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19th & 20th Century Art Movements Research

Watch the video “Art Periods and Art Movements” (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dfX1tvloLNA) and
explain in a paragraph the difference between an art period and an art movement. Include an example of
an art period and an example of an art movement in your explanation.
Art periods are based on historical eras and artists don’t consciously form them. They are formed after the
fact occurs and art historians actually group their art together because they have been made in the same
period and location, which means they share many similarities in their cultures, religions, and taste in art
subjects. An example of this can be seen through Medieval Art; it was made during the medieval times,
meaning right after the fall of Rome and before the Renaissance. Art movements, on the other hand, are
consciously formed by a group of artists who usually have a set goal and they can also have an associated
art style or a shared ideology. They would usually have meetings, manifestos and publications that clearly
state their goals. An example of this can be seen through the Mannerists - even though this is what we call
them and the way they were addressed at the time, they didn’t actually address themselves as such.
a. Using the resource 19th and 20th Century Art Movements in Year 10 Art Moodle, and/or other resources
+ your own prior knowledge, identify the key characteristics of:
Add these key characteristics to the chart Art Movements Research Scaffold (in Moodle)
Make a list of the names of the key artists from each movement and add to the chart
 Loose brushwork
 Light palette – pure, intense colours
 Not traditional linear perspective
o Avoid clarity of form
 Don’t make it perfect; concentrate on the reality of it
(the myriad ways of imperfection)
 Capture an ephemeral moment in time on the canvas:
the impression
 Édouard Manet
o Artwork Name:
Le déjeuner sur
l'herbe (1863)
(The Art Story, 2019)
 Alfred Sisley
o Artwork Name:
Fog, Voisins (1874)
(The Art Story, 2019)
 Berthe Morisot
o Artwork Name:
In a Park (1874)
Post Impressionism
Symbolic and highly personal meanings are particularly
Instead of the real world, look to your memories and
Structure, order, and the optical effects of color
dominate the aesthetic vision of post impressionists
Rely on the interrelations of color and shape to describe
the world around you
Focus on abstract form and pattern in the application of
paint to the surface of the canvas
Critics grouped the various styles within PostImpressionism into two general, opposing stylistic
trends - on one side was the structured, or geometric
style that was the precursor to Cubism, while on the
other side was the expressive, or non-geometric art that
led to Abstract Expressionism
(The Art Story, 2019)
 Georges Seurat
o Artwork Name:
Sunday Afternoon on
the Island of La
Grande Jatte (1884-86)
(The Art Story, 2019)
 Maurice de Vlaminck
o Artwork Name:
Vision After the
Sermon (1888)
(The Art Story, 2019)
 Édouard Vuillard
o Artwork Name:
Octagonal SelfPortrait (ca. 1890)
Separate colour from its descriptive, representational
purpose and allow it to exist on the canvas as an
independent element
Think of it as color being able to project a mood and
establish a structure within the work of art without
having to be true to the natural world
Simplified forms and saturated colors draw attention to
the inherent flatness of the canvas or paper; within that
pictorial space, each element plays a specific role
The immediate visual impression of the work is to be
strong and unified
Fauvism values individual expression
The artist's direct experience of his subjects, his
emotional response to nature, and his intuition are all
more important than academic theory or elevated
subject matter
(The Art Story, 2019)
 Henri Matisse
o Artwork Name:
Luxe, Calme et
Volupte (1904)
(The Art Story, 2019)
 Maurice de Vlaminck
o Artwork Name:
The River Seine at
Chatou (1906)
(The Art Story, 2019)
 André Derain
o Artwork Name:
Pinède à Cassis
(Landscape) (1907)
The artists abandoned perspective, which had been
used to depict space since the Renaissance, and they
also turned away from the realistic modeling of figures
Explore open form, piercing figures and objects by
letting the space flow through them, blending
background into foreground, and showing objects from
various angles
In the second phase of Cubism, Synthetic Cubists
explored the use of non-art materials as abstract signs
Cubism paved the way for non-representational art by
putting new emphasis on the unity between a depicted
scene and the surface of the canvas
(The Art Story, 2019)
 Pablo Picasso
o Artwork Name:
Les Demoiselles
d'Avignon (1907)
(The Art Story, 2019)
 Georges Braque
o Artwork Name:
Houses at L'Estaque
(The Art Story, 2019)
The arrival of Expressionism announced new standards
in the creation and judgment of art. Art was now meant
to come forth from within the artist, rather than from a
depiction of the external visual world, and the standard
for assessing the quality of a work of art became the
character of the artist's feelings rather than an analysis
of the composition
Expressionist artists often employed swirling, swaying,
and exaggeratedly executed brushstrokes in the
depiction of their subjects. These techniques were
meant to convey the turgid emotional state of the artist
reacting to the anxieties of the modern world
Expressionist artists developed a powerful mode of
social criticism in their serpentine figural renderings and
bold colors. Their representations of the modern city
included alienated individuals - a psychological byproduct of recent urbanization - as well as prostitutes,
who were used to comment on capitalism's role in the
emotional distancing of individuals within cities
Edvard Munch
o Artwork Name:
The Scream (1893)
(The Art Story, 2019)
 Wassily Kandinsky
o Artwork Name:
Der Blaue Reiter (1903)
(The Art Story, 2019)
 Oskar Kokoschka
o Artwork Name:
Hans Tietze and Erica
Tietze-Conrat (1909)
(The Art Story, 2019)
André Breton defined Surrealism as "psychic
automatism in its pure state, by which one proposes to
express - verbally, by means of the written word, or in
any other manner - the actual functioning of thought."
