRY
8.4.1 General This Clause establishes the terminology and practices for expressing tolerances of form,
orientation, and location in conjunction with the relevant dimensions of particular features. Such tolerances are
termed geometry tolerances.
8.4.2 Terminology
8.4.2.1 Datum group — a group of datums of an item which serves as a reference for the location of other
features on the item. (See Figure 8.84.)
8.4.2.2 Datum system — a system which consists of mating datum groups.
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FIGURE 8.81 TOLERANCED ORDINATES OVER FOLLOWER
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FIGURE 8.83 TOLERANCED RADII OVER FOLLOWER
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FIGURE 8.84 DATUM GROUP ESTABLISHED BY TWO FEATURES, A AND B
8.4.2.3 Geometric reference frame — a diagrammatic representation of the perfect geometric relationship
between perfect features, including datums, in a group.
See Figure 8.86(b) which shows the geometric reference frame for group 2 of the component of
Figure 8.86(a).
8.4.2.4 Least material condition — the state of the considered feature wherein it is everywhere at the least
material size specified on the drawing.
8.4.2.5 Maximum material condition — the state of the considered feature wherein it is everywhere at the
maximum material size specified on the drawing. (See Figure 8.85.)
8.4.2.6 Virtual condition
(a) Of a feature — the limiting functional boundary permitted by the drawing data, which is generated by the
collective effect of the maximum material size of the considered feature and the specified geometry
tolerances.
(b) Of a group of features — the assembly of the virtual condition of all the features comprising the group in
perfect geometric relationship as defined by the drawing data.
8.4.2.7 Virtual size — the dimension defining the virtual condition of a feature. (See Figure 8.85.)
8.4.2.8 Tolerance diagram — the geometric reference frame with the tolerance zones superimposed upon
it. (See Figure 8.86(c).)
8.4.2.9 Tolerance, form — the total amount of variation permitted for the form of a feature.
8.4.2.10 Tolerance, geometry — the maximum permissible overall variations of form, location and orientation
of a feature.
8.4.2.11 Tolerance, position — the total amount of variation permitted for the location of a feature in the group
of which it is a member.
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FIGURE 8.85 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIOUS SIZES AND CONDITIONS
8.4.3 Symbols
8.4.3.1 General This Clause establishes the symbols for specifying geometry tolerances on engineering
drawings.
8.4.3.2 Symbol construction Information related to the construction, form, and proportions of individual
symbols described herein is contained in Clause 4.3.
8.4.3.3 Geometric characteristic symbols The symbols denoting geometric characteristics are shown in
Table 8.2.
TABLE 8.2
SYMBOLS FOR GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS
Application
For individual features
Type of tolerance
Form
Characteristic
Straightness
Flatness
Circularity (roundness)
Cylindricity
For individual or related
features
Profile
Profile of a line
Profile of a surface
For related features
Orientation
Angularity
Perpendicularity
Perallelism
Location
Position including
concentricity and symmetry
Runout
Circular runout
Total runout
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FIGURE 8.86 LOCATION OF FEATURE PATTERNS
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8.4.4 Specification of geometry tolerances
8.4.4.1 Methods of specification Geometry tolerances shall be specified on drawings using either the
tolerance frame or tabular method.
8.4.4.2 Geometry tolerance frame Geometric characteristic symbols, the tolerance value, and datum
reference letters, where applicable, are combined using the tolerance frame method (see Figure 8.87) or the
tabular method (see Figure 8.88) to express a geometric tolerance.
Tolerance frame method is preferred when there are no more than three simple groups.
Tabular method is preferred when the group or groups are complex or number three or more.
Examples of display using the tabular presentation and the tolerance frame method are shown in Appendix B.
8.4.4.3 Tolerance frame method An example of a tolerance frame is shown in Figure 8.87. Each tolerance
frame shall be located so that it can be read from the bottom of the drawing and the details listed in
Clauses 8.4.4.3 to 8.4.4.5 should be given. (See also Appendix B.)
Where it is necessary to identify groups in a drawing, they shall be identified by inserting a number in the
left-hand compartment as shown in Figure 8.87. Where it is not necessary to identify a feature with a group,
the left-hand compartment shall be omitted. (See example in Figure 8.97.)
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FIGURE 8.87 TOLERANCE FRAME DISPLAY
The feature controlled by the tolerance frame shall be indicated by one of the following methods:
(a) A leader connecting it to either end of the tolerance frame. The leader shall terminate in an arrowhead at
the toleranced feature. (See Figure 8.89.)
(b) (i) The feature identification symbol and letter shall be placed adjacent to the tolerance frame controlling
the feature as in Figure 8.108 or shown separate from the tolerance frame as in Figure 8.109.
(ii) A leader connecting it to the feature identification symbol in which is inscribed an appropriate
identification letter. The leader shall terminate in an arrowhead at the toleranced feature. (See
Figure 8.90).
The arrowhead shall be positioned as follows:
(A) On the outline of the feature or on an extension of the outline (but not at a dimension line) when
the tolerance refers to the line itself or to the surface represented by the line (see
Figure 8.89(a)).
(B) On a projection line at a dimension line when the tolerance refers only to the axis or median
plane of the feature so dimensioned (see Figures 8.89(b) and (c)).
(C) On the axis or median plane when the tolerance refers to the common axis or median plane of
all features on the axis or median plane (see Figures 8.89(d), (e), and (f)).
NOTE: Figure 8.89(b) and (d) show alternative methods of expressing the same requirement on a single feature part; however, for
multiple feature parts there can be distinction as shown in Item C of Table 8.7.
8.4.4.4 Symbol Symbols indicating the characteristics to be toleranced shall conform to those in Figure 4.14
and shall be inscribed in the appropriate compartment of the tolerance frame.
8.4.4.5 Tolerance value The required tolerance value shall be inserted in the appropriate compartment of
the frame subject to the following condition:
(a) If the tolerance zone is neither circular nor cylindrical, its width lies in the direction of the arrow terminating
the leaders (see Table 8.14, Parallelism 1(a) and (b)).
(b) If the tolerance zone is cylindrical, the tolerance value shall be preceded by the symbol ∅
(c) If the tolerance is applied to a specified length, lying anywhere, the value of this length shall be added after
the tolerance value, and separated from it by an oblique stroke (see Figure 8.91).
(d) For a surface, the indication in Figure 8.91 is used for a surface. This means that the tolerance applies
to all lines of the specified length in any position and any direction.
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FIGURE 8.89 INDICATION OF FEATURE CONTROLLED
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(e) If, to the tolerance of the whole feature, another tolerance of the same type restricted to a specified length
is added, the latter tolerance shall be indicated below the former as shown in Figure 8.92.
(f) If the tolerance is applied only to a specified portion within the feature, this portion shall be shown by a
Type J line and dimensioned as shown in Figure 8.93.
FIGURE 8.93 TOLERANCE OVER A SPECIFIED PORTION
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(g) If the tolerance is applied to a specified length projected beyond the feature, this length shall be shown
by a Type J line and dimensioned, as illustrated in Figure 8.94 (see also Clause 8.10.10).
FIGURE 8.94 PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE INDICATION
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(h) If the maximum material modifier
is to be applied, then it shall be positioned in the frame as follows:
(i) After the tolerance value if the principle of maximum material condition is to be applied to the
toleranced feature (see Figure 8.95(a)).
(ii) After the letter identifying the datum if the principle of maximum material condition is to be applied
to the datum (see Figure 8.95(b)).
(iii) After both the tolerance value and the letter identifying the datum if the principle of maximum material
condition is to be applied both to the toleranced feature and to the datum (see Figure 8.95(c)).
Unless indicated by the symbol
, a geometry tolerance applies regardless of feature size.
FIGURE 8.95 EXAMPLES OF THE USE OF
(i) Information relating to the number, dimension, and tolerance of a feature should be placed above its
tolerance frame as in Figure 8.96.
Notes relating to the feature should be inscribed below the tolerance frame.
FIGURE 8.96 INFORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH A TOLERANCE FRAME
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(j) If, to the tolerance of the whole feature at MMC, another tolerance of the same type restricts the
permissible error at other than MMC, the latter tolerance shall be indicated below the former as shown in
Figure 8.97.
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FIGURE 8.97 RESTRICTED TOLERANCE AT OTHER THAN MMC
8.4.4.6 Datum feature The datum identification letter shall be inserted in the last compartment of the
tolerance frame (see Figure 8.100(d)).
Where a single datum is established by two features, a hyphen shall be placed between the letter designating
the features (see Figure 8.109). Where a datum system is established by —
(a) two features only, the two identifying letters of the datum features shall be inserted in the following order:
primary, secondary (see Figure 8.110); and
(b) a group of features, the group number shall be used to identify the datum (see Figure 8.114).
Where no datum is applicable as shown in Figure 8.98, or where a datum is the geometric reference frame
for the group and is not related to any other feature, the right-hand compartment shall be omitted. See
Figure 8.99. Alternatively, the datum feature may be indicated as shown in Figure 8.100.
FIGURE 8.98 DATUM NOT APPLICABLE
8.4.5 Tabular method
8.4.5.1 General Examples of tabular presentations are shown in Figure 8.88. The table should be located
in a prominent position on the drawing and the details listed in this Clause should be given.
8.4.5.2 Group number Where it is necessary to identify groups in a drawing, they shall be identified by
inserting a number in the first column of the table as shown in Figure 8.88. When it is not necessary to identify
a feature with a group, a complete diagonal line shall be inserted in the first column as shown in Figure 8.101.
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FIGURE 8.100 INDICATION OF DATUMS
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8.4.5.3 Feature controlled The feature controlled by the tolerance shall be indicated by —
(a) the method detailed in Clause 8.4.4.3(b)(i); and
(b) the feature identification letter inscribed on the appropriate line in the second column of the table (see
Figure 8.88).
8.4.5.4 Number of features The number of features corresponding to each identifying letter shall be entered
in the appropriate column of the table.
8.4.5.5 Symbol Symbols indicating the characteristics to be toleranced shall conform to those in Figure 4.14,
and shall be inscribed in the appropriate column of the table.
8.4.5.6 Tolerance value The required tolerance value shall be inserted in the appropriate column of the table
with the provisions detailed in Clause 8.4.4.4.
Tolerances over a specified length should be indicated as shown in Figure 8.101.
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FIGURE 8.101 TOLERANCE OVER A SPECIFIED LENGTH — TABULAR METHOD
8.4.5.7 Datum features The datum feature identification letter shall be inserted in the last column of the table
(see Figure 8.88).
The significance of the position of the datum symbol is the same as for the arrowhead detailed in
Clause 8.4.4.2 and Figure 8.89.
Where a single datum is established by two features, a hyphen shall be placed between the letters designating
the features (see Figure 8.88, Group 4).
Where a datum system is established by two features only, the two identifying letters of the datum features
are inserted in the following order: primary, secondary (see Figure 8.88, Group 5).
Where a datum system is established by a group of features, the group number shall be used to identify the
datum (see Figure 8.88, Group 2).
Where no datum is applicable as illustrated in Figure 8.98 or where a datum is the geometric reference frame
for the group and is not related to any other feature as illustrated in Figure 8.102, a completed diagonal line
shall be inserted in the appropriate column of the table.
8.4.5.8 Symbol
The symbol shall be indicated as detailed in Clause 8.3.6.
