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analysis on the price of salt - ib extended essay (grade A)

Extended Essay
International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme
English A: Language and Literature (​Category 1)
The role of genre, context and narrative style in the illustration of a lesbian romance in
the novel, ‘The price of salt’ by Patricia Highsmith.
Research Question:
How is the portrayal of a lesbian romance shaped by its context and setting, genre and
narrative style in the novel ‘The price of salt’ by Patricia Highsmith?
Essay word count: 4000
Citation style: MLA
Genre convention…………………………………………………………………………...4
Context and setting………………………………………………………………………....5
Highsmith’s own personal life…………………………………...…...6
Sexuality and identity…………………………………………...….....7
Attitudes towards homosexuality………………………………….....9
Narrative style………………………………………………………………………………11
Third person limited narrative…………….………………………….11
Stream of consciousness…………………………………………….13
Themes conveyed………...……...…………….…..………………...14
- Obsession and desire………………………………...15
- Freedom of expression…...………………...………..15
- Love and lust…...………………………………...…...16
Works cited…………………………………………………………………………………20
Appendix one……………………………………………………………………………….22
‘The price of salt’ written by Patricia Highsmith is a fictionalized autobiography,
published in 1952. Inspired by personal experiences, the novel shines a light on
homosexual relationships in a conservative time, when it was forbidden causing
Highsmith to publish her book under the pseudonym “Claire Morgan” 1.
This novel is about a forbidden romance between two female protagonists,
Therese and Carol. It all begins, when Carol enters the department store Therese works
in, to buy a toy for her daughter for Christmas. Told from the narrative of Therese, we
see how her life becomes forever changed as her mundane routine is “shattered by an
erotic epiphany”
of Carol’s allure. What starts out as a one-sided sexual obsession,
blossoms into requited love over time as they get to know each other better.
Contrary to conventional narratives on romance, this novel resists “teleological
narratives of happiness rooted in accumulation and conformity”
and gives a happy
ending to its protagonists, at a time where the only representation they got, was when
they “slit their wrists”4 or were shown as “perverted” and therefore shunned by society.
Highsmith, Patricia. ​The price of salt.​ Revised edition, 1984. pp. 291. Print.
Highsmith, Patricia. ​The price of salt.​ Revised edition, 1984. Summary. Print
​Sönser Breen, Margaret. “The Locations of Politics: Highsmith’s The Price of Salt, Haynes’ Carol, and
American Post-War and Contemporary Cultural Landscapes” 2018. pp. 13.
Highsmith, Patricia. ​The price of salt.​ Revised edition, 1984. pp. 292. Print.
This presents the question, how does Highsmith portray a romance between two
vastly different complicated characters, on the pursuit of love and true happiness? More
importantly, how does this novel challenge the very notion of romance itself?
In this essay, I will first explore how Highsmith uses a hybrid genre, of both
romance and thriller, to portray a forbidden lesbian romance. Next, I will analyse the
setting of this novel, with respect to the general attitude towards homosexuality that is
conveyed in the social climate of the book, in which the two protagonists, try and accept
their own sexual identity. In addition to this, I will investigate the effectiveness of the
narrative style Highsmith uses to portray the character of Therese in a third person
limited voice with the use of several narrative techniques such as stream of
consciousness and the themes of obsession, freedom, and love.
Genre convention
This genre is a romantic one which is defined as a story that portrays a romantic
relationship between two people with an ​“emotionally satisfying and optimistic ending” 5.
This was unconventional in the ’50s as any form of lesbian narratives published ended
in a tragedy. Here she gives her two female protagonists a happy ending, allowing this
novel to be one of the first lesbian romances to do so. However, elements of a
psychological thriller complicate the story of their love. By turning the romance novel
into one that incorporates obsession and suspense, Highsmith broke the traditional
narrative of romance.
“A romance novel promises to entertain and excite them, a mystery novel makes
a promise to intellectually challenge them, a thriller novel makes a promise to excite and
keep them wondering what is going to happen next.” 6
Highsmith managed to combine all these aspects, adding an illicit element to
Carol and Therese’s love. Hers is a ‘hybrid’ text, mixing elements of romance and thriller
by presenting love as a desire that is an unstable, potentially unsafe and dangerous
condition, with Therese even describing it as ​“a blissful insanity” 7. This use of oxymoron
perfectly captures the provocative danger and thrill of this emotion Therese identifies as
love, which defines the concept of romance in this novel.
Romance writers of America. “About the romance genre”.
