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Wireless Sensor Body Area Network

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD)
Volume: 3 | Issue: 4 | May-Jun 2019 Available Online: www.ijtsrd.com e-ISSN: 2456 - 6470
Wireless Sensor Body Area Network
Pawan Kumar Verma, Preeti Sondhi
Universal Group of Institutions, Lalru, Punjab, India
How to cite this paper: Pawan Kumar
Verma | Preeti Sondhi "Wireless Sensor
Body Area Network" Published in
International Journal of Trend in
Scientific Research and Development
(ijtsrd), ISSN: 24566470, Volume-3 |
Issue-4, June 2019,
pp.1374-1377, URL:
Copyright © 2019 by author(s) and
International Journal of Trend in
Scientific Research and Development
Journal. This is an Open Access article
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Attribution License (CC BY 4.0)
Recent advancement of wearable computing and wearable sensor devices has
empowered the development of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs).
Wireless body area network is made up of remotely connected miniaturized
sensors placed in, on or around the Human Body, which provides continuous
monitoring of physiological signs to support medical, lifestyle and entertainment
applications. This paper offers a survey of the concept of Wireless Body Area
Networks. First, we focus on some applications with special interest in patient
monitoring. Then the communication in a WBAN and its positioning between the
different technologies is discussed. In this research work, we propose a reliable,
power efficient and high throughput routing protocol for Wireless Body Area
Networks. We use multi-hop topology to achieve minimum energy consumption
and longer network lifetime. We propose a cost function to select parent node or
forwarder. Pro-posed cost function selects a parent node which has high residual
energy and least distance to sink. Residual energy parameter balances the energy
consumption among the sensor nodes while distance parameter ensures
successful packet delivery to sink.
Keywords: WBAN; healthcare; routing; MAC; WSN isher
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) [1] are used to monitor
certain parameters in many applications like environment
monitoring, habitant monitoring, battle field, agriculture
field monitoring and smart homes. These wireless sensors
are diffuse in anticipating area to supervise field. WBAN is
new emerging sub-field of WSN. A key application of WBAN
is health monitoring[2]. Wireless sensors are diffused on the
human body or in the body to supervise or fixed in the body
to supervise important signs like blood pressure, body
temperature, heart rate, gulcose lever etc. Achieving of
WBAN technology monitor health parameters significantly
reduces the expenditures of patient in hospital.
divided into several sections. Here we have classified the
network architecture into four sections. The first section is
the WBAN part which consists of several numbers of sensor
nodes. Any wired connection in a monitoring system can be
problematic and awkward worn by a person and could
restrict his mobility. So, WBAN can be a very effective
solution in this area especially in a healthcare system where
a patient needs to be monitored continuously and requires
mobility. The next section is the coordination node where
the entire sensor nodes will directly connected with a
coordination node known as Central Control Unit (CCU). CCU
gets the authority to gather data from sensor nodes and pass
onward section. For monitoring human body activities
An efficient routing protocol is required to overcome this
issue of recharging batteries.
We come up with a huge throughput, reliable and constant
routing protocol for WBAN. We place sensor nodes on the
body at limited places. We place sink at waist. Sensors for
ECG and Glucose level are kept near to the sink. Both these
sensors have important data of patient and need less
exhaustion, more liability and durable hence; the particular
sensors constantly transmit their data straightly to sink. Rest
sensors use parent node and spread the date to sing via next
node. This saves power of nodes and network for durability.
WBAN designed with special purpose sensor which can
autonomously connect with various sensors and appliances,
located inside and outside of a human body. Figure
demonstrates a Simple WBAN design where the design is
Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD25150
Fig1: Architecture of Wireless body Area Network[3]
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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470
There is no such wireless technology is fixed for targeting
2. Techniques Used in WBAN
As WBAN is a short range wireless networks so different
types of wireless short range technologies can be involved in
different stages. In this segment we will describe most
common technologies such as Bluetooth, ZigBee, WiFi, IEEE
802.15.6 etc. that can be used to deploy WBAN.
Bluetooth: Bluetooth is an IEEE 802.15.1 typically regularly
known as WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Network).
Bluetooth technology was designed as a short range wireless
communication standard, anticipated to form a network with
security and low power consumption. Another type of
Bluetooth network can be formed with more than one
Piconet known as Scatternet [5].
ZigBee: ZigBee is an IEEE 802.15.4 standardized solutions
for wireless telecommunications designed for sensors and
controls, and suitable for use in harsh or isolated conditions.
One of the biggest advantages of ZigBee network is its low
power consumption. ZigBee network topology which consist
of three kinds of devices or nodes such as coordinator,
router and end device. One coordinator exists in every
ZigBee network. It starts the network and handles
management functions as well as data routing functions. End
devices are devices that are battery-powered due to their
low-power consumption. They are in standby mode most of
the time and become active to collect and transmit data.
WiFi: WiFi is an IEEE 802.11 standard for wireless local area
network (WLAN) .WiFi technology comes with four
standards (802.11 a/b/g/n) that runs in ISM band 2.4 and 5
GHz with a modest coverage of 100 meter. Wi-Fi permits
users to transfer data at broadband speed when connected
to an access point (AP) or in ad hoc mode. WiFi is preferably
suitable for large amount of data transfers with high-speed
wireless connectivity that allows videoconferencing, voice
calls and video streaming. An important advantage is that all
smart phones, tablets and laptops have Wi-Fi integrated;
however the main disadvantage of this technology is high
energy consumption.
Applications used in WBAN Medical Applications, Remote
Healthcare Monitoring, Assisted Living, Telemedicine.