Where the principle of maximum material condition applies to all features or to all datums or to all features and
datums, the modifier may be placed in the appropriate headings of the table and omitted from the body of the
table (see Figure 8.103).
FIGURE 8.102 GEOMETRIC REFERENCE FRAME AS DATUM
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FIGURE 8.103 MODIFIER APPLICABLE TO ALL FEATURES — TABULAR DISPLAY
8.5 INTERPRETATION OF MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION Where a geometric tolerance is applied on
an MMC basis, the specified tolerance is dependent on the size of the considered feature. The tolerance is
limited to the specified value if the feature is produced at its MMC limit of size. Where the actual size of the
feature has departed from MMC, an increase in the tolerance is allowed equal to the amount of such
departure. The total permissible variation in the specific geometric characteristic is maximum when the feature
is at least material condition. (See Figure 8.122 and Appendix E for application.)
NOTES:
1 Zero geometry tolerances can only be associated with the maximum material condition as to do otherwise would be to demand
perfection.
2 Where a geometric tolerance is applied without reference to LMC or MMC the specified tolerance is independent of the size of the
considered feature. The tolerance is limited to the specified value regardless of the actual size of the feature.
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3 Since the maximum material principle involves a relationship between size and geometry form or position, it can only be applied to
those features where this relationship is possible. In effect this limits its application to features incorporating an axis or median plane.
See Table 8.3.
8.6 DATUM SPECIFICATION AND INTERPRETATION
8.6.1 General This Clause deals with the constituent parts of the geometric reference frame, which is used
to establish the true positions of all features which are to be regarded as members of the one group, including
all datum and non-datum features. It contains the criteria for selecting, designating, and using features of a
part as grouped datum features in the geometrical reference frame, and establishes the origins of the
dimensional relationships between non-datum and datum features. The group of datum features alone
establishes a datum reference frame within the geometric reference frame.
8.6.2 The function, designation, and interpretation of datums Datums are used for the following purposes:
(a) To align certain features on two components in accurate geometric relation when assembled.
(b) To locate mating components accurately to facilitate assembly.
(c) To act as a convenient base from which to dimension features.
Component features are referred to as datum features, such as datum holes, datum pins, datum surfaces,
whereas the geometric counterparts with which they are associated are called datum axes, datum planes,
datum points, or datum lines.
Since measurements cannot be made from the geometric counterparts, the datum planes and axes of the
geometric reference frame are represented in practice by the precise surfaces and axes of the manufacturing
and inspection equipment. Machine tables and surface plates are not true planes, nor do the spindles of
dividing heads rotate about precisely true axes, but they are usually of such high accuracy that they simulate
datum planes and axes adequately. Measurements are therefore made in practice from surfaces and axes in
the processing or measuring equipment. Such measurements do not take into account any variations of the
datum features from their true positions in the geometric reference frame.
8.6.3 Datum reference frame Sufficient datum features are first chosen on the part from an analysis of
assembly and functional requirements, and these chosen features are then used to relate the part to the three
mutually perpendicular planes which make up the datum reference frame. This reference frame exists in theory
only and not on the part. Therefore it is necessary to establish a method for simulating the theoretical
reference frame from the actual features of the part. This simulation is accomplished by positioning the part
on appropriate datum features to relate the part adequately to the reference frame and to restrict motion of
the part in relation to it. (See Figures 8.104 and 8.105.)
These planes are simulated in a mutually perpendicular relationship to provide direction as well as the origin
for the positions of related non-datum features in the geometrical reference frame. Thus, when the part is
positioned on the datum reference frame (by physical contact between each datum feature and its counterpart
in the associated processing equipment), dimensions of non-datum features which are related to the datum
reference frame are thereby also mutually perpendicular. This theoretical reference frame constitutes the
three-plane dimensioning system used for datum referencing. (See Figure 8.106.)
In some cases, e.g. for a single group of features, one datum reference frame will suffice. However, where
several groups of features are present, a corresponding number of datum reference frames will be necessary
at specific locations on the part. In such cases, each feature control frame must contain the datum feature or
datum group references that are applicable.
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TABLE 8.3
APPLICATION OF MMC
Characteristic tolerance
The MMC concept may be applied. If indicated below, to the
feature being toleranced, or the datum feature (or both)
according to the design requirement
Straightness
Parallelism
Perpendicularity
Angularity
YES for the axis or median plane of a
feature, the size of which is specified by a
toleranced dimension, e.g. the axis of a hole
or a shat of the median plane of a slot
NO for a plane
surface or a line on
a surface
Position (includes
concentricity and symmetry
Flatness
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Circularity
Cylindricity
No for all features
Profile of a line
Profile of a surface
Run-out
Total run-out
8.6.4 Datum features
8.6.4.1 General Datum features are selected, singly or in groups, on the basis of function as explained in
Clause 8.6.1. Corresponding features are also selected on mating parts to establish datum systems for the
two parts. Datum features must be readily discernible on each part. Therefore, for symmetrical parts or parts
with identical features, physical identification of the datum features on the part may be necessary. A datum
feature should be accessible on the part and be of sufficient size to permit subsequent processing operations.
8.6.4.2 Temporary and permanent datum features Selected datum features of castings, forgings, or
weldments may be used temporarily for the establishment of machined surfaces which will serve subsequently
as permanent datum features. Such temporary datum features may or may not be subsequently removed by
machining. Permanent datum features should be surfaces or diameters not appreciably changed by
subsequent machining operations.
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8.6.4.3 Datum feature symbols Datum features are identified on the drawing by means of symbols. These
symbols relate to physical features and are not applied to centre-lines, centre planes, or axes.
8.6.4.4 Datum feature control Measurements made from a datum plane do not take into account any
variations of the datum surface from the datum plane. Consideration shall be given to the desired accuracy
of datum features relative to design requirements and the degree of control necessary for the non-datum
features related to them. In general, datum features will need to be controlled by specifying appropriate
geometry tolerances. Where control of the entire feature becomes impractical, use of datum targets may be
considered. (See Clause 8.6.6.)
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FIGURE 8.104 PART A LOCATED ON PART B BY THREE PLANE SURFACES
8.6.5 Examples of datums and datum groups Examples of datums and datum groups are as follows:
(a) Single datum established by one feature The simplest datum consists of one feature such as a hole, a
pin, or a surface. In Figure 8.107(a), the axis of the bore Z at MMC is the datum for the concentricity of
the external diameter Y. The geometric reference frame consists of a straight line corresponding to the
axes of both Z and Y which are coincident, and the MMC tolerance diagram which is the geometric
reference frame with the tolerance zones added, is shown in Figure 8.107(b).
In Figure 8.108(a), the surface X is datum for the position of the three holes W. The geometric reference
frame here consists of a datum plane, of width and length corresponding to surface X, and three lines
corresponding to the axes of the three holes W situated at their correct positions relative to each other and
to X. The MMC tolerance diagram is shown in Figure 8.108(b).
Where no flatness tolerance is specified for the datum surface, the tolerance zone for the plane
established by that surface is indicated in the tolerance diagram as being of zero width as shown in
Figure 8.108(b).
NOTES:
1
It should be realized that the actual surface will not be perfectly flat.
2
Screw threads, gears, and splines. Where a screw thread is specified as a datum reference, the datum axis is derived from
the pitch cylinder, unless otherwise specified. Where a gear or spline is specified as a datum reference, a specific feature of
the gear or spline must be designated to derive a datum axis. In general, these types of datum features should be avoided.
(b) Single datum established by two features Two features such as two coaxial holes or shafts may be used
to establish a single common datum axis as illustrated in Figure 8.109(a).
Where no concentricity tolerance is specified for the two datum features, the tolerance zone for their axes
are indicated in the tolerance diagram as being of zero diameter as shown in Figure 8.109(b).
NOTES:
1
It should be realized that the actual axes will not be perfectly coaxial.
2
This method is applicable when the lengths of the datum features are short relative to their distance apart.
(c) Datum group established by two features Two features such as a hole and a surface, or a spigot and a
surface may be selected to establish a datum group.
In Figure 8.110(a), the datum features surface A and recess B form a single datum group. The features
within the datum group are toleranced for geometric relation in a similar way to non-datum features. The
interpretation of Figure 8.110(a) is that surface A is the principal datum, and that the datum recess B has
a zero tolerance for squareness at MMC with respect to A.
The shaft C is required to be square to A and concentric with B within the tolerance zone of ∅ 0.04
when C and B are both at their maximum material condition as indicated in the geometry tolerance frame
in Figure 8.110(b).
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FIGURE 8.106 RESULTING DATUM REFERENCE FRAME FOR PART A
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FIGURE 8.107 SINGLE DATUM ESTABLISHED BY AN AXIS
In Figure 8.111(a), the flat surface K and the cylinder J form a datum group for the four holes L. The
geometric reference frame consists of a datum plane corresponding to datum surface K, a datum axis
square to the datum plane corresponding to the axis of the datum cylinder J, and the four axes of the
holes L in correct position relative to the datum plane and axis and to each other.
The four holes L have position tolerances of ∅ 0.25 at MMC in relation to the datum group. The tolerance
diagram for this group at MMC is indicated in Figure 8.111(b), where K is a primary datum with a flatness
tolerance of 0.05 width and J has a zero squareness tolerance at MMC with respect to K.
(d) Datum group established by three features Three features may be selected to form more complex datum
groups and they are then toleranced for geometry with respect to their true positions in a similar way to
the datum features of Figure 8.111(a). The true positions of the datum features are located relative to the
three mutually perpendicular planes or axes of the geometric reference frame. For example, the tolerance
diagram for Group 2 in Figure 8.112 which includes the datum Group 1, is the geometric reference frame
with the tolerance zones superimposed as shown in Figure 8.113.
The datum surface A in Figure 8.112 must satisfy the specified tolerance for flatness, and the datum
surfaces B and C must also satisfy the specified tolerances for squareness. Since all three are grouped,
their surfaces must simultaneously fall within the tolerance zones shown in Figure 8.113.
The axes of the two holes D must be contained within cylinders 0.25 mm diameter; with their axes in the
specified true positions in relation to the datum planes A, B and C (see Figure 8.113).
The three datum surfaces may be classified into primary, secondary, and tertiary, depending on their
relative functional importance, which in turn determines the relative magnitude of the tolerances. In
Figure 8.112 the datum group consists of the primary datum surface A, the secondary datum surface B
and the tertiary datum surface C. The primary datum surface is indicated in the extreme right-hand column
of the tables and the order of importance of the other two surfaces may be inferred from the magnitude
of the squareness tolerances. The corresponding three planes of the geometric reference frame are
indicated in Figure 8.113.
A further example is indicated in Figure 8.114.
8.6.6 Datum targets
8.6.6.1 General Datum targets are shown on the drawing by means of a datum target symbol (see
Clause 8.3.3.5). They indicate specific points, lines, or areas of contact on a part that are used in establishing
a datum reference frame. Because of inherent irregularities, the entire surface of some features cannot be
effectively used to establish a datum. Examples are non-planar or uneven surfaces produced by casting,
forging, or moulding; surfaces of weldments; and thin section surfaces subject to bowing, warping, or other
inherent or induced distortions.
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FIGURE 8.108 SINGLE DATUM ESTABLISHED BY A SURFACE
8.6.6.2 Datum target points A datum target point is indicated by the symbol X, which is dimensionally located
on a direct view of the surface. Where there is no direct view, the point location is dimensioned on two
adjacent views (see Figure 8.115).