Milhorn, H. Thomas. “Writing Genre Fiction: A Guide to the Craft”. 2006. pp158.
Highsmith, Patricia. ​The price of salt.​ Revised edition, 1984. pp.34. Print.
This element of danger that is sensually provocative shapes the nature of their
attraction towards each other, in which Therese herself admits ​“Carol was like a secret
spreading through her” 8. Comparing her romantic feelings for Carol to a ​“secret”,​
constitutes an effective simile. One can argue that her supposed taboo feelings,
strengthened her desire for Carol, likened to the forbidden fruit theory. Here, the
looming threat of the social or even legal repercussions of same-sex love infuses the
narrative of romance with uncertainty and suspense. Such a hybrid text helps build the
foundation for their complex and unconventional romance, effectively shaping its
context and setting.
Context and setting
Set in the ’50s at a time where homosexuality was condemned and even
criminalized, homosexuals were constantly marginalised and discriminated against. This
harsh reality, also influenced by Highsmith’s personal experiences, helped to form the
social and political landscape in this novel which was crucial in helping to shape the
very nature of the forbidden romance between Therese and Carol, therefore,
successfully illustrating a complex lesbian romance in the social context of that era.
Highsmith, Patricia. ​The price of salt.​ Revised edition, 1984. pp.93. Print.
Highsmith’s own personal life
“How was it possible to be afraid and in love..how was it possible to be afraid, when the
two of them grew stronger every day? And every night. Every night was different, and
every morning. Together they possessed a miracle” 9
When Highsmith wrote this in her novel, about Therese and Carol's relationship,
her words resonated within me, as she had written this from her own personal
experiences of being in love with another woman in a time where everyone and
everything seemed against them and because of this, she was able to write a lesbian
romance that felt tangible and real. In fact, it was her very own real-life experiences that
inspired her to write this novel, using the character of Therese as an extension of
herself, having come "from my own bones"
with many of her close friends feeling that
Therese was Highsmith's ​“alter ego and the voice of an author”.11
For example, at the beginning of this book, where Therese meets Carol,
Highsmith was inspired by her own actions. She too had taken a job as a salesgirl in a
department store during the Christmas period, where she was assigned to the “doll
, and despised it entirely until by chance, one morning a blonde woman
wearing a mink coat walked in. Highsmith entrapped by her radiance and elegance, felt
Highsmith, Patricia. ​The price of salt.​ Revised edition, 1984. pp.209. Print.
Schenkar, Joan. “The Talented Miss Highsmith: The Secret Life and Serious Art of Patricia Highsmith”.
2010. Pp.269. Print.
​Thompson, Anne. “Todd Haynes and Oscar-Nominated Writer Phyllis Nagy Talk ‘Carol,’ Glamorous
Stars, Highsmith and More”. Indie wire. 2016.
Highsmith, Patricia. ​The price of salt.​ Revised edition, 1984. pp.289. Print.
as if she ​“had seen a vision” 13. Her encounter with this blonde woman formed the basis
for the character of Carol that was also inspired by Highsmith’s former lovers and her
relationships with them which she wrote extensively about in her journals stating how
they were the ​“other half of the universe..and together we make a whole.”
and Carol’s relationship, too, shared the same intense and almost obsessive emotion.
Such elements are integral to the novel, in terms of building authentic emotions and
stories that resonated with its readers, shaping this novel into one that was
semi-autobiographical and breaking the traditional lesbian pulp that served solely to
titillate male readers.
Sexuality and identity
The sexuality of Highsmith’s protagonists is crucial in explaining the poignant
struggles many homosexuals faced in that era when discovering and coming to terms
with their own identities, helping to create a context that is authentic and engaging
After Therese meets Carol, she begins to question her heterosexuality, and
more so her identity when she is not with Richard, her boyfriend. She explores parts of
herself, she never knew existed, which leads to an eventual relationship with Carol,
initiating character development. No more is she a shy quiet girl. She becomes more
dominant and confident in her actions. This emphasises the crucial role that discovering
their sexualities played in the process of Therese and Carol becoming a couple.
Highsmith, Patricia. ​The price of salt.​ Revised edition, 1984. pp.290. Print.
Wilson, Andrew. “Beautiful Shadow: A Life of Patricia Highsmith”. 2010. pp.35. Print.
