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IoT Based Detection of Leakages in Gas Pipes

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD)
Volume: 3 | Issue: 4 | May-Jun 2019 Available Online: www.ijtsrd.com e-ISSN: 2456 - 6470
IoT Based Detection of Leakages in Gas Pipes
P. Anitha1, K. Saranya2
Professor, Department of Electronic Science, 2Student of MSC Applied Electronics,
1,2PSG College of Arts And Science, Coimbatore
How to cite this paper: P. Anitha | K.
Saranya "IoT Based Detection of
Leakages in Gas Pipes" Published in
International Journal of Trend in
Scientific Research and Development
(ijtsrd), ISSN: 24566470, Volume-3 |
Issue-4, June 2019,
Copyright © 2019 by author(s) and
International Journal of Trend in
Scientific Research and Development
Journal. This is an Open Access article
distributed under
the terms of the
Creative Commons
Attribution License (CC BY 4.0)
In industries leakage of Gas in the pipeline is a major issue nowadays. Leakage is
defined as the accidental admission or escape of fluid through a hole or crack
from the pipe. Gas leakages lead to losses as well as fire accidents. This project
takes the control over automatic detection of leakages than the man power and
thus reduce loss. Here we propose an inventive robot that clings on to the outer
surface of the gas pipe and moves along the pipe to check for leakages. The kit
consists of MQ5 gas sensor to detect the gas leakages. The robot moves
continuously along the metal pipe, if there any presence of leakage the particular
position is sensed by ultrasonic sensor and the message is send to the IOT
through Wi-Fi module.
Keywords: Arduino Uno, MQ 5 sensor, Ultrasonic sensor, Temperature sensor, LCD,
Wi-Fi module, Motor driver
The Internet of things (IOT) is the network of electronic devices, which are
related to embedded systems and also other domains through the internet.
Liquids and gases are mostly transported in pipelines like oil, natural gases, biofuels and water. It is necessary to check whether the pipes are good enough
without cracks. The cracks may lead to disasters. There is a real life incident
which needs to be taken seriously. This project might help to get aware of it. The
cruel incident took place in Tlahuelilpan town situated in Mexican state.
On 18, Jan 2019 a pipeline transporting gasoline exploded
taking the life of 96 people and a lots of people gets injured.
Pipeline monitoring, control, operation and maintenance are
very important activities, which have evolved considerably.
The detection and behavior of leaks has deserved special
attention by different researchers. This paper deals with the
detection of leakages in gas pipes and thus reducing the
The block diagram for IOT based detection on leakages in
gas pipe is shown in Fig 1.1
The industrial pipes is widely used nowadays due to the
increasing need to transport materials, usually fluids, from
one point to another distant one. In many industries this
project is used for detecting the leakages of gas pipes which
cannot be detected by humans. KROTO comes from a Greek
word which denote ‘to crack’. The gas pipe has a very high
temperature, high pressure and contains toxic gases inside it.
The robot which consists of gas sensor that is used to detect
the gas leakages. As the robot keeps moving along the metal
pipe it keeps monitoring for any gas leakage, the cracks in
the pipe are detected and the condition of the pipe is
estimated with the help of Temperature sensor. This data
from all the high precision sensors will be displayed in the
LCD. The distance of the crack being detected is calculated
with the help of Ultrasonic sensor and message is send to the
IOT through Wi-Fi module.
Unique Paper ID - IJTSRD23722
A. Arduino
Arduino is an open-source easy programming platform
which consists of a microcontroller and a part of the
software or Integrated Development Environment (IDE) that
runs on your PC [1]. The board is designed around an 8-bit
Atmel AVR microcontroller or a 32-bit Atmel ARM. Arduino
boards are able to read inputs and perform a no of tasks [2].
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May-Jun 2019
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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470
Arduino Uno is a single microcontroller board with 14 digital
input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs),
6 analog inputs labeled as A0 to A5 , a 16 MHz quartz crystal,
a USB COM connection, a power jack, an ICSP
Header and a reset button. The fig 1.2 shows the diagram of
Arduino Uno. To get started with arduino we have to connect
it to the computer with the USB cable or battery or adapter.