8.6.6.3 Datum target lines A datum target line is indicated by the symbol X on an edge view of the surface,
a line type K on the direct view, or both (see Figure 8.116). Where the length of the datum target line must
be controlled, its length and location are dimensioned.
8.6.6.4 Datum target areas Where it is determined that an area or areas of flat contact is necessary to assure
establishment of the datum (that is, where spherical or pointed pins would be inadequate), a target area of
the desired shape is specified. The boundary of the datum target area is drawn with a line type K and the area
is cross-hatched as shown in Figure 8.117. Where it becomes impractical to delineate a circular target area,
the method of indication shown in Figure 8.117(b) may be used.
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FIGURE 8.109 SINGLE DATUM ESTABLISHED BY TWO FEATURES
8.6.6.5 Datum target dimensions The location and size, where applicable, of datum targets are defined with
appropriate dimensions as shown in Figure 8.118.
In this example, three mutually perpendicular planes are established by three target points on the primary
datum feature, two on the secondary, and one on the tertiary.
8.7 VIRTUAL CONDITION Depending upon its function, a feature is controlled by tolerances such as size,
form, orientation, and location with or without MMC or envelope modifiers as applicable. Consideration should
be given to the collective effect of these factors in determining the clearance between mating parts and in
establishing gauge feature sizes. From such consideration, a net resultant boundary is derived, termed virtual
condition (see Clause 8.4.2.6 and Appendix E).
8.8 SCREW THREADS — ORIENTATION AND LOCATION Each tolerance of orientation or location and
datum reference specified for a screw thread applies to the axis of the thread derived from the pitch cylinder.
Where an exception to this practice is necessary, the specific feature of the screw thread (such as MINOR
DIA or MAJOR DIA) shall be stated above the feature control frame.
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FIGURE 8.110 DATUM GROUP ESTABLISHED BY TWO FEATURES — EXAMPLE 1
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FIGURE 8.111 DATUM GROUP ESTABLISHED BY TWO FEATURES — EXAMPLE 2
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FIGURE 8.112 DATUM GROUP ESTABLISHED BY THREE SURFACES
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FIGURE 8.113 MMC TOLERANCE DIAGRAM FOR GROUP 2 OF FIGURE 8.112
8.9 GEARS AND SPLINES — ORIENTATION AND LOCATION Each tolerance of orientation or location
and datum reference specified for gears and splines shall designate the specific feature of the gear or spline
to which each applies (such as MAJOR DIA, PITCH DIA or MINOR DIA). This information is stated above the
feature control frame.
8.10 TOLERANCES OF POSITION
8.10.1 General Tolerances of position are used to control the following relationships:
(a) Centre distance between such features as holes, slots, bosses and tabs.
(b) Location of features (such as in Item (a)) as a group, from datum features such as plane and cylindrical
surfaces.
(c) Concentricity or symmetry of features.
(d) Features with centre distances equally disposed about a datum axis or plane.
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FIGURE 8.114 DATUM GROUP ESTABLISHED BY A SURFACE AND TWO HOLES
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FIGURE 8.116 DATUM TARGET LINE
8.10.2 Position tolerancing A position tolerance defines a zone within which the centre, axis, or median
plane of a feature of size is permitted to vary from true (theoretically exact) position. Basic dimensions
establish the true position from specified datum features and between interrelated features. A position
tolerance is indicated by the position symbol, a tolerance, and appropriate datum references placed in a
feature control frame.
8.10.3 Tolerances of position with true position dimension (see Table 8.4) A tolerance of position limits
the deviation of the position of a feature from its specified true position. The tolerance zone is symmetrically
located about the true position of a point, line or plane and may be the area within a circle or between two
parallel straight lines or the space within a cylinder or between two parallel planes. Where the tolerance zone
is the space within a cylinder or between two parallel planes, the axis of the cylinder or the two parallel planes
shall be normal to the plane of projection.
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8.10.4 Tolerances of position applied to concentricity (see Table 8.5) A concentricity tolerance is a
particular case of a position tolerance in which the position of a feature is specified by its concentricity
relationship.
8.10.5 Tolerances of position applied to symmetry (see Table 8.6) A symmetry tolerance is a particular
case of a position tolerance in which the position of the feature is specified by its symmetrical relationship.
8.10.6 Material condition basis Position tolerancing may be applied on an MMC or regardless of feature
size basis. The symbol for MMC follows the specified tolerance and applicable datum reference in the
tolerance frame when required (see Figure 8.123). Where no symbol for MMC is shown, the specified position
tolerance applies regardless of the size of the feature.
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TABLE 8.4
TOLERANCES OF POSITION
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TABLE 8.4 (continued)
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TABLE 8.5
TOLERANCES OF POSITION APPLIED TO CONCENTRICITY
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TABLE 8.6
TOLERANCES OF SYMMETRY
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8.10.7 MMC as related to position tolerancing The position tolerance and maximum material condition of
mating features are considered in relation to each other. MMC by itself means a feature of a finished product
contains the maximum amount of material permitted by the toleranced size dimension for that feature. Thus,
for holes, slots, and other internal features, maximum material is the condition where these features are at
their minimum allowable sizes. For shafts, as well as for bosses, lugs, tabs, and other external features,
maximum material is the condition where these are at their maximum allowable sizes.
A position tolerance applied at MMC may be explained in any of the following ways:
(a) In terms of the surface of a hole Although the specified size limits of the hole shall be maintained, no
element of the hole surface shall be inside a theoretical boundary located at true position (see
Figure 8.119).
(b) In terms of the axis of a hole Where a hole is at MMC (minimum diameter), its axis must fall within a
cylindrical tolerance zone whose axis is located at true position. The diameter of this zone is equal to the
position tolerance (see Figure 8.120(a) and (b)). This tolerance zone also defines the limits of variation
in the orientation of the axis of the hole in relation to the datum surface (see Figure 8.120(c)).
(c) It is only when the feature is at MMC that the specified position tolerance applies. Where the actual size
of the feature is larger than MMC, additional position tolerance results (see Figure 8.121). This increase
of position tolerance is equal to the difference between the specified maximum material limit of size (MMC)
and the actual size of the feature. The specified position tolerance for a feature may be exceeded where
the actual size is larger than MMC and still satisfy functional and interchangeability requirements.
FIGURE 8.119 BOUNDARY FOR SURFACE OF HOLE AT MMC
In many instances, a group of features (such as a group of mounting holes) shall be positioned relative to a
datum feature at MMC. See Figure 8.122. Where datum feature B is at MMC, its axis determines the position
of the pattern of features as a group. Where datum feature B departs from MMC, its axis may be displaced
relative to the position of the datum axis (datum B at MMC) in an amount equal to one-half the difference
between its actual and MMC sizes.
If a functional gauge is used to check the part, this shift of the axis of the datum feature is automatically
accommodated. However, if open set-up inspection methods are used to check the position of the feature
pattern relative to the actual axis of the actual datum feature, this shall be taken into account.
Since the actual datum feature must serve as the origin of measurements for the pattern of features, the
features are therefore viewed as if they, as a group, had been displaced relative to the axis of the (actual)
datum feature. This relative shift of the pattern of features, as a group, with respect to the axis of the datum
feature does not affect the positional tolerances of the features relative to one another within the pattern.
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FIGURE 8.120 HOLE AXES IN RELATION TO POSITION TOLERANCE ZONES
8.10.8 Zero position tolerancing at MMC In the preceding explanation, a position tolerance of some
magnitude is specified for the position of features. Zero position tolerances may be specified (see
Clause 8.11.10 for details).
8.10.9 Location of feature patterns
8.10.9.1 General Differing functional requirements for the location of feature patterns require different
methods of assigning tolerances and of displaying these clearly on drawings. The features within the pattern
are normally located by position tolerances as shown in Figures 8.123 to 8.128 (inclusive) and the pattern itself
is usually located with respect to chosen external features either by toleranced centre distances as shown in
Figures 8.123, 8.125, 8.127 and 8.128 or by position tolerances as shown in Figures 8.124 and 8.126.
The general principle adopted in the examples is that where toleranced centre distances are used to locate
a group of features, each centre distance requirement and each group positional requirement shall be satisfied
independently (see Clause 8.3.4).
The exclusive use of toleranced centre distances to locate all features in a pattern is not recommended due
to difficulties brought about by accumulation of tolerances.
The following notes apply to Figures 8.123, 8.125, 8.127, and 8.128:
(a) It should be noted that surfaces X and Y, although shown at right-angles, will not necessarily be precisely
so in practice.
(b) Where locations of features are directly controlled by toleranced centre distances, the surfaces X and Y
in the tolerance diagrams shall be of sufficient length to span those features.
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FIGURE 8.122 DATUM FEATURE AT MMC
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8.10.9.2 Examples
Example 1 Figure 8.123 is the most common and the simplest case in which the feature pattern is located by
toleranced centre distances.
There are three requirements which shall be satisfied independently. These are as follows:
(a) The actual positional relationship of the axes of the four grouped holes shall conform to the tolerance diagram
shown in Figure 8.123(b).
(b) The actual axes of the two lower holes shall conform to the tolerance diagram Figure 8.123(c).
(c) The actual axes of the two left-hand holes shall conform to the tolerance diagram Figure 8.123(d).
Orientation of the pattern of holes with respect to surfaces X and Y is controlled by the centre distance
tolerances.
Examples 2 and 3 The orientation of the pattern of holes with respect to the external surfaces is controlled in
both examples shown in Figures 8.124 and 8.125 but in different ways, i.e. by position tolerances in
Figure 8.124(a) and by centre distances tolerances in Figure 8.125(a).
In Figure 8.124(a) the group of five holes is located relative to the datum Group 2, consisting of the surfaces A,
B and C. Group 3 consist of five holes and the datum frame. The geometric reference frame for Group 3 is
shown in Figure 8.124(b) and the tolerance diagram in Figure 8.124(c).
The three requirements for location contained in Figure 8.125(a) shall be satisfied independently and these are
indicated in Figure 8.125(b) to (d).
Examples 4 and 5 In Figures 8.126 and 8.127 the orientation of the pattern of holes relative to the external
surfaces is not controlled by either method of dimensioning and tolerancing.
In Figure 8.126(a), Group 2 consists of the three external surfaces A, B and C; Group 2 includes hole D and
Group 2 as datum; and Group 4 contains the four holes ∅ 8 with the hole D and surface A as datums. The
tolerance diagrams (which include the geometric reference frames) for Groups 3 and 4 are shown in
Figure 8.126(b) and (c) respectively and these tolerance requirements shall be satisfied independently.
The three requirements for location of the feature pattern in Figure 8.127(a) shall be satisfied independently and
are illustrated in Figure 8.127(b) to (d).
Example 6 In Figure 8.128 the axes of the three holes on the vertical centre-line shall lie between two parallel
planes as shown in Figure 8.128(c). Likewise, the axes of the three holes on the horizontal centre-line shall lie
between two parallel planes as shown in Figure 8.128(d). All three requirements shown in Figure 8.128(b) to (d)
shall be complied with independently.