The first time she consciously finds herself desiring Carol, she acknowledges it
as “an indefinite longing”
. The diction used here shows her yearning as infinite,
showing the readers that this was not some mere superficial attraction she felt for Carol,
but something deeper and more profound. Despite her recognising this emotion, she
labels it as “absurd” and “embarrassing” because of what society has taught her on
homosexuality, and deals with it the only way she knows how to, by “thrusting this from
her mind”. She suppresses her identity, and her love for Carol, due to the shame
commonly associated with homosexuality.
Fortunately, Therese gradually begins to accept her feelings for Carol, which is
seen when she compares her relationship with her boyfriend with her friendship with
Carol. ​“As if they were lovers, Therese thought...It was not quite insanity, but it was
certainly blissful”. ​Here Therese is insightful enough to realise that this is not as insane
as others make it out to be, but instead as something that could make her happy.
In this novel, however, less focus is put on the ‘coming out’ process for the two
protagonists. Instead, both deal with their attractions like they would normally for a man.
By normalising their love for each other, Highsmith successfully humanises them,
showing to the readers, how same-sex love should be celebrated instead of being
Highsmith, Patricia. ​The price of salt.​ Revised edition, 1984. pp.52. Print.
Attitudes towards homosexuality
In the ’50s, gay men and women had little rights in a society that constantly
and discriminated against them. Such negative attitudes towards
homosexuality are conveyed through homophobic characters in the novel, such as
Richard and the private investigator
When Therese breaks off her relationship with Richard, in order to be with Carol,
he writes a scathing letter which is embedded in the overall narrative, highlighting his
repulsion towards their relationship. He states, “I feel..disgust. This relationship which I
am sure has become sordid and pathological by now, that disgusts me...it is rootless
and infantile.”
Richard’s use of diction is harsh, referring to their love for each other as
abominable and childish. His accusatory tone further highlights the acute narrowness of
his mind, strongly reflecting society’s attitudes towards homosexuality. There is no
doubt that despite once harbouring romantic feelings for Therese, Richard no longer
shares such sentiments.
Richard’s narrow mindset is further underscored through the use of adjectives
such as ​“sordid” and ​“rootless”,​ which are terms used in the bible to refer to
inappropriate acts such as adultery and prostitution. His words are filled with hatred,
animosity, and despise. This is further apparent through the repetition of ​“disgust”,
reiterating the deep-rooted homophobic tendencies of society during that era. This
Highsmith, Patricia. ​The price of salt.​ Revised edition, 1984. pp.248. Print.
opens Therese’s eyes to the hatred she will face in society. However, instead of striking
fear in her heart, it strengthens her resolve to make her relationship with Carol work,
essentially showing us that despite adversity, her love for Carol will always take
When Carol and Therese encounter the private detective hired by Carol’s
husband to spy on them, he is a complete stranger but yet has a similar reaction to
Richard. “It was malice she had seen in his smile...the whole world was ready to be their
enemy...a monster between, with each of them caught in a fist.” 17 First, Highsmith uses
juxtaposition by presenting to us, the spite and animosity of the detective that is
conveyed through his smile, lending a sinister and almost evil element to his character.
Next, she personifies the hatred the detective feels for them, as a ​“monster”​. By doing
so, she effectively dehumanizes his character but humanizes the malicious intent he
has towards them through the use of imagery which shows how they are trapped “​in a
fist” ​ by his vile, cruel and destructive nature.
This quote sums up the reality Carol and Therese live in. They will be hunted
down literally, by people who would take pleasure in seeing homosexuals suffer,
resulting in them being practically imprisoned by such blatant, violent, homophobia.
Because of such attitudes, Carol has to leave Therese and return to her family in the
hopes of getting primary custody of her daughter in the divorce. Despite Therese’s
Highsmith, Patricia. ​The price of salt.​ Revised edition, 1984. pp.230. Print.
efforts, love here does not win and neither does Carol’s love for her daughter when we
later see that she loses custody which is the ultimate price Carol has to pay for loving
another woman
Narrative style
“Style is a quality of language which communicates precisely emotion or thoughts or a
system of emotion or thoughts peculiar to the author” 18
Highsmith’s style of writing gives this novel a sense of ‘salt’ through her use of
extensive imagery and symbolism, in order for the readers to visualize, and truly
empathize and immerse themselves in the forbidden romance being portrayed. Her
narrative style, creates a window into the characters of the novel and into Highsmith’s
values and purposes, effectively ensuring that the reader's experience of the themes in
the novel is complete. In order for Highsmith to do so, she first needs to illustrate what
goes on inside Therese’s mind. She executes this successfully through the use of
third-person narrative voice, stream of consciousness and literary themes.