3. Related Work
Negra ''et al.'' [1] Author discussed the rise adoption of
wireless networks and the stable maturation of electrical
forward/non-invasive devices which allows the
development of Wireless Body Area Networks. A WBAN
provides a continuous health monitoring of a patient without
any constraint on his/her normal daily life activities. Many
technologies have proved their ability in supporting WBANs
applications, such as remote monitoring, biofeedback and
assisted living by resulting to their characteristics of service
(QoS) requirements. Due to showing a great variety of
certain technologies, using the proper technology for a
medical function is being a face down. In this paper, the
different medical applications are presented.
Yazdi ''et al.'' [2] Author talked about that during the last few
years, Wireless Body Area Networks have emerged into
many application domains, such as medicine,
entertainments, military, and monitoring. This emerging
Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD25150
networking technology can be used for e-health monitoring.
In this paper, we review the literature and investigate the
challenges in the development architecture of WBANs. Then,
we classified the challenges of WBANs that need to be
addressed for their development. Moreover, we investigate
the various diseases and healthcare systems and current
state of the art of applications and mainly focus on the
remote monitoring for elderly and chronically diseases
patients .Ghamari ''et al.'' [3] Author collected data which are
relayed using existing wireless communication protocols to a
base station for additional processing. This substance add
researchers with idea to compare the current low-power
contact technologies that can possibly guide the fast
development and deployment of WBAN systems, and mainly
focuses on remote monitoring of aged or chronically ill
patients in urban aura.
Quwaider, Muhannad, and Biswas ''et al.'' [4] In this the
author describe an area based store-and-fleading packet
routing algorithm for wireless body area networks (WBAN)
with constant postural separation. A prototype WBAN has
been made for analytically represent on-body topology
detachment in the existence of ultra-short range radio links,
uncertain RF depletion, and human postural flexibility. A
location based packet routing protocol is then developed.
The concert of the proposed protocol is value of
experimentally, and is compared with a generic probabilistic
routing protocol and a specialized on-body packet flooding
mechanism that provides the routing delay lower-bounds. It
is shown that via successfully leveraging the node location
information, the proposed algorithm can provide better
routing delay performance compared to existing
probabilistic routing protocols in the literature. Ehyaie, Aida,
Hashemi, and Khadivi ''et al.'' [5] In this authors describes
that wireless body area sensor networks will revolutionize
health care services by remote, continuous and non-invasive
monitoring. This paper investigates the effect of adding a
relay network to the network of body sensors to reduce
energy consumption of sensor nodes when transmitting data
to the sink.
4. Proposed Work
Wireless Body Area Sensors are used to monitor human
health with limited energy resources. Distinct accomplished
routing methods are passed down to progressing facts from
body sensors to medical server. It is necessary that
anticipate the facts of patient accurately reserved to medical
specialist for additional investigation. Expected process help
in flexibility at amount of low throughput and further
hardware amount of relay node. They deploy sink at wrist.
When sink node goes far from communication are of nodes,
it adopt a relay node which assemble facts from sensor
nodes. In opportunistic protocol, when patient moves his
hands, the wireless link of sink with sensor nodes abrupt.
Link breakdown absorb also function of sensor nodes and
relay node also more packets will drop, which causes
important and critical data to loss.
To reduce energy usage and to increase the output, we come
up accompanied a new introduced scheme. Our addition
Our proposed scheme achieves a longer stability period.
Nodes remain alive for overlong period and use minimal
energy. Large stability period and minimum energy
consumption of nodes, contribute to high throughput.
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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470
5. Results
To evaluate proposed protocol, we have conducted an
extensive set of experiments using MATLAB.
x 10
Packets received at sink
direct method
Rounds (r)
Throughput is the number of packets received
successfully at sink
More alive nodes contribute towards higher network
Path Loss
direct method
Path Loss(dB)
Rounds (r)
Multi-hop topology minimizes the Path loss
Direct distant communication causes maximum path
Network Lifetime
direct method
No. of dead nodes
[2] Mohammad Ghamari “A Survey on Wireless Body Area
Networks for eHealthcare Systems in Residential
Environments” Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX
79968, USA.
[4] Nadeem, N.Javaid, S.N.Mohammad, M.Y.Khan, S.Sarfraz,
M.Gull “Simple: Stable Increased-throughput Multi-hop
Protocol for link Efficiency in Wireless Body Area
Networks.” Department of Electrical Engineering,
COMSATS Institute of IT, Islamabad, Pakistan.
[5] FatemehRismanianYazdi “A Review of State-of-the-Art
on Wireless Body Area Networks"(IJACSA)
International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and
Applications, Vol. 8, No. 11, 2017.
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on.IEEE, 2009
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Rounds (r)
7. References
[1] Rim Negra "Wireless sensor network Applications and
technologies" The Second International Workshop on
[3] Prameela.S,P. Ponmuthuramalingam “Wireless Body
Area Network- A Study” Department of Computer
Science, Government Arts College, Coimbatore, Tamil
Nadu, India
Nodes with less value of cost function are elected as parent
node. Other nodes become the children of that parent node
and forward their data to parent node. Two nodes for ECG
and Glucose monitoring forward their data direct to sink as
they are placed near sink, also these two nodes cannot be
elected as parent node because both sensor node has critical
and important medical data. It is not required that these two
node deplete their energy in forwarding data of other nodes.
Our simulation results shows that proposed routing scheme
enhance the network stability time and packet delivered to
sink. Path loss is also investigated in this protocol and in
future work, we will implement Expected Transmission
Count (ETX) link metrics as demonstrated.
6. Conclusion and Future Scope
In this work, we propose a mechanism to route data in
WBANs. The proposed scheme use a cost function to select
appropriate route to sink.
Increase in stability period due to appropriate selection
of forwarder node in each round
Balanced energy consumption among all nodes in stable
Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD25150
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protocol for body area networks.” Proceedings of the
ICST 2nd international conference on Body area
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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470
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Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD25150
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