8.10.10 Projected tolerance zone (see Table 8.7) Normally tolerances for position apply over the whole length
of a feature. Where it is a functional requirement that the tolerance applies over some other length, not
necessarily the length of the feature, the projected tolerance zone concept should be used. This concept shall
be indicated on the drawing by the symbol
and depicted by a line Type J, parallel and adjacent to the axis
or median plane of the feature and the extent of the length over which the tolerance applies indicated by
dimensions to each extremity of that line as illustrated in Table 8.7.
The projected tolerance zone may be adjacent as in Items 1 and 2(a), remote as in Item 2(b), within and
projected as in Item 2(c), both sides as in Item 2(d), or in two directions as in Item 2(e).
8.10.11 Counterbored holes Where position tolerances are used to locate concentric features, such as
counterbored holes, the following practices apply:
(a) Where position tolerances are used to locate holes and counterbores relative to common datum features,
two tolerance frames are used. One tolerance frame is placed under the note specifying the hole
requirements (group 1) and the other under the note specifying counterbore requirements (datum being
group 1) (see Figure 8.129). Tolerance zones for hole and counterbore are located at true position relative
to the specified datums. The tolerance zones for holes and counterbores may be the same or different
diameters.
(b) Where position tolerances are used to locate holes and also control individual counterbore-to-hole
relationships relative to different datum features, two tolerance frames are used, as in Item (a) (see
Figure 8.129).
8.10.12 Non-circular features The basic principle of true position dimensioning and position tolerancing for
circular features, such as holes and bosses, apply also to non-circular features, such as open-end slots, tabs,
and elongated holes. For such features of size, a position tolerance is used to locate the centre plane established
by parallel surfaces of the feature. The tolerance value represents a distance between two parallel planes. The
diameter symbol is omitted from the feature control frame. Examples are shown in Figures 8.131 and 8.132.
8.10.13 Spherical features A positional tolerance may be used to control the location of a spherical feature
relative to other features of a part (see Figure 8.133). The symbol for spherical diameter precedes the size
dimension of the feature. Since the feature is spherical, its tolerance zone is likewise spherical, having a diameter
equal to the specified position tolerance.
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FIGURE 8.123 LOCATION OF FEATURE PATTERNS — EXAMPLE 1
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FIGURE 8.124 LOCATION OF FEATURE PATTERNS — EXAMPLE 2
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FIGURE 8.125 LOCATION OF FEATURE PATTERNS — EXAMPLE 3
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FIGURE 8.126 LOCATION OF FEATURE PATTERNS — EXAMPLE 4
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FIGURE 8.127 LOCATION OF FEATURE PATTERNS — EXAMPLE 5
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FIGURE 8.128 LOCATION OF FEATURE PATTERNS — EXAMPLE 6
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TABLE 8.7
PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE
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TABLE 8.7 (continued)
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FIGURE 8.129 DIFFERENT POSITION TOLERANCE FOR HOLES AND
COUNTERBORES, SAME DATUM REFERENCES
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FIGURE 8.130 POSITION TOLERANCE FOR COUNTERBORES, RELATIVE TO HOLES
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FIGURE 8.131 POSITION TOLERANCING OF SLOTS
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FIGURE 8.132 POSITION TOLERANCING OF ELONGATED HOLES
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FIGURE 8.133 SPHERICAL FEATURE LOCATED BY POSITION TOLERANCING
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8.11 TOLERANCES OF FORM, PROFILE, ORIENTATION, AND RUNOUT
8.11.1 General This Clause establishes the principles and methods of dimensioning and tolerancing to
control form, profile, orientation, and runout of various geometrical shapes and free state variations.
8.11.2 Form and orientation control Form tolerances control straightness, flatness, circularity, and
cylindricity. Orientation tolerances control angularity, parallelism, and perpendicularity. A profile tolerance may
control form, orientation, and size, depending on how it is applied. Tolerances of position control orientation,
the extent of this control should be considered before specifying form and orientation tolerances (see
Figure 8.120).
8.11.3 Form and orientation tolerance zones A form or orientation tolerance specifies a zone within which
the considered feature, its line elements, its axis, or its centre plane must be contained.
Where the tolerance value represents the diameter of a cylindrical zone, it is preceded by the diameter symbol.
In all other cases, the tolerance value represents a total linear distance between two geometric boundaries
and no symbol is required.
Certain designs require control over a limited area or length of the surface, rather than control of the total
surface. In these instances, the area, or length, and its location are indicated by a Type J line drawn adjacent
to the surface with appropriate dimensioning. Where so indicated, the specified tolerance applies within these
limits instead of to the total surface.
8.11.4 Form tolerances
8.11.4.1 General Form tolerances are applicable to single (individual) features or elements of single features;
therefore, form tolerances are not related to datums. Clauses 8.11.4.2 to 8.11.4.4 cover the particulars of the
form tolerances, i.e. straightness, flatness, circularity, and cylindricity.
8.11.4.2 Tolerances of straightness (see Table 8.8) A straightness tolerance may be used to control the
following:
(a) The straightness of a line on a surface The tolerance zone is the area between two parallel straight lines
in the specified plane containing the considered line, and the tolerance value is the distance between the
lines.
(b) The straightness of an axis (of a feature or a series of features) in a single plane The tolerance zone is
the space between two parallel planes normal to the specified plane containing the considered axes, and
the tolerance value is the distance between the planes.
(c) The straightness in three dimensions of an axis of a feature or features which are solids of
revolution The tolerance zone is a cylinder with a diameter equal to the tolerance value.
8.11.4.3 Tolerance of flatness (see Table 8.9) Where a flatness tolerance is used to control the flatness of
a surface, the tolerance zone is the space between two parallel planes and the tolerance value is the distance
between the planes.
The location of the two parallel planes shall be that most favourable acceptance.
Flatness may be applied on a unit basis as a means of preventing an abrupt surface variation within a
relatively small area of the feature. The unit variation is used either in combination with a specified total
variation, or alone. Caution should be exercised when using unit control alone as relatively large variations
in flatness can occur unless there is a maximum overall limit specified. Since flatness involves surface area,
the size of the unit area, e.g. 25 x 25, is specified to the right of the flatness tolerance, separated by a slash
line. For example:
8.11.4.4 Tolerance of circularity (roundness) (see Table 8.10) A circularity tolerance may be used to control
the errors of form of a circle in the plane in which it lies. For a solid revolution, the tolerance controls the
circularity of the circle formed by the intersection of the surface with a plane. For a cylinder or cone, the plane
is perpendicular to the axis, and for a sphere it usually passes through its centre.
A circularity tolerance is not concerned with the position of the circle, e.g. its concentricity with a datum axis.
For a solid of revolution, the circularity of each cross-section is an individual assessment.
A circularity tolerance zone is the annular space between two co-planar circles concentric with each other. The
tolerance value is the radial separation of the two circles. The size and location of the circles forming the
annular tolerance zone with respect to the considered circle should be that most favourable to acceptance.
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TABLE 8.8
TOLERANCES OF STRAIGHTNESS
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TABLE 8.8 (continued)
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TABLE 8.9
TOLERANCES OF FLATNESS
8.11.4.5 Tolerances of cylindricity (see Table 8.11) Cylindricity is a combination of roundness, straightness
and parallelism applied to the surface of a cylinder. The plane (end) surfaces of a cylindrical part are not
controlled by a cylindricity tolerance.
NOTE: Although the control of roundness, straightness and parallelism by means of cylindricity tolerance may appear to be a
convenient technique, the checking of cylindricity in accordance with its definition may present considerable difficulties. It is
recommended that the individual characteristics comprising cylindricity be toleranced separately as appropriate to the part concerned.
A cylindricity tolerance zone is the annular space between two cylinders coaxial with each other. The tolerance
value is the radial separation of the two cylinders. The size and location of the cylinders forming the annular
tolerance zone with respect to the considered cylinder should be that most favourable to acceptance.
8.11.5 Tolerances on profiles Profiled surfaces consist of solid figures either having sections of theoretically
identical form, e.g. templates, disc cams, or sections of related but not identical form, e.g. aerofoils, drum
cams, three-dimensional cams.
The ‘profile of a line’ symbol indicates that the tolerance applies to all identical sections of the component or
to the particular section designated.
The ‘profile of a surface’ symbol indicates that the tolerance applies to the whole of the profiled surface.
The tolerance zone associated with the profile symbols is a zone of width equal to the tolerance value normal
everywhere to the theoretical profile, and unless otherwise stated shall be equally disposed about that profile
(see Table 8.12, Items 1(a) and 2).
If a unilateral tolerance zone is required, this shall be clearly indicated on the drawing by a Type J line and
a dimension line as in Table 8.12, Item 1(b).
NOTE: For information on tolerance zones and points of discontinuity, see Clauses 8.3.14 and 8.3.15.
Profiles defined by a combination of circular arcs and straight lines shall be toleranced by indicating all
dimensions as basic and the applicable profile tolerance in the tolerance table or frame (see Table 8.12).
Profiles defined by cartesian coordinates shall be toleranced by indicating both the abscissae and ordinates
as basic dimensions and the applicable profile tolerance in a tolerance table or frame (see Table 8.12).
NOTE: For other methods not using geometry tolerance, see Clause 8.3.15.
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TABLE 8.10
TOLERANCES OF CIRCULARITY
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AS 1100.101—1992
TABLE 8.11
TOLERANCES OF CYLINDRICITY
Profiles defined by polar coordinates shall be toleranced by indicating both the angular displacements and
appropriate radii or radii over a follower as tangent point dimensions and the applicable profile tolerance in
a tolerance table or frame.
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NOTE: For other methods not using geometry tolerance, see Clause 8.3.15.
Three-dimensional profile surfaces shall be toleranced by a combination of one or more of the methods
described for:
(i) profiles defined by a combination of circular arcs and straight lines,
(ii) profiles defined by cartesian coordinates,
(iii) profiles defined by polar coordinates,
as appropriate to the function of the part. If the theoretical surface is defined by all basic dimensions, and
a profile tolerance quoted in the tolerance table or frame, the complete surface shall lie between two
surfaces which envelop a series of spheres of diameter equal to the tolerance value with their centres on
the theoretical surface (see Table 8.13). If a unilateral tolerance zone is specified, the surfaces of the
spheres touch the theoretical surface.
8.11.6 Orientation tolerances
8.11.6.1 General Angularity, parallelism and perpendicularity are orientation tolerances applicable to related
features. These tolerances control the orientation of features to one another.
8.11.6.2 Specifying orientation tolerances in relation to datum features In specifying orientation tolerances
to control angularity, parallelism and perpendicularity, the considered feature is related to one or more datum
features. Relation to more than one datum feature should be considered if required to stabilize the tolerance
zone in more than one direction. For a method of referencing datum features (see Clauses 8.4.4.6 and 8.4.5.7,
and Table 8.16). Note that angularity, perpendicularity, and parallelism, when applied to plane surfaces, control
flatness if a flatness tolerance is not specified.
8.11.7 Tolerances of squareness (See Table 8.14) The toleranced feature may be a line or a surface and
the datum feature may be a line or a plane. In general, the tolerance zone is the area between two parallel
lines or the space between two parallel planes which are perpendicular to the datum feature and the tolerance
value is the distance between the lines or the planes. For a line with respect to a datum plane, the tolerance
zone may alternatively be the space within a cylinder of diameter equal to the tolerance value.