The use of the third person limited voice
“The dramatic purpose of the hero is to give the audience a window into the story. Each
person hearing a tale or watching a play or movie is invited in the early stages of the
story to identify with the hero, to merge with him and see the world of the story through
his eyes.” 19
Murry, John. “The Problem of Style”. 1980. pp.71.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. “EXERCISE: The Hero's Journey”. 1998. pp.40.
Highsmith uses a third person limited narrative to convey Therese’s own
personal thoughts and feelings. In this narrative mode, characters are referred to by the
narrator as ‘he’, ‘she’, or ‘they’. The story reads as though Therese was narrating it,
allowing an in-depth revelation of her personality. This is particularly effective, as the
character of Therese is, in fact, the author’s surrogate, in which she acts as a
spokesman of Highsmith. Here Highsmith is a ‘homodiegetic’ narrator. She describes
her personal and subjective experiences as a character in the story which could
essentially result in a possible narrative bias. Highsmith abandons the neutrality of an
author to utilize the narrative technique of free indirect discourse, to convey Therese’s
thoughts and feelings. This becomes a powerful tool to draw the readers into the
psychological makeup of Therese. She is used as the lens through which we view the
story as it gradually unfolds.
This is the genius of Highsmith; she uses this to completely immerse the readers
into Therese’s mind so that they would experience this story ​“from her perspective
would produce higher levels of empathy”
for her character, or even to identify with
her. This mode of narration, gives the character of Therese, rich layers and depth,
successfully forming a complex character. However, this narration is at times unreliable,
with Therese often letting her emotions or vivid imaginations cloud her perception of
reality. This prevents readers from seeing the facts of the matter or the bigger picture.
Although this makes her rather untrustworthy in the accuracy of her narrations, readers
Gallant, Katie and Eagles, Alison. “First-Person vs. Third-Person”. 2017. pp.2.
nevertheless follow this due to the intriguing thought process to which they journey with
Stream of consciousness
"An attempt to give the reader an effect of living thought." 21
Stream of Consciousness is a narrative mode that seeks to portray an
individual’s point of view, by giving a ​“continuous flow of sense, perceptions thoughts,
feelings, and memories of the human mind”
. Highsmith uses both direct interior
monologues and free association to do so.
Direct interior monologues are used to present Therese’s conscious thought
process with guiding terms such as ​“her” and ​“she” accompanied by a verb, helping to
reiterate that this is her thoughts and not that of the narrator’s. This narrative mode
mingles thoughts and impressions in an illogical order and violates grammatical norms,
accurately reflecting the natural chaos of our minds. Highsmith also employs the use of
asyndetons and parentheses, in sometimes up to 9 lines with no full stop being used.
This is seen in the first few pages of the novel, where she develops the character of
Therese through the use of long passages of introspection. 23
Highsmith also uses the free association technique to break the traditional
narrative structure, causing the consciousness to shift freely between the present, past
​Wayne C. Booth. “The Rhetoric of Fiction”.1961.pp.324.
Humphrey, Robert. “​Stream of Consciousness in the Modern ​Novel”.1954. pp.44.
Refer to appendix one, pg 21
and future, from one place to another through the use of the character’s imagination.
During which, the ​“objective time and the psychic time intermingle; the result of which is
a structure of confusion in space-time and disorder.”
Highsmith uses this, to disclose
information the readers would have not otherwise been able to access. One example is
Sister Alicia which we see through a flashback, was a nun in the orphanage Therese
was in and was the only one who saw her as someone special, becoming the object of
Therese’s affections. Before the nun left, she gave Therese a pair of ​“knitted green
. As time passed, she had yet to wear the gloves, until it was too late. ​“Finally
they were too small to wear”
. However, she still keeps the gloves, as it serves as a
reminder of Sister Alicia. That is until Therese meets Carol, she is willing to forget Sister
Alicia and finally throw the gloves away; an action which signifies both the intensity of
Therese’s attraction for Carol and the fact that Carol has replaced Sister Alicia as
Therese’s object of desire.
The themes conveyed
Literary themes are conveyed through the narrative voice and perspective of
Therese. This is important in illustrating their romance, by showing its transformation
and evolution from a one-sided obsession, the realization of sexual identity, and to the
act of making love. Highsmith portrays their romance predominantly through the literary
techniques of imagery and figurative language.
​Sang ,Yanxia. “An Analysis of Stream-of-Consciousness Technique in To the Lighthouse”.