What Breton is proposing is that artists bypass reason
and rationality by accessing their unconscious mind. In
practice, these techniques became known as
automatism or automatic writing, which allowed artists
to forgo conscious thought and embrace chance when
creating art
The importance of dreams and the unconscious as valid
revelations of human emotion and desires is shown
through surrealism; exposure of the complex and
repressed inner worlds of sexuality, desire, and violence
provided a theoretical basis for much of Surrealism
Surrealist imagery is probably the most recognizable
element of the movement, yet it is also the most elusive
to categorize and define. Each artist relied on their own
recurring motifs arisen through their dreams or/and
unconscious mind. At its basic, the imagery is
outlandish, perplexing, and even uncanny, as it is meant
to jolt the viewer out of their comforting assumptions.
Nature, however, is the most frequent imagery
Joan Miró
o Artwork Name:
Carnival of Harlequin
(The Art Story, 2019)
 René Magritte
o Artwork Name:
The Human Condition
(The Art Story, 2019)
 Yves Tanguy
o Artwork Name:
Mama, Papa is
Wounded! (1927)
(The Art Story, 2019)
Pop Art
By creating paintings or sculptures of mass culture
objects and media stars, the Pop art movement aimed
to blur the boundaries between "high" art and "low"
The concept that there is no hierarchy of culture and
that art may borrow from any source has been one of
the most influential characteristics of Pop art
It could be argued that the Abstract Expressionists
searched for trauma in the soul, while Pop artists
searched for traces of the same trauma in the mediated
world of advertising, cartoons, and popular imagery at
Pop artists were the first to recognize that there is no
unmediated access to anything, be it the soul, the
natural world, or the built environment
Pop artists believed everything is inter-connected, and
therefore sought to make those connections literal in
their artwork
Although Pop art encompasses a wide variety of work
with very different attitudes and postures, much of it is
somewhat emotionally removed. In contrast to the "hot"
expression of the gestural abstraction that preceded it,
Pop art is generally "coolly" ambivalent
Eduardo Paolozzi
o Artwork Name:
I Was a Rich Man's
Plaything (1947)
(The Art Story, 2019)
 Richard Hamilton
o Artwork Name:
Just What Is It That
Makes Today's Homes
So Different, So
Appealing? (1956)
(The Art Story, 2019)
 James Rosenquist
o Artwork Name:
President Elect (196061)
(The Art Story, 2019)
Choose an artwork from each movement and create a diagram by using arrows to identify the key
characteristics of the movement.
(Rock-cafe.info, 2018)
(Phaidon, n.d.)
(Shilpi, 2016)
(Deberryart.com, 2018)
(_admin, 2019)
(Masson, 2019)
(Moma.org, 2019)
1. The Art Story. (2019). Movements and Styles in Modern Art. [online]
2. Rock-cafe.info. (2018). Images of Impressionist Art Paintings. [online]
3. Phaidon. (n.d.). A Movement in a Moment: Post-Impressionism | Art | Agenda | Phaidon.
4. Shilpi, R. (2016). 40 Influencing Fauvism Style Art Examples. [online]
5. _admin, a. (2019). The Lasting Effects of Cubism - Artist.com. [online]
6. Deberryart.com. (2018). Expressionism the Movement | | DeBerry. [online]
7. Masson, A. (2019). Andre Masson - The Artist Defying Classification. [online]
8. Moma.org. (2019). MoMA | Andy Warhol. Campbell's Soup Cans. 1962. [online]