8.11.8 Tolerances on parallelism (see Table 8.15) The toleranced feature may be a line or surface and
the datum feature may be a line or a plane. In general, the tolerance zone is the area between two parallel
lines or the space between two parallel planes which are parallel to the datum feature and the tolerance value
is the distance between the lines or the planes. For a line parallel to a datum line, the tolerance zone may
alternatively be the space within a cylinder of diameter equal to the tolerance value and whose axis is parallel
to the datum.
8.11.9 Tolerances of angularity (see Table 8.16) The toleranced feature may be a line or surface and the
datum feature may be a line or a plane. The tolerance zone is the area between two parallel lines or the space
between two parallel planes which are inclined at the specified angle to the datum feature and the tolerance
value is the distance between the lines or the planes.
The tolerance zone may also be the space within a cylinder of diameter equal to the tolerance value.
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TABLE 8.12
TOLERANCES OF PROFILE — LINE
(continued)
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TABLE 8.12 (continued)
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TABLE 8.13
TOLERANCES OF PROFILE — SURFACE
8.11.10 Application of zero MMC Where it is necessary to specify that any errors of geometry are to be
contained within the maximum material limits of a feature, this shall be indicated as shown in Figure 8.134.
In this example, the indication means that if the feature is finished everywhere on its maximum limits of size,
it must be perfectly square to the datum surface. Errors of squareness are permissible only if the feature is
finished away from the maximum material limits of size in the direction of least material, provided that the
minimum limits of size are everywhere observed.
It should be noted that zero geometry tolerances can only be associated with the maximum material condition
as to do otherwise would be to demand perfection.
FIGURE 8.134 APPLICATION OF ZERO MMC
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TABLE 8.14
TOLERANCES OF SQUARENESS
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TABLE 8.14 (continued)
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TABLE 8.15
TOLERANCES OF PARALLELISM
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TABLE 8.15 (continued)
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TABLE 8.16
TOLERANCES OF ANGULARITY
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8.11.11 Runout (see Table 8.17) Although it conforms to the definition of ‘geometry tolerance’ in
Clause 8.4.2.10, runout is in a class apart from the geometry tolerances covered in Clauses 8.10.4 and 8.11.4.
In these, the geometry relationship is fundamental to the conception of the tolerance, and the method of
verification is not of fundamental importance, provided that it conforms to the geometrical principle. Runout,
however, is defined in terms of its measurement under rotation and demands a practical test. The resultant
indication may include errors of other characteristics but without differentiating between them. The combined
errors shall not exceed the stated tolerance value shown.
The runout tolerance represents the maximum permissible variation of position (i.e. full indicator movement)
of the considered feature with respect to a fixed point during one complete revolution about the datum axis
without axial movement. Except when otherwise stated, this variation is measured in the direction indicated
by the arrow at the end of the leader which points to the toleranced feature.
Runout may sometimes be applied as a composite tolerance in place of separate specifications of other
geometry tolerances, e.g. roundness or concentricity. But it should not, however, be used where the design
requirement demands that these characteristics be separately controlled. Where required, runout tolerances
as well as other geometry tolerances may be specified for a part or feature.
In accordance with Clause 8.4.4.5, the width of the runout tolerance zone lies in the direction of the arrow
terminating the leader. This will often, but not necessarily, be normal to the surface.
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TABLE 8.17
TOLERANCES OF RUNOUT
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AS 1100.101—1992
8.11.12 Total runout (see Table 8.18) The total runout tolerance represents the maximum permissible
variation of the position of a point moving along a considered feature during a series of revolutions about the
datum axis. The total runout tolerance applies to all measuring positions on the generated surface.
Except where otherwise stated, this variation is measured in the direction indicated by the arrow at the end
of the leader which points to the toleranced feature.
The runout tolerance may include defects of form and defects of orientation and position from a datum axis,
provided that any individual defect or the collective defects do not exceed the specified total runout tolerance
across or along the total considered surface.
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TABLE 8.18
TOLERANCES OF TOTAL RUNOUT
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SECTION 9 CONVENTIONAL REPRESENTATIONS
9.1 SCOPE OF SECTION This Section specifies conventions for the representation of components and
repetitive features of components. These conventions are simplified drafting techniques for depicting a
component or repetitive feature, by orthographic projection, to obviate unnecessary detailing.
For conventional representation peculiar to disciplines, refer to the appropriate parts of AS 1100. The
conventions illustrated are typical of common items and should be amended as necessary for other items.
9.2 METHOD OF PRESENTATION A conventional representation may be either a simplified drawing of the
feature being depicted or a symbol for the feature being depicted, e.g. a cross representing a rivet (see
Clause 9.3.5).
Where the conventional representation is a simplified drawing, it is drawn to scale. Dimensions and other
details may be applied directly to this drawing or by means of tabulated data or other suitable methods.
Where the conventional representation is a symbol, there is no relationship between the size of the symbol
and the size of the feature it depicts.
9.3 REPRESENTATION OF FEATURES AND PARTS
9.3.1 Repeated features and parts Similar features in a regular pattern, such as holes or slots, may be
represented by one or more such features in full outline and the remainder by centre-line as shown in
Table 9.1.
Similar parts in an assembly forming a regular pattern may be represented by one or more such part in full
outline and the remainder by centre-lines.
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TABLE 9.1
ARRAY OF SIMILAR FEATURES AND PARTS
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AS 1100.101—1992
9.3.2 Screw threads Screw threads shall be specified in accordance with the relevant Standard.
A screw thread may be represented as follows and as shown in Table 9.2:
(a) End view Crests of thread are represented by a circle in a Type A line and the roots of the thread by an
arc of a circle in a Type B line. The gap between the ends of the arc should subtend approximately 30°
to 45°.
(b) Side view — External threads and sectional internal threads Crests of thread are represented by Type A
straight lines. Roots of thread are represented by Type B straight lines of length equal to the length of full
thread. Runouts may also be shown, and if so as Type B lines at an angle of 30° to the axis of the thread.
(c) Side view — Internal threads Crests of thread and roots of thread are represented by Type E hidden
outlines (see Table 9.2 (c)). The length of the line indicating the roots of thread should equal the length
of full thread. Runouts may also be shown, and if so as Type F lines at an angle of 30° to the axis of the
thread.
(d) Limit of useful length of threads The limit of useful length of threads is represented with a Type A line if
the limit is visible or a Type F line if the limit is hidden. These lines extend across the major diameter of
the thread.
The representations described above apply to all types of thread form. However, if the thread is of other than
V-form, a section or other detail view should be drawn to illustrate the thread form.
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TABLE 9.2
SCREW THREADS
NOTES:
1
These views are also to a ‘convention’ as the projection of a helix is not a straight line.
2
This method should be used where it is desired to show the thread runout.
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9.3.3 Threaded fasteners For convenience threaded fasteners have been grouped as follows:
(a) Bolts, screws, and nuts having external hexagonal features.
(b) Screws having internal hexagonal features.
(c) Bolts and nuts having external square features.
(d) Screws having slotted or cross-recessed heads.
Sizes of hexagon and square features in Items (a), (b), and (c) are related to the dimensions across opposite
faces, i.e. to the nominal size of spanner or key used in assembly operations. Given the nominal size of the
threaded fastener, i.e. the major diameter of the thread form, the dimensions across flats and other
dimensional features shall be obtained from the relevant Standard.
The features and approximate sizes of the hexagons and squares of these threaded fasteners may be
represented as shown in Table 9.3 in which the proportions are based on the nominal diameter (D) * Chamfer
and washer faces need not be shown, but chamfers may be represented by circular arcs as shown in
Table 9.3.
The slots in slotted nuts and castle nuts may be represented by lines as shown in Column 3 of Table 9.3.
These lines shall be thicker than the outline.
The dimensions which determine the shape and size of the various features of the circular heads of bolts and
screws in Item (d) do not vary proportionately with nominal diameter (D), and hence reference should be made
to the appropriate Standard to obtain values for drafting purposes. The screwdriver slot or cross-recess may
be represented by lines as shown in the examples in Column 3 of Table 9.3.
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TABLE 9.3 THREAD FASTENERS
(A) EXTERNAL HEXAGONAL FEATURES
(continued)
* These proportions vary to some extent within the size range of threaded fasteners.
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TABLE 9.3 (A) EXTERNAL HEXAGONAL FEATURES (continued)
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TABLE 9.3 (continued)
(B) INTERNAL HEXAGONAL FEATURES
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TABLE 9.3 (continued)
(D) SCREWS
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9.3.4 Threaded assemblies In sectional views of assembled threads, except those of thread inserts, the
crest of external threads shall be represented by Type A straight lines and the roots by Type B straight lines.
Thread inserts shall be shown with the external and internal crests represented by Type A straight lines and
the roots by Type B straight lines.
Hexagon bolt heads and nuts which are capable of being rotated should be represented across corners in both
side views to show the working clearance, and for the purpose of identification.
Gaps in helical-spring lock washers should be represented by lines at 45° in both side views for the purpose
of identification.
Screwdriver slots in machine screws should be represented with full view slots in both side views.
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TABLE 9.4
THREADED ASSEMBLIES
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AS 1100.101—1992
9.3.5 Riveted assemblies The complete specification of the rivets shall be given by a leader and a note.
The position of a rivet is represented by the symbol + indicating the centre of the rivet in an assembly.
If the assembly consists of one or more rows of rivets each containing a number of rivets, the conventional
representation shown in Clause 9.3.1 may be applied as shown in Table 9.5.
If the assembly consists of more than one type, diameter or length of rivet, then a set of coded symbols may
be used to assist in the representation. The code may make provision for field rivets as well as shop rivets.
Drawings using this method shall also contain the code or refer to a reference drawing.
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TABLE 9.5
RIVETED ASSEMBLIES
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APPENDIX A
SOME COMPARISONS OF ISO STANDARDS WITH THIS STANDARD
AND OTHER NATIONAL STANDARDS
(Informative)
A1 SYMBOLS Table A1 provides a comparison of the symbols used by ISO with those adopted by Australia,
UK, USA and Canada.
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TABLE A1
COMPARISON OF SYMBOLS
(continued)
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TABLE A1 (continued)
LEGEND:
Same
—
x
A
=
=
=
=
same as in Column 2 (ISO)
none
a dimensional value
an upper case letter
NOTE:
The symbol
has been adopted by ISO/TC 10/SC 5 but not yet embodied in any ISO standard.
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A2 OTHER COMPARISONS
A2.1 Shape of tolerance zone
ISO:
Zone is total width in direction of leader arrow.
∅ specified where zone is circular or cylindrical.
Australia, USA and UK: Same.
Canada: Zone shape evident from characteristic being controlled.
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A2.2 Combination of position tolerancing and centre distance tolerancing
ISO: Not yet defined.
Australia and Canada: Specify that dimensions with centre distance tolerances shall comply with requirements
independently of dimensions with geometry tolerances.
USA and UK: Allow hole centres in a group to exceed centre distance tolerances by an amount equal to
one-half of the specified position tolerance where the feature is at MMC.
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APPENDIX B
EXAMPLES OF GEOMETRY TOLERANCE DISPLAY
(Informative)
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B1 SCOPE This Appendix illustrates a number of practical examples of the tolerance frame and tabular
methods of display described in Clause 8.4.4 and compares each method on the same component.
B2 EXAMPLES OF GEOMETRY TOLERANCE SPECIFICATION Figure B1 illustrates the drawing of a
complicated component using the tabular method of display, whereas Figure B2 shows the same component
using the tolerance frame method. Figure B3 shows a drawing of simple component also using the tolerance
frame method of presentation.