Highsmith, Patricia. ​The price of salt.​ Revised edition, 1984. pp.14. Print.
Highsmith, Patricia. ​The price of salt.​ Revised edition, 1984. pp.14. Print.
Firstly, the theme of obsession and desire is shown through Therese’s own
thoughts and feelings towards Carol. Since we are only privy to her point of view, her
emotions and thoughts are integral to portraying the romance between Carol and
herself. This is evident in how Therese describes the moment when she serves Carol in
the store, ​“she was conscious of the moments passing like the irrevocable time,
irrevocable happiness”
. The repetition of the word ​“irrevocable” emphasises the
critical impact this meeting has had on her emotional and metaphysical state. The harsh
“v” and ​“c” ​consonant sounds emphasise the intensity of her happiness. With Carol by
her side, she sees every second and minute as precious, and irreversible, with her
treasuring every moment of it. This is the first time in the novel where she describes her
emotional state as blissful and even euphoric let alone a permanent state of pure
unadulterated happiness that is caused by the mere presence of a beautiful stranger,
hinting at the obsession she feels.
Secondly, the theme of freedom of expression is portrayed throughout the kite
scene, when we can see how Therese perceives the kite to be alive and as a result
forms a special connection with it. The use of narrative voice is thus, effective, as we
can see through the lens of her character, allowing us to analyse her perspective and
perceptions of reality. Here, Therese’s will to express her sexual identity is personified
through the kite. However, her relationship with Richard prevents her from doing so.
Highsmith, Patricia. ​The price of salt.​ Revised edition, 1984. pp.42. Print.
This can be seen when Richard controls the kite and tries to make it go higher. ​“The
golden domes of the cathedral wagged from side to side, as if the whole kite was
shaking its head saying no”
. Richard is the barrier that keeps the kite from going any
higher. When Therese realizes the futility of her actions, she experiences a sense of
hopelessness. Ironically, at this moment, the kite, unlike her, finds ​“a will to escape”
from Richard’s grip. Perhaps, the kite is an embodiment of Therese’s hopes and
dreams. This is evident when Richard passes her the string, and she thinks of Carol.
“Suddenly the kite broke its mooring in the sky and tugged sharply to get away” 30. Here,
her feelings for Carol becomes the spark that sets off the fuse, causing the kite to soar.
Her emotional state is now tied to the kite, resulting in a direct causation effect. The kite
symbolises her wish to be with Carol and she does not want to see the kite, which
represents this secret desire, to escape from her sight. For Therese, this kite is proof
that if she too “​escape​” from Richard, she will be able to soar and succeed in being free
to express her love for another woman.
Lastly, themes of love and lust are prevalent throughout the text. These elements
highlight the erotic aspect of romance from her interactions with Carol, which tend to be
laced with undertones of flirting and even a certain amount of teasing. This is especially
seen when they make love, where Highsmith uses imageries of nature and figurative
language to convey Therese’s perspective and emotions.
Highsmith, Patricia. ​The price of salt.​ Revised edition, 1984. pp.96. Print.
Highsmith, Patricia. ​The price of salt.​ Revised edition, 1984. pp.97. Print.
Highsmith, Patricia. ​The price of salt.​ Revised edition, 1984. pp.96. Print.
Highsmith portrays nature as an overwhelming attractive force and uses its
imageries to depict the intimacy and fervour of their passion. First, she compares her
happiness to a ​“green vine spreading through her, stretching fine tendrils, bearing
flowers through her flesh.”
This image is suggestive, sensuous and seductive,
especially with the use of assonance in the tricolon, ​“spreading...stretching...bearing”.​
This rhyme emphasises the overwhelming and climatic pleasure that is building up
inside her, causing her body to transform into one with green vines with fine tendrils that
bear flowers. Here the “green vine” with the ​“fine tendrils” is synonymous with a creeper
plant with tiny spirals that twists and turns around Therese’s body, which in this case
highlights the verbs used, justifying the actions of growth and expansion, further
nuancing the pleasure she feels. The metaphor of the “flowers” i​ s interesting, as usually
bearing them would be a sign of fertility but we know this is not the case. Perhaps, this
is to emphasise the intensity of her passion, where she reaches a state of pure
This is not the first time Therese uses nature metaphors in the text. After meeting
up with Carol for the first time, Therese creates an art piece of ​“a world born around her
like a bright forest with a million shimmering leaves”
that is clearly inspired by Carol.