The various types of arduino boards used are Arduino Uno
(R3), Lily Pad Arduino, Red Board, Arduino Mega (R3),
Arduino Leonardo.
Distance L = 1/2 × T × C (1)
Where L is the distance, T is the time between the emission
and reception (1/2 denotes go and return distance), and C is
the sonic speed. The speed of the sound is 343
meters/second (approx. 1125 feet/second). It depends on
temperature and humidity. The maximum range for the
ultrasonic sensor is about 20 meters (about 70 feet, 3mm)
[5]. The Ultrasonic sensor consists of Vcc, Gnd, Trig and Echo
pins. The Vcc and Gnd are connected to the arduino board.
The Trig pin is the transmitter which sends a high frequency
signal. The Echo pin is the receiver that collects the signal at
the receiver end for detecting the distance. The time
between the emission and reception determines the distance
of the object [6].
Fig 1.2
B. Gas sensor
Gas detectors can be used to detect hazardous gas and alert
people in danger zone. This type of sensors are used widely
in industry shown in fig 1.3 and can be found in locations,
such as on oil rigs, to monitor the leakages in pipes [3]. The
MQ5 Gas Sensor is a module for detecting the gas leakages. It
detects LPG, i-butane, methane, alcohol, Hydrogen, smoke
and so on. The sensitivity can be adjusted using
potentiometer in the board. The sensor is connected to the
analog pin of arduino for reading the inputs and operates on
5V. The features of the gas sensor is high sensitivity to gas,
fast response, stable and long life and simple drive circuit
Fig 1.3
C. Ultrasonic sensor
Ultrasonic sensors measure distance by using ultrasonic
waves. The diagram of ultrasonic sensor is shown in fig 1.4.
The head of the sensor emits an ultrasonic wave and
receives the wave reflected back from the target. The radar
consists of separate emitter and receiver but it has some
difficulty in processing the correct distance. The ultrasonic
sensor reduces the difficulties of radar and most commonly
used nowadays. The distance can be calculated as shown in
the equation (1).
Unique Paper ID - IJTSRD23722
Fig 1.4
D. Temperature sensor
Temperature is a simple thermostatic device which detects
physical change and convert into analog or digital output.
The contact and non-contact are the two basic types of
temperature sensors [7]. The device LM35 is a precision
temperature sensor in which the output voltage is
proportional to the temperature. The operating range for the
sensor is -55°C to 150°C. It provides accurate reading and
has less self-heating. Temperature sensors produce output in
Celsius and does not require any external calibration. It
consists of Vcc, Gnd, Output pins as shown in fig 1.5 [8].
Fig 1.5
E. LCD display
The liquid crystal display is a basic module used to display
alphanumeric characters in most of the embedded projects.
It is easy to program, cheap and availability. Here we are
using 16x2 LCD display as shown in fig 1.6 which can display
16 characters separately in two rows. It has totally 16 pins in
that two pins are used for read/write instruction or data
depending on the program. The data will be in ASCII format
Volume – 3 | Issue – 4
Fig 1.6
May-Jun 2019
Page: 434
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470
F. Wi-Fi module
ESP8266 is Wi-Fi enabled system on chip (SOC) module
which was developed by Espressif system. It is widely used
for development of IoT (Internet of Things) embedded
applications. ESP8266 is a 3V Wi-Fi module very popular for
its Internet of Things applications as shown in fig (1.7). Its
maximum working Voltage is 3.6V.
ESP8266 module is low cost standalone wireless transceiver
that can be used for end-point IoT developments. In order to
communicate with the ESP8266 module, microcontroller
needs to use set of AT commands. Microcontroller
communicates with ESP8266-01 module using UART of
specified Baud rate. ESP8266 consists of eight pins. The VCC,
chip power down is connected to the 3.3V power supply. The
GND is connected to the ground. For transmitting the data
the RX and TX pin is connected to the 2nd and 3rd pin of the
Arduino Uno. It displays the data of gas leakage, distance in
cm and temperature in Celsius.
Fig 1.7
G. Motor Driver
The L293D is a 16 pin motor driver IC which can control two
DC motors simultaneously in forward and reverse direction.