FIGURE B1 COMPLICATED COMPONENT — TABULAR METHOD
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FIGURE B3 SIMPLE COMPONENT — TOLERANCE FRAME METHOD
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APPENDIX C
AXONOMETRIC PROJECTION — ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
(Informative)
C1 SCOPE This Appendix describes techniques for developing axonometric projections (see Clause 6.5).
C2 DRAFTING AIDS The following drafting aids give assistance to drafters in the preparation of drawing in
axonometric projection:
(a) For isometric drawings
(i) Special paper ruled in three directions at 120° to each other.
(ii) Templates with a wide range of ellipses to represent circles.
(b) For dimetric drawings A special type of set square illustrated in Figure C1.
(c) For trimetric drawings A special type of set square illustrated in Figure C2 giving a range of angles, each
with its own scale.
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FIGURE C1 SPECIAL SET SQUARE FOR DIMETRIC PROJECTION
C3 REPRESENTATION OF CIRCLES
C3.1 Axonometric drawing The projection of a circle in a principal plane in any axonometric drawing is an
ellipse. The major axis of this ellipse is perpendicular to the third principal axis. This relationship is of practical
significance in assisting freehand drawing. (See Figure C3.)
C3.2 Isometric drawing A method of construction of approximations to ellipses is illustrated in Figure C4.
It should be noted that the major axis of an ellipse (e.g. part of line EG in Figure C4) in a principal plane is
perpendicular to the third principal axis.
C3.3 Dimetric drawing A method of construction of approximations to ellipses is illustrated in Figure C5.
C4 AXONOMETRIC SCALE RATIOS
C4.1 Equations
Scale on OX =
. . . . C4.1 (1)
Scale on OY =
. . . . C4.1 (2)
Scale on OZ =
. . . .C4.1 (3)
From Equation C4.1(2), α + β < 90°.
See Figure C6 for definitions of α and β.
C4.2 Isometric
Select α = β + 30°.
Then actual scales are all equal to (2/3) , i.e. 0.816.
∴ x:y:z = 1:1:1
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FIGURE C3 REPRESENTATION OF CIRCLES IN AXONOMETRIC DRAWING
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1. Locate centre O by centre-lines COA and BOD. OA = OB = OC = OD = radius of circle.
2. Through B and D draw EBF and GDH parallel to COA. Through A and C draw EAH and FCG parallel to
BOD.
3. Locate points J and K on GOE such that GK = EJ = OA.
4. With centre H and radius R1 (= HB) draw arc between HJ produced at L and HK produced at M. Similarly
with centre F.
5. With centres J and K and radius R2 (= HB - HJ) complete the figure.
FIGURE C4 CONSTRUCTION OF APPROXIMATE ELLIPSES REPRESENTING
CIRCLES IN ISOMETRIC DRAWING
FIGURE C5 CONSTRUCTION OF APPROXIMATE ELLIPSES REPRESENTING
CIRCLES IN DIMETRIC DRAWING
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C4.3 Dimetric
Select α = 2β = 90°, or α = β, or 2α + β = 90° (provided α 30° and β 30°).
In particular, select α = arc tan (1/63) and β = arc tan (7/9); i.e. α = 7° (approximately) and β = 41.5°
(approximately) to achieve the desired x:y:z ratio.
Then actual scales are (8/9), (8/9) and (2/9); i.e. 0.943, 0.943 and 0.471.
∴x:y:z = 1:1:0.5
C4.4 Trimetric
Select α and β so that α + 2β 90°, or 2α + β 90°, or α β.
Using a special set square, such as that shown in Figure C2, scale ratios will depend on the angles involved.
For example, if provision is made for α = 10° and β = 45° then the actual scales are 0.936, 0.908 and 0.548.
∴x:y:z = 1:0.970:0.585.
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FIGURE C6 AXONOMETRIC SCALE RATIOS
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APPENDIX D
OBLIQUE PROJECTION — ANGLE OF LINE OF SIGHT
(Informative)
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D1 SCOPE This Appendix demonstrates the relationship between the angle of the line of sight and the scale
on the receding axis in oblique projected views.
D2 CALCULATION OF SCALE Let OP be the third principal axis of an object of length a, where O is in the
picture of the plane and P is behind the picture plane. (See Figure D1).
FIGURE D1 CALCULATION OF SCALE
Let Θ be the angle that the parallel lines of sight make with the picture plane.
Then a line of sight from the point P will lie on the surface of a cone, the base of which is in the picture plane
and the radius of which is r, where r = a cot Θ.
Any radial line of this circle represents the projection of OP and hence, the scale of the oblique projection of
OP to the true length of OP is cot Θ.
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Any plane through the axis of this cone may then be selected and will make an angle β, say, with the
horizontal and the intersection of this plane on the picture plane will produce an oblique projection of OP.
Thus although the scale is fixed by cot Θ, β may be any angle in the oblique drawing. As noted in
Clause 6.6.2, this is, for convenience, selected as 30°, 45°, or 60°.
To obtain equal scale on receding axis, i.e. ‘cavalier’:
Θ = arc cot 1
= 45°
To obtain a scale ratio of 0.5 on receding axis, i.e. ‘cabinet’:
Θ = arc cot 0.5
= 63° 26’ approx.
To obtain any other scale ratio (R) on receding axis, i.e. ‘general oblique’:
Θ = arc cot R
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APPENDIX E
MAXIMUM MATERIAL PRINCIPLE
(Informative)
E1 SCOPE This Appendix provides an example of specifying geometric tolerance applied on a maximum
material condition basis.
E2 INTRODUCTION The maximum material principle arises from consideration of the free assembly of two
mating groups of features and is a result of the development of the theory of tolerancing for position,
concentricity and symmetry. This theory of tolerancing establishes for each functional group —
(a) a geometric reference frame (GRF);
(b) a tolerance diagram; and
(c) a virtual component.
Assembly is assured if the virtual components are capable of assembly.
The example given in Figure E1 illustrates the above theory.
NOTE: The virtual size of a hole is its low size minus the position tolerance.
The virtual size of a pin is its high size plus the position tolerance.
The virtual sizes for the mating groups are determined as follows:
4 x ∅ 8 holes : ∅ 8 - ∅ 0.2 = ∅ 7.8
∅ 10
hole C: ∅ 10 - ∅ 0
= ∅ 10
4 x ∅ 7.5 pins : ∅ 7.5 + ∅ 0.2 = ∅ 7.7
∅ 10
pin D : ∅ 10 + ∅ 0
= ∅ 10
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Study of the two diagrams will show that the two virtual components are capable of assembly and hence the tolerances indicated
will ensure assembly.
E3 CONDITIONS FOR FREE ASSEMBLY OF COMPONENTS It should be noted that more clearance for
assembly will be present if the actual sizes of the mating features are away from the maximum material limits
of size, and if the actual errors of form or position are less than the maximum.
It follows, therefore, that if this is the case, the error of form or position may exceed the specified tolerance
without preventing assembly.
This effective increase of tolerance, which is applicable to toleranced centre distances (see Clause 8.3.11) as
well as to tolerances of position and to certain tolerances of form, is advantageous for manufacture, but may
not always be permissible from the functional point of view. For example, in position tolerancing the increase
of tolerance can generally be permitted on the centre distances of such features as bolt holes and studs, but
it may not be permissible in such things as kinematic linkages and gear centres.
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(b) Geometric reference frame for group 1
FIGURE E1 (in part)
MAXIMUM MATERIAL PRINCIPLE RELATED TO MATING COMPONENTS
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FIGURE E1 (in part) MAXIMUM MATERIAL PRINCIPLE RELATED TO MATING COMPONENTS
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APPENDIX F
ORIENTATION OF ACTUAL LINES AND SURFACES
(Informative)
F1 SCOPE This Appendix provides an illustration of the definition of the angle between two lines, as
described in Clause 8.3.8.2.
F2 DEFINITION The orientation of an actual line is the orientation of a pair of parallel straight lines with the
least separation which completely envelop the actual line.
The orientation of an actual surface is the orientation of a pair of parallel planes with the least separation
which completely envelop the actual surface.
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F3 EXAMPLE Some possible orientations of the ideal line or surface relative to the actual line or surface are
illustrated in Figure F1 such as A1—B1, A2—B2 and A3—B3.
FIGURE F1 ORIENTATION OF IDEAL LINE OR SURFACE RELATIVE TO THE
ACTUAL LINE OR SURFACE
Orientation
A1—B1
A2—B2
A3—B3
Corresponding separation
of enveloping lines
h1
h2
h3
or planes
In Figure F1
h1<h2<h3
Hence, the orientation of the ideal line or surface corresponding to the actual lines or surfaces is A 1—B1.
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APPENDIX G
COMPARISON OF COORDINATE AND POSITION TOLERANCING
(Informative)
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G1 SCOPE This Appendix provides reasons for using positional tolerances when there are more than two
features in a functional group.
G2 COMPARISON OF COORDINATE TOLERANCES WITH POSITION TOLERANCES IN THE CONTROL
OF ERRORS IN POSITION OF RELATED FEATURES Where there are only two features to be correlated,
either the method of directly toleranced coordinate dimensions or that using position tolerances may be
suitable, but where the group of features contains more than two features, the latter method offers definite
advantages. Figure G1 shows a component with four holes toleranced by the directly toleranced coordinate
dimension method. The requirement could be interpreted as being that of a series of groups of two features,
i.e. AB, BC, and CD. If this interpretation be acceptable, there is no harm in using this method of tolerancing
but if the four holes constitute one group which has to accept four pins on another component, the inevitable
accumulation of tolerances on dimensions AC, BD, and AD may lead to difficulty in assembly. It would then
be necessary to reduce the tolerances on AB, BC, and CD to one-third of that theoretically permissible in order
to keep the variations of AD within acceptable limits.
Even if the dimensioning in Figure G2 were used, there is a possibility of an accumulation of errors on
dimensions BC, CD, and BD which will require the tolerance on AB, AC, AD to be restricted to one-half of that
which is theoretically permissible. The holes shown in both Figures G1 and G2 would also need to be
controlled in the direction at right angles to the horizontal centre-line.
FIGURE G1 COORDINATE TOLERANCE METHOD
FIGURE G2 POSITION TOLERANCE METHOD
G3 COORDINATE TOLERANCING Where features are positioned in relation to prepared plane surfaces as
in Figure G3, the accuracy of their positioning depends largely on the mutual accuracy of the plane surfaces.
Such a system of holes is in reality not a single group but a number of simple groups of two features of which
one is a plane surface and the other a hole. The tolerances of position can be shown graphically as in
Figure G4. This is not strictly correct (see Figure 8.56). If it is assumed that the plane surfaces are exactly
at 90° to each other, the maximum permissible variation in centre distances AD and BC is 2 x 0.4 = 0.5656.
If this component is to assemble with another having four pins, this value of 0.5656 should be used when
assessing the amount of clearance necessary to ensure the assembly of the mating features. If, however there
is no guarantee of accuracy between the plane surfaces, the normal positions of the holes may not lie at the
corners of a true square and it will then be impossible to forecast whether or not there will be trouble-free
assembly.
The relative positions of holes dimensioned as in Figure G5 are even more difficult to control than those in
Figures G1, G2, and G3 since each of the four centre distances can be correct even when the framework of
the centre-lines departs considerably from the true rectangular shape.