By using a semantic field of nature, we can see how she perceives Carol as this tree of
life, which is an archetype in myths of a tree that connects all forms of creation,
achieving an almost God-like status. Through Carol, she too can be a part of this divinity
Highsmith, Patricia. ​The price of salt.​ Revised edition, 1984. pp.189. Print.
Highsmith, Patricia. ​The price of salt.​ Revised edition, 1984. pp.74. Print.
through the ​“vines spreading through her”,​ a connection that breaks physical boundaries
and societal norms, emphasising their intense intimacy and symbolising pleasure and
Her use of figurative language is also seen when, ​“Her body too seemed to
vanish in widening circles that leaped further and further, beyond where thought could
Here we see her thought process drifting further away from rationality. Their
intense passion transcends both mind and bodily restrictions. This concept is a motif
used throughout the novel, where their love is presented beyond the realms of reality,
delving into this surrealistic dreamland, almost as if their romance does not and will not
confirm or succumb to the harsh reality of the world they live in. Instead, their love for
each other has transcended all forms of prejudice and challenges and grows stronger,
where it ultimately wins in the end.
Highsmith, Patricia. ​The price of salt.​ Revised edition, 1984. pp.190. Print.
The notion of romantic love, the struggles of a lesbian relationship in a
conservative time, the choice between accepting one's sexual identity and having the
courage to express it -- Highsmith has brought these tensions to life through several
techniques - her use of context and setting, genre convention and narrative voice.
Highsmith effectively explores the context of this novel and its influences on the
setting and characters, to give a realistic narrative on homophobia in the social climate
of the 50s. She also infuses the genre of romance with elements of a thriller, in order to
accentuate and convey the forbidden love between Carol and Therese.
Through the evolution of their relationship, from being one-sided to mutual desire
and eventual love, Highsmith has brought us closer and gradually into their world,
where we are able to observe first hand, the raw emotions and complex thoughts in the
character of Therese through the use of narrative voice. She applies devices such as
stream of consciousness, using both direct interior monologues and the free association
technique. Through the characterization of Therese, she uses imagery, personification,
motifs, symbols, metaphors and oxymorons, to effectively convey the themes of
obsession, freedom and lust,
Highsmith has delivered a compelling and heartwarming message, that despite
adversity and prejudice, love will always win. This, she successfully did through a
realistic depiction of the context in the narrative and genre, and the humanization of her
Works cited
Highsmith, Patricia. ​The price of salt.​ Revised edition, 1984. Print
Sönser Breen, Margaret. “The Locations of Politics: Highsmith’s The Price of Salt,
Haynes’ Carol, and American Post-War and Contemporary Cultural Landscapes” 2018,
pp. 13.
Romance Writers of America. “About the romance genre”.
Milhorn, H. Thomas. “Writing Genre Fiction: A Guide to the Craft”. 2006. pp158. Print.
Schenkar, Joan. “The Talented Miss Highsmith: The Secret Life and Serious Art of
Patricia Highsmith”. 2010. pp.269. Print.
Thompson, Anne. “Todd Haynes and Oscar-Nominated Writer Phyllis Nagy Talk ‘Carol,’
Glamorous Stars, Highsmith and More”. Indian wire. 2016.
Wilson, Andrew. “Beautiful Shadow: A Life of Patricia Highsmith”. 2010. pp.35. Print.
Murry, John. “The Problem of Style”. 1980. Pp.71.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. “EXERCISE: The Hero's Journey”. 1998. pp.40.
Chatman, Seymour. “Story and discourse: Narrative structure in fiction and film”.
Gallant, Katie and Eagles, Alison. “First-Person vs. Third-Person”. 2017. pp.2.
Wayne C. Booth. “The Rhetoric of Fiction”.196.pp.324.
Humphrey, Robert. “​Stream of Consciousness in the Modern N
​ ovel”.1954. pp.44.
Sang, Yanxia. “An Analysis of Stream-of-Consciousness Technique into the
Lighthouse”. 2010. pp.176.
Appendix one
“It was the pointless actions, the meaningless chores that seemed to keep her from
doing what she wanted to do, might have done - and here it was the complicated
procedures with money - bags, coat checkings, and time clocks that kept people even
from serving the store as efficiently as they might - the sense that everyone was
incommunicado with everyone else and living on an entirely wrong plane, so that the
meaning, the message, the love, or whatever it was that each life contained, never
could find its expression.​” 34
Highsmith, Patricia. ​The price of salt.​ Revised edition, 1984. pp.13. Print.