It consists of 4 inputs, 4 outputs and enable pins for
controlling each motor as shown in fig 1. They are called as
current amplifiers because it takes low current from the
input and provides a high current at the output which is used
to drive the motor. It has two inbuilt H-bridges. All the inputs
are in TTL logic [12]. Dc motors are actuators that converts
electrical energy into mechanical movement. The dc motor
can be switched ON/OFF by switches, MOSFET, relays,
transistors etc.
Download the Arduino Ide 1.6.12 software as shown in fig
1.9. The programming of the Arduino is divided into two
parts namely setup and loop blocks. The setup is used to
initialize the input, output ports and devices. The loop block
contains the sequence of the program to carry out the
particular application. Once the program is verified it is
uploaded to the Arduino by connecting it with cable. The
serial monitor is used to view the changes in the sensor
connected to the Arduino. The Arduino Wi-Fi create a web
page for controlling the device with Wi-Fi [13].
The Gas sensor, Temperature sensor and Ultrasonic sensor is
connected to the analog or digital pins of the Arduino. All the
setup is done in a rover in order to move forward and
backward over the pipe. All the sensor output is displayed in
digital form in the LCD display. Once the gas value exceeds or
limits the threshold value the rover stops at the particular
point and the LCD is indicated by “GAS LEAK: YES”. At this
time the buzzer indicates an alarm for the surrounding
people to take safety measures and protection against the
leakage. The values of the sensors is also transmitted to the
authorized person using the ESP8266 wireless
communication protocol. The module is attached with the
system and connected to the internet for indication of the
message. When the gas level is within the specified range
then the LCD is indicated by “GAS LEAK: NO”. The distance is
specified by centimeter in LCD and temperature sensor in
In this project the pipeline is carefully monitored using the
rover which is attached to the pipe that reduces the accident
due to leakages. It is highly used in industries for detecting
harmful gases. This minimizes the man power and safe their
When there is no leakage
Fig 1.8
In this project we use Arduino integrated development
environment platform for programming. It is user friendly to
compile the program and upload. It accepts C, C++ languages.
The Arduino is connected to the system using cable.
When there is leakage detected
Fig 1.9
The system designed is very much efficient to use in
industries for detecting harmful gases. It reduces the man
power by monitoring the level of gas leakage by using sensor
and modules. It is highly used in home also for detection of
gases in atmospheric level. This is cheaper and easy to
program in Arduino by using Arduino IDE software.
Compared to the previous related works, the cost of the
system prototype is considerably low. It's real time system
that sense the leakage of the gas outside the pipe and
Unique Paper ID - IJTSRD23722
Volume – 3 | Issue – 4
May-Jun 2019
Page: 435
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470
indicate the particular leakage distance using MQ 5 sensor
and Ultrasonic sensor. The project provides low cost, long
life and high performance in sensing the leakages. It is
widely used in industries which transports hazardous gases.
[4] Huawei electronics Co., ltd, “MQ 5 gas sensor
In future the project can be modified to advance technology
by connecting sensors around the pipe can detect the
leakage even faster and we can add additional sensors for
sensing various gases at the atmospheric level. It can be
controlled by voice recognition to detect and respond to
leakages. Here the distance is calculated by Ultrasonic sensor
but in future it can be modified to other type which can
calculate even more long distances.
[6] Elijah J. Morgan, “HC-SR04 Ultrasonic sensor”, (2014)
[5] https://www.keyence.com/ss/products/sensor/senso
[7] https://www.electronics tutorials.ws/io/io_3.html
[8] Texas instruments, “LM35 precision centigrade
temperature sensors”, (August 1999).
[9] https://electronicsforu.com/resources/
[10] Spark fun Electronics [US]-Products.
[1] https://www.arduino.cc/
[11] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NodeMCU.
[2] Michael McRoberts, “Beginning Arduino”, 2nd edition.
[12] https://www.engineersgarage.com/
[3] F. Rettig, R. Moos, “Semiconductor gas sensors”, (2013).
Unique Paper ID - IJTSRD23722
[13] BrianW. Evans, “Arduino Programming notebook”, 1st
edition (August 2007)
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