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G4 POSITION TOLERANCING WITH TRUE POSITION DIMENSIONS The use of position tolerances avoids
all the difficulties discussed in Paragraphs G2 and G3. The difficulties are avoided because the position
tolerance for a feature limits the variation of position in a defined group of features, and not the variation of
specified centre distances. In Figure G6, the drawing and the tolerance diagram illustrate that there is no
accumulation of errors of position and that the permissible variation of centre distances, even diagonally, is
the same between any pair of holes. This considerably simplifies the assessment of the sizes of mating
features to maintain required clearances.
G5 RECTANGULAR TOLERANCE ZONES In the exceptional case of tolerance zones other than circular
being essential (e.g. square or rectangular), they may be specified relative to the true geometric position
defined by basic dimensions as shown in Figure G7. However this practice is not recommended.
G6 RECOMMENDATION Positional tolerances should be applied wherever there are more than two features
in a functional group, and the maximum material condition concept specified wherever functionally possible,
to facilitate production and checking.
FIGURE G6 USE OF POSITION TOLERANCES
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FIGURE G7 TOLERANCE ZONES SPECIFIED RELATIVE TO TRUE GEOMETRIC POSITION
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APPENDIX H
INTERPRETATION OF DATUMS
(Normative)
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H1 SCOPE This Appendix sets out methods for establishing datums for a number of applications.
H2 INTRODUCTION Features indicated as datums have inherent inaccuracies resulting from the production
process. These may take the form of convex, concave or conical deviations. The following methods are
examples for establishing datums.
H3 DATUM BEING A STRAIGHT LINE OR A PLANE The datum feature shall be arranged in such a way
that the maximum distance between it and the simulated datum feature has the least possible value. Should
the datum feature not be stable with the contacting surface, suitable supports should be placed between them
at a practical distance apart. For lines, use two supports (see Figure H1) and for flat surfaces, use three
supports.
FIGURE H1 CONTACT BETWEEN DATUM FEATURE AND SIMULATED DATUM FEATURE
H4 DATUM BEING THE AXIS OF A CYLINDER The datum is the axis of the largest inscribed cylinder of
a hole or the smallest circumscribed cylinder of a shaft, so located that any possible movement of the cylinder
in any direction is equalized (see Figure H2).
FIGURE H2 DATUM IS AXIS OF A CYLINDER
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H5 DATUM BEING THE COMMON AXIS OR COMMON MEDIAN PLANE In the example shown in
Figure H3, the datum is the common axis formed by the two smallest circumscribed coaxial cylinders.
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FIGURE H3 DATUM IS COMMON AXIS OR COMMON MEDIUM PLANE
H6 DATUM BEING THE AXIS OF A CYLINDER AND PERPENDICULAR TO A PLANE In the example
shown in Figure H4 the datum ‘A’ is the plane represented by the contacting flat surface and the datum ‘B’
is the axis of the largest inscribed cylinder, perpendicular to the datum ‘A’.
NOTE: In the above example, the datum ‘A’ is considered to be primary and the datum ‘B’ secondary.
FIGURE H4 DATUM IS AXIS OF A CYLINDER AND PERPENDICULAR TO A PLANE
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NOTES
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INDEX
Abbreviations
Gener al
Decod ing
Encod ing
Aligned sections
Angle be tween two lines
Angular dimens ions
Tolerancing
Angular surfaces — Tolerancing
Application of lines
Arrange ment drawing
Arrowhe ads
Assembly
Assembly drawing
Auxiliary aligned section
Auxiliary dimens ions
Auxiliary planes of projection
Auxiliary views
Axis (of a feature)
Axonome tric projection
Axonome tric sca le ratios
Clause 1.4
Tab le 1.2
Tab le 1.1
Clause 7.4.5
Append ix F
Clause 8.2.4.3
Clause 8.3.8.2, Appendix F
Clause 8.3.12
Clause 3.5
Clause 2.2.2
Clause 4.3.3, 4.3.4.4.
Clause 2.2.15
Clause 2.2.3, 2.5.8.3
Clause 7.4.5
Clause 8.2.5.4
Clause 6.4.5
Clause 6.3.7
Clause 8.3.2.1
Clause 6.5, Appendix C
Clause C4
Basic dimension
Basic dimension symb ol
Basic tape r (or basic ang le)
metho d
Bolts — Conventional represen tation
Borders
Break lines in sections
Clause 8.3.2.2
Clause 8.3.3.6
Clause 8.3.13.1(a),
8.3.13.2
Clause 9.3.3, Tabl e 9.3
Clause 2.5.1
Clause 7.4.9.5
Cabinet projection
Camera alignment marks
Cavalier projection
Characters
Decimal
Height
Spacing
Thickness
Use of
Vulgar fractions
Circles
Dimensioning
Repre sentation in projections
Control drawing
Conventional represen tations
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Coordinate system in spatial
geome try
Countersinks, coun terboxes ,
spotfaces — Dimens ioning
Curve
Dimensioning
Tolerancing
Cutting planes
Cutting planes — Sections
Dashes
Datum
Dimension
Featu re
Group
Ident ifying letters
Reference frame
Simulated
Specification and interpretation
System
Targe t
Targe t symbol
Decimal form
Descriptive geome try
Detail asse mbly drawing
Detail drawing
Diagrammatic drawing
Diameters — Dimens ioning
Dimension
Dimension datum symb ol
Dimension limits
Dimension lines
6.6.2
2.5.3
6.6.2
4.1.1.
4.1.6
4.1.2
4.1.4
4.1.3
4.1.5
4.1.7
Clause 8.2.6.1, 8.2.6.2
Clause C3
clause 2.2.4
Section 9,
See also AS 1100. 201
Clause 6.4.2
Clause 8.2.6.8
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
8.2.6.6, 8.2.6.11
8.3.15
6.4.6
7.2
Clause 3.2.2
Clause 8.3.2.3, 8.6.2,
8.6.5, Appendix H
Clause 8.3.2.4
Clause 8.3.2.5, 8.3.3.3,
8.6.4
Clause 8.4.2.1, 8.6.5
Clause 8.3.3.4
Clause 8.6.3
Clause 8.3.2.6
Clause 8.6
Clause 8.4.2.2
Clause 8.3.2.7, 8.6.6
Clause 8.3.3.5
Clause 4.1.6
Clause 6.4.1
Clause 2.2.5
Clause 2.2.6, 2.5.8.2
Clause 2.2.7
Clause 8.2.6.1
Clause 8.1.1.1, 8.2.4
Clause 8.3.3.9
Clause 8.3.9, 8.3.11.2
Clause 3.5.2(b), 8.2.3.2
Dimensioning
Angular dimens ions
Arrangeme nt
Auxiliary dimens ion
Chamfers
Count ersinks, coun terbores ,
spo tfaces
Curve d surfaces
Diameters
Dimension lines
Dimensions
Equal dimens ions
Functional dimensions
Holes
Leade rs
Linear dimens ions
Not-to-scale dimensions
Projection lines
Pictorial drawings
Profiles
Radii
Reference dimens ion
Screw threads
Slopes
Spher ical diameter
Squar es
Symbo ls
Tabular presen tation of
dimensions
Taper s
Dimensions of lines
Dimetric projection
Dots
Terminating line
Terminating leaders
Used as dec imal sign
Drawing
Drawing sheet s
Layou t
Materials
Sizes
Drawing types
Arrangeme nt
Assem bly
Control
Detail asse mbly
Detail
Diagramma tic
Electrotechno logy
Gener al arrange ment
Installation
Monod etail
Multideta il
Subas semb ly
Tabulated
Works as exec uted
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
8.2, 8.3
8.2.4.3
8.2.5
8.2.5.4
8.2.6.7
Clause 8.2.6.8
Clause 8.2.6.6, 8.2.6.11
Clause 8.2.6.1
Clause 8.2.3.2
Clause 8.2.4
Clause 8.2.6.5
Clause 8.2.2.1
Clause 8.2.6.4
Clause 8.2.3.3
Clause 8.2.4.2
Clause 8.2.5.3
Clause 8.2.3.1
Clause 6.8.5
Clause 8.2.6.11
Clause 8.2.6.2
Clause 8.2.5.4.2
Clause 8.2.6.9
Clause 8.2.6.12
Clause 8.2.6.1(e)
Clause 8.2.6.3
Figure 4,14, Clause 8.2.1
Clause 8.2.5.2
Clause 8.2.6.10, 8.2.6.12 ,
Tab le 8.1
Clause 3.2
Clause 6.5.2, 6.5.3.2,6.5.4.2
Clause 4.3.4.4
Clause 4.3.4.1
Clause 4.3.4.2
Clause 4.1.6.1
Clause 2.2.1
Clause 2.5
Clause 2.3
Clause 2.4
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4
2.2.5
2.2.6
2.2.7
2.2.13
2.2.8
2.2.9
2.2.10
2.2.11
2.2.15
2.2.12
2.2.14
Electrotechnology drawing
End produc t
Engineering and arch itectural
drawing sca les
Envelope principle
Envelope symb ol
Equal dimens ions
Clause 2.2.13
Clause 2.2.16
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
5.4.1, Tabl e 5.1
8.3.5, 8.3.10
8.3.3.10
8.2.6.5
Fas tening elements in sections
Fea ture
Fea ture symbols
Filing margin
First ang le projection — Symbol
First ang le projection
Fitting to gaug e or mating part
Flat surfaces
Flow cha rt
Fold lines
Form tolerance s
Format lines
Full sections
Fun ctional dimensions
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
7.4.9.1
8.3.2.8, 8.3.11
8.3.3.3, 8.3.3.6
2.5.1.2
2.5.6(a)
6.3.2, 6.3.3
8.3.13.1(c)
3.6.1
2.2.17
2.5.7
8.11.4
2.5.12
7.4.2
8.2.2.1
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Gauge or mating pa rt
Gears and splines — Orientation
and location
General arrange ment drawing
General oblique projection
Geometric reference frame
Geometry tolerancing — See also
Tolerancing
Angularity
Circularity (roundne ss)
Conce ntric featu res
Conce ntricity
Coord inate and pos ition
toleran cing
Count erbo red holes
Cylindricity
Datum specification
Examp les
Featu re pa tterns
Flatness
Form
Line
Maximum material condition
Metho ds — Preferen ces
MMC
236
Clause 8.3.13.4
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
8.9
2.2.8
6.6.2
8.4.2.3
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
