Uploaded by Susan Bender

Natural Selection Cornell NOtes 2

Cornell Notes
Topic/Objective: Evolution
Name: Matthew Hammonds
Class/Period: 4th period
Date: 9/24/16
Essential Question: What is evolution?
What is Natural Selection?
Compare and contrast
Natural selection and
Artificial Selection
Can you elaborate on
the reason why
Lamarck was wrong
and Darwin was right?
Notes: Natural Selection is the differential survival and reproduction of
individuals due to differences in phenotype. With natural selection there is a
struggle with some kind of animal or plant for food or water something that
someone wants to have or tough finding in the wild. Then animals with a better
gene have the higher fitness can survive better and the ones that can’t survive
will die and so they might mate with the ones that can survive or the surviving
will make decedents by themselves either way there will be descendants in the
finale stage. Also with natural selection a great example is moths. Before the
industrial revolution there were a low occurrence of black moths after the
Industrial Revolution or in the industrial revolution there were more dark
moths than light. Someone noticed this and decided to experiment with this. So
this person took dark and light moths and put them on trees in different
forests. He concluded that in light forests bird eat more dark moths because
they are not camouflaged in light forests and in dark forests birds eat light
moths because light moths are not camouflage in dark forests. Then it was
concluded that natural was the cause of this since there was struggle to have
Natural selection happens out in the wild among many different kinds of
organisms with many different survival skills that other living organisms need
to survive in their habitat. With selective selection we the humans are the
controls of the operation. This is not in the wild humans take certain organisms
and breed them together so they can have a purpose to up hold in the human
society and human nee. Dogs are selective breading since they are the common
house pet usually and humans want really good pure breeds or something. Also
in selective breeding plants get breed to get more crops or have crops that can
with stand weather very well so humans can get more food for everyone.
Darwin was the creator of Natural selection even though Lamarck though of
evolution too even though he didn’t get it completely right. Lamarck thought
you could just grow the part of the body you need to survive. Examples of this
are growing longer legs, arms, etc. Darwin was the winner since natural
selection has proven many theories to mankind. Even to where we came from.
Before people thought that we came from little old monkeys and we evolved
into humans now we believe that both monkeys and humans came from both a
common ancestor. Also we believe that everything in the world came from one
thing or the common ancestor I said before. Darwin discovered this idea
anyway by looking at finches and turtles. Some look different with bigger beaks
and shell floor different purposes to get food or shelter.
How would you
describe the sequence
of Directional,
Disruptive, and
What information can
You gather to support
Your idea about
Evidence of evolution?
Notes: Natural Selection has four different categories and how each happens differs a
lot from the others. The four types are normal population, directional population,
disruptive population, and a stabilizing population. With a normal population there
really isn’t anything going on in the population you got the extremes and the middle
nothing too different there. With a directional population there is a favor towards on
extreme making the curve shift to the right or left a good or bad extreme. This could
happen with legs by there needs to be longer legs so they shift to longer legs to
survivor and vice versa with shorter legs. With disruptive population there is a favor of
two sides both extremes are accountable with legs there is sort legs breeding with
other short legs and long legs breeding with other long legs there is no middle. This
also creates two different species while this is happening. Then with stabilizing there
are no extremes only the middle area no one has very short or very tall legs just the
average height is there.
Evolution is changing over time your genetic chart eristic in a species. Evolution is
only a theory but there is many evidence supporting evolution. One evidence is Fossil
records. Fossil records are fossils telling a story based on what previous to now
fossils look like to tell how big or stronger an organism got to get to modern age.
Another piece of evidence is General Distribution in places and countries. With general
distribution similar looking species are around different areas of the globe. One place
could have beavers while another country could have muskrats. This means that
natural selection to the wild and the common ancestor of beavers and muskrats had to
disband to different regions and evolved with different survival skills. Also genetics is
another piece of evidence. With genetics you can have similar DNA in organisms like
how humans thought humans came from monkeys because we have the mostly the
same DNA. Next is Comparative anatomy which splits into three categories. The first
category is Embryology is how similar embryos look similar too other. Human
embryos look similar to pigs, sheep, fish, chicken, etc. If embryos look the same, then
all organisms come from a common ancestor as humans say. The second category is
Homologous structures by structures look similar but have a different function
depending on what organism it is. Examples of this is hands or arms cats, whales,
humans, bats, etc. All of these look the same but some are used for swimming,
climbing, flying and holding and grabbing. The last category is vestigial organs which
means organs that look similar but have no purpose and might be too small to do
anything. Examples are our wisdom teeth, appendix, and tailbone well these are at
least for humans. That’s evidence for evolution.
Summary: Evolution is the process of changing organisms over time. Natural Selection is very important in
evolution. Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in
phenotype. There are four type of natural selection Normal, Disruptive, Stabilizing, and Directional. Other than
natural selection there is artificial selection which is humans taking plants and animals and breeding them
together. Usually selective breeding is used for a purpose and intentional but with natural selection it just
happens. All of this has to do with a common ancestor and how everyone evolved. The common ancestor is the
organism that everything in the world evolved from in existent. This is the structure of evolution.