8.4
8.11.9
8.11.4.4
8.10.11
8.10.4
MMC — Zero
Non-c ircular features
Orientation
Parallelism
Position
Profiles
Projected tolerance zone
Runou t
Runou t — Tota l
Slots
Spher ical features
Squar enes s
Straightn ess
Surface
Symmetry
Tabular method
Tolerance frame method
Total runout
True po sition dimension
Virtual cond ition
Zero MMC
Grid referencing
Appendix G
Clause 8.10.11
Clause 8.11.4.5
Clause 8.6
See AS1100.20 1
Clause 8.10.9
Clause 8.11.4.3
Clause 8.11.4
Clause 8.11.5
Clause 8.5
Clause 8.4.4.2
Clause 8.10.6, 8.10 .7,
8.10.8
Clause 8.11.10
Clause 8.10.12
Clause 8.11.6
Clause 8.11.8
Clause 8.10, G4
Clause 8.11.5
Clause 8.10.10
Clause 8.11.11
Clause 8.11.12
Clause 8.10.12
Clause 8.10.13
Clause 8.11.7
Clause 8.11.4.2
Clause 8.11.5
Clause 8.10.5
Clause 8.4.5, Appendix B
Clause 8.4.4.3, Appendix B
Clause 8.11.12
Clause 8.10.3
Clause 8.7
Clause 8.11.10
Clause 2.5.4
Half sections
Hatching
Height of cha racters
Holes — Dimensioning
Holes in flanges in sec tions
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
7.4.3
7.3
4.1.2
8.2.6.4
7.4.9.3
Installation
Installation drawing
Interpo sed sections
Isometric projection
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
6.5.4.1
Clause
Clause
Clause
2.2.18
2.2.9
7.4.7
6.5.2, 6.5.3.2,
Item
Reference nu mber
Reference s
Lay out of drawings she ets
Lea ders
Lea st material cond ition
Letters
Line density
Line spacing
Lines
Adjacent parts
Applications
Break lines
Centre-lines
Centre-lines — Short
Centroidal
Cutting planes
Dashe s
Density
Dimension
Dimension of lines
Fictitious outline
Flat surface
Fold lines
4.2.2.1
4.2.2.2
4.2
Clause 2.5, 2.5.8
Clause 8.2.3.3
Clause 8.4.2.4
See Chara cters
Clause 3.4
Clause 3.3
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
3.5.9(a)
3.5
3.5.3
3.5.6
3.5.2(h)
3.5.9(c)
3.5.7
3.2.2
3.4
3.5.2(b)
3.2
3.5.2(a)
3.6.1
3.5.2(g)
Format
Hatching
Hidden ou tline
Imaginary interse ctions
Material to be removed
Movab le pa rts
Outlines
Part views and sec tions
Pitch lines
Priority
Projection
Rectangular op ening
Revolved section
Spacing
Special requirements
Symmetry
Types
Linear dimens ions
Linear dimens ions — Tolerancing
Loc al or pa rt sections
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
2.5.12
3.5.2(c)
3.5.4
3.5.2(f)
3.5.6
3.5.9(b)
3.5.1
3.5.3
3.5.6
3.7
3.5.2(b)
3.6.2
3.6.3
3.3
3.5.8
3.6.3
3.1, 3.5
8.2.4.2
8.3.8.1
7.4.4
Material or parts list
Materials
Maximum material con dition symbol
Maximum material principle
Symbo l
Maximum material size
Mon odet ail drawing
Multidetail drawing
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
2.5.11
2.3
8.3.3.7
8.3.6, Appendix E
8.3.3.7
8.3.2.16
2.2.10
2.2.11, 2.5.8.3
Non-preferred sizes
Not-to-scale dimensions
Notes
Gener al
Local
Supplemen t to symbo ls
Tolerance
Notes on drawings
Numerals
Nuts — Conventional represe ntation
Clause 2.4.2
Clause 8.2.5.3
Clause 8.2.7(a)
Clause 8.2.7(b)
Clause 4.3.4.8
Clause 8.3.8.3
Clause 8.2.7
See Chara cters
Clause 9.3.3, Tabl e 9.3
Oblique projection
Order of priority of coincident lines
Orienta tion of drawings
Orthogo nal projection
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Part
Part numb er
Partial views
Parts list
Perspec tive projection
Pictorial drawings
Pipelines
Plane faces — Represen tation
Planes — Sections
Planes — Spatial geom etry
Auxiliary
Cutting
Inclined
Principal
Notation
Trace
Clause 2.2.19
Clause 2.2.20
Clause 6.3.6
Clause 2.5.11
Clause 6.7
Clause 6.8
See AS1100.20 1
Clause 3.6.1
Clause 7.2
Planes of projection
Preferred sizes
Principal planes
Principle of indep ende ncy
Print trimming line
Profile — Dimensioning
Profile and curved surfaces —
Tole ranc ing
Projected tolerance zon e symbo l
Projection
Axono metric
Cabinet
Cavalier
Dimetric
Gener al oblique
Ident ification
Indication
Isome tric
Oblique
COPYRIGHT
6.6, Appendix D
3.7
2.5.14
6.3
Clause 6.4.5
Clause 6.4.6
Figure 6.19
Clause 6.4.3
Clause 6.4.4
Clause 6.4.5, Figu re 6.19 ,
Figure 6.20
Clause 6.4.5
Clause 2.4.1
Clause 6.4.3
Clause 8.3.4
Clause 2.5.2
Clause 8.2.6.11
Clause 8.3.15
Clause 8.3.3.8
Clause 6.5, 6.5.1,
Appendix C
Clause 6.6.2
Clause 6.6.2
Clause 6.5.2, 6.5.3,
6.5.4.2
Clause 6.6.2
Clause 6.1
Clause 2.5.6
Clause 6.5.2, 6.5.3,
6.5.4.1
Clause 6.6, 6.6.1
237
Orthogona l
Auxiliary views
Deviation from method
First ang le
Partial views
Removed views
Repetitive features
Rounded and filleted
intersections
Selection of views
Symmetrical pa rts
Third ang le
Persp ective
Trimetric
Types
Projection lines
Accessed by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 29 Jul 2013 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed)
Radii
Dimensioning
Tolerancing
Rectang ular op ening
Removed sec tions
Removed views
Repeate d featu res and pa rts —
Conventional repres enta tion
Repetitive features
Revolved sections
Riveted assemb lies — Conve ntional
repre sentation
Roll drawings
Rounded and filleted interse ctions
Scales
Indication
Recom mend ed ratios
Screw threads
Conve ntional represen tation
Orientation and location
Pictorial drawings
Screws — Conven tional
repre sentation
Sectioning
Sections
Conve ntions
Views
Sheet de signation
Size
Actual
Least material
Limits of
Local
Mating
Maximum material
Nominal
Size of drawing sheet s
Slashes
Slots
Spacing of cha racters, words and
lines
Spatial geo metry
Spheres — Dimensioning
Squares — Dimensioning
Surveying and map ping scales
Symbol
Symbols
Compa risons
Depth
Diameter
Dimensioning
Hole
Notes
Radius
Slope
Taper
Tolerancing
Tolerancing, geom etry
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
6.3, 6.3.1
6.3.7
6.3.5
6.3.2, 6.3.3
6.3.6
6.3.8
6.3.11
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
6.5.4.3
Clause
Clause
6.3.9
6.3.4
6.3.10
6.3.2, 6.3.3
6.7, 6.7.1
6.5.2, 6.5.3,
6.2
3.5.2(b), 8.2.3.1
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
8.2.6.2
8.3.15
3.6.2
7.4.8
6.3.8
Clause 9.3.1
Clause 6.3.11
Clause 3.6.3, 7.4.6
Clause 9.3.5
Clause 2.4.3, 2.5.1.3
Clause 6.3.9
Section 5
Clause 5.3
Clause 5.4
Clause 9.3.2
Clause 8.8
Clause 6.8.4
Clause 9.3.3, Tabl e 9.3
Section 7
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
7.4.9
7.4
2.5.5
8.3.2.10
8.3.2.11
8.3.2.12
8.3.2.13
8.3.2.14
8.3.2.15
8.3.2.16
8.3.2.17
2.4
4.3.4.5
8.10.12
Clause 4.1.4
Clause 6.4
Clause 8.2.6.1(e)
Clause 8.2.6.3
Clause 5.4.2, Tabl e 5.2
Clause 4.3.2.1
Clause 4.3
Appendix A
Clause 8.2.6.4(b),
Tab le 8.1, Figure 4.14
Clause 8.2.6.1(a),
Tab le 8.1, Figure 4.14
Tab le 8.1, Figure 4.14
Clause 8.2.6.4(a),
Tab le 8.1, Figure 4.14
Clause 4.3.4.8
Clause 8.2.6.2(a),
Tab le 8.1, Figure 4.14
Clause 8.2.6.12,
Figure 4.14
Clause 8.2.6.12,
Figure 4.14
Clause 8.3.3, Figu re 4.14
Clause 8.4.3, Tabl e 8.2,
Figure 4.14
AS 1100.101—1992
Square
Clause 8.2.6.3,
Tab le 8.1, Figure 4.14
Clause 8.3.3.10, 8.3.5
Clause 8.3.3.7, 8.3.6, 8.4.5.8
Clause 8.3.3.8
Symmetrical ob jects
Symmetrical pa rts
System
Tab ular method
Tab ular presen tation of dimensions
Tab ulated drawing
Tap ers
Dimensioning
Tolerancing
Terminator
Thickne ss of chara cter lines
Third ang le projection
Symbo l
Threade d assem blies—
Conve ntional represen tation
Threade d fasteners —
Conve ntional represen tation
Threads — Dimensioning
Three toleranced dimens ions method
Title block
Toleran ce
Bilateral
Diagram
Form
Frame method
Geome try
Indication metho ds
Orientation
Position
Profile
Runou t
Unilateral
Zone
Toleran ced tape r (or angle) metho d
Toleran ces of drawing sheets
Toleran ces of pos ition
Toleran cing
( see also Geome try toleran cing)
Angle be tween two lines
Angular dimens ions
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
8.3.3.3
3.6.3
6.3.10
2.2.21
Clause 8.4.5
Clause 8.2.5.2
Clause 2.2.12
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
Clause
8.2.6.10, 8.2.6.12
8.3.13
4.3.2.2
4.1.3
6.3.2, 6.3.3
2.5.6(a)
Clause 9.3.4
Clause 9.3.3
Clause 8.2.6.9
Clause 8.3.13.5
Clause 2.5.9,
Figures 2.6-2.9
Clause 8.1.1.2
Clause 8.3.2.19
Clause 8.4.2.8
Clause 8.4.2.9
Clause 8.4.4.3
Clause 8.4.2.10
Clause 8.3.7
Clause 8.11
Clause 8.4.2.11
Clause 8.11
Clause 8.11
Clause 8.3.2.20
Clause 8.3.2.2
Clause 8.3.13.3
Clause 2.4.4,
Clause 8.10
Typ es of lines
Clause 8.3
Appendix F
Clause 8.3.8.2,
Appendix F
Clause 8.3.12
Clause G3
Clause 8.3.8
Clause 8.3.10
Clause 8.3.11
See Geome try
toleran cing
Clause 8.3.9
Clause 8.3.8.1, 8.3.9.3
Clause 8.3.8.3
Clause G4
Clause 8.3.15
Clause 8.3.14
Figure 4.14,
Clause 8.3.3
Clause 8.3.13
Clause 6.4.5
Clause 6.5.2, 6.5.3.2,
6.5.4.3
Clause 3.1
Views
Designation
Selection
Virtual cond ition
Virtual size
Vulgar fractions
Clause 6.1.1
Figure 6.1
Clause 6.3.4
Clause 8.4.2.6, 8.7
Clause 8.4.2.7
Clause 4.1.7
Web s, ribs, spok es in sections
Works as executed drawing
Clause 7.4.9.2
Clause 2.2.14
Angular surfaces
Coord inate
Direct methods
Envelope principle
Featu res
Geome try
Limits of dimensions
Linear dimens ions
Notes
Position
Profile and curved surfaces
Radii
Symbo ls
Taper s
Traces of planes
Trimetric projection
COPYRIGHT
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