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Justly Balanced Community Concept, Principles and Aims

International Journal of Trend in Scientific
Research and Development (IJTSRD)
International Open Access Journal
ISSN No: 2456 - 6470 | www.ijtsrd.com | Volume - 2 | Issue – 4
Justly Balanced Community: Concept, Principles and
a Aims
Dr. Burhan Rashid
Assistant Professor
Professor, Shah-I-Hamadan Institute of Islamic Studies,
ersity of Kashmir, Jammu Kashmir, India
All the teachings which Islam gives and instructs are
in full conformity with the human nature. They are
applicable in all situations and circumstances. There is
no excesses or deficiencies found in them. One who
acts according to the teachings of Islam is basically
acting according to what nature demands of him. Thus
in this way, he is fulfilling the genuine demands of the
nature on the one hand, and is simultaneously gaining
the pleasure of the Lord of the universe on the other
The present paper deals with the explanation of how
Islam and its principles
les steer clear of the extremes in
all matters of human life. Many examples have been
cited to illustrate how the teachings of Islam are free
from all kinds of excesses and deficiencies. Light is
also thrown on the importance of justly balanced
community; its principles, aims, duties, objectives and
rest of mankind), even as the Prophet has been a
pattern unto you. {Al-Quran,
Quran, Surah al-Baqarah,
Chapter 2:143}.
At another place Allah says:
And of those whom We have created there is a
community guiding others with truth (i.e., in
accordance with the True Religion) as by it they act
justly. {Al-Quran, Surah al-Aʻʻrāf, Chapter 7:181}.
The qualities of a moderate / justly balanced
community are candidly expressed in a number of
Quranic Āyāt (verses). The holy Quran also alludes to
the aims and duties of such a balanced community. It
says that the best community among the mankind is
that which enjoins what is right and forbids what is
wrong. [2]
Life, according to Islam, is an indivisible whole. All
its aspects (and activities) whether political or
economic, social or religious, local or international
are to be governed and controlled by Divine Law.
This leads to social solidarity or edifice parts of which
strengthen each other. The outstanding featur
feature of
Islamic life is that it is free from extremes and is
justly balanced, for virtue is to avoid the extremes on
either side. The message of the Lord is:
Islam, thus, steers clear of the extremes in life and
chooses for itself the middle path or the principle of
moderation. Here, it may be said that in one sense this
is the same as the ‘Golden Mean’ of Aristotle. But
there is a difference between ‘the moderation (or
mean)’ as a principle and ‘the mean’
mean of Aristotle
which he put forward as a rule. A rule is not a special
order or command; it fluctuates with the collateral
circumstances of each situation and is subject to
flexible reason, while a principle is the command, not
variable but to be obeyed by all. In Islam it takes the
form of Law rather it is the Law itself. Islamic Law,
not given to extremes, is no other than the Law which
adheres to the middle course and moderation in life.
Muhammad Asad says:
We have moulded you (O! Muslim community) [1]
into a society justly balanced (in every respect) that ye
might be a pattern (or witness) unto others (i.e., the
Moral knowledge, according to the teachings of
Islam, automatically forces a moral responsibility
upon men. A mere Platonic discernment between
Keywords: Justice, Moderation, Universality,
Applicability. Excess and Deficiency (Ifrā
(Ifrāṭ and
Tafrīṭ), human life, equilibrium.
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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
Right and Wrong, without the urge to promote the
Right and to destroy the Wrong is a gross immorality
in itself. In Islam, morality lives and dies with the
human endeavor to establish its victory upon earth.
To illustrate the doctrine of moderation in Islam, let
us see some examples of how Islam adopts the middle
path in all matters, be they with regards to belief,
worship, mutual dealings, transactions, social
behavior, morals or manners.
1.1 Moderation in the matters pertaining to beliefs
In the earlier nations, we see that on the one hand
some took their Prophets as the sons of God and
started adoring and worshipping them. Regarding
Jews and Christians, the holy Quran says:
And the Jews say: ‘Uzayr [4] is a child (or son) of
God; and the Christians say: Masīḥ [5] (‘Isā’) is a
child (or son) of God. That is their saying with their
mouths (i.e., unsupported by their own prophets),
resembling the saying of those who disbelieved
aforetime. Allah confound them! Whither are they
turning away? {Al-Quran, Surah al-Taubah, Chapter
9: 30}.
While some others, in spite of seeing multitudes of
miracles happening at the hands of their Prophets
refused to accompany them in accomplishing the most
important tasks. When Mūsā’ (A.S.) [6] commanded
his people to be strong and courageous to enter the
land of Amalekites (the country of Canaan) to
conquer it, they rejected his call as is quoted in the
holy Qur’ān:
Yet the people said: O Mūsā’! Certainly we shall
never march to it so long as they remain there, go
forth thou and thy Lord, and fight you twain, we
remain here sitting. {Al-Quran, Surah al-Mā’idah,
Chapter 5: 24}. [7]
There were others who mocked, vexed, injured and
even killed their Prophets as is mentioned in the holy
Qur’ān. Allah says: “Ah the misery of Our bondmen!
There comes not to them any messenger of Ours but
him they have been mocking. {Al-Quran, Surah
Yāsīn, Chapter 36:30}.”
Regarding the behavior of the disbelievers of the past
nations and their vexation against their Prophets,
Allah quotes Mūsā’(A.S.) as saying:
And recall when Mūsā’ (vexed at the exhibition of
constant rebellion and disobedience among his
people) said to his people: my people! Why do you
hurt me when you know surely that I am Allah’s
messenger to you? {Al-Quran, Surah al-Ṣaff, Chapter
Some of the people of the past nations even killed
their prophets; Allah says in the holy Quran: “They
(i.e., Jews) have been denying the signs of Allah and
killing the prophets of Allah without right. {AlQuran, Surah Āl-i ‘Imrān, Chapter 3:112}.”
But the attitude of this Community / Ummah (i.e.,
Ummat-i-Muslimah), on the other hand, is and has
remained always in moderation with respect to the
matters pertaining to beliefs (Īmāniyāt). They hold
their Prophet, Prophet Muḥammad (S.A.A.W.S) [8]
dearest to all; their lives, wealth, progeny, honour and
everything. And on the other hand, they recognize
Prophet as a Prophet, and God as God; neither raising
the prophets to the pedestal of God, or His like, nor
degrading God to the level of human beings.
Islam correctly defines the status of the Prophets. It
explains that the Prophets were neither God, nor His
likeness, nor His sons, nor yet His kinsmen, for they
were mortals like all other men. But, despite the fact
that they were human beings, they were not like
ordinary mortals since they enjoined the privilege of
conversing with God, were recipients of Divine
Revelations and were free of all sins. As perfect
guides of humanity they were a witness to these
realities of the celestial realm which are beyond the
ken of human perception. They are the assured ones,
having wisdom and faith and guidance from the Lord
of the worlds. Every man is thus duty-bound to obey
and pay his regards to these truthful souls who are
raised to preach the Message of God to their fellow
This is the path of moderation --- the path avoiding
the excesses of undue veneration and denial of the
respect due to the prophets and founders of religions -- which Islam shows to the world as a necessary
adjunct to its higher concept of the Unity of God.
1.2 Moderation in matters of worship
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After ‘belief’ comes the number of worship / acts of
devotion, here again we see that Islam has corrected
all the earlier misconceptions of extremities. This is
briefly illustrated in the following lines.
Worship was, and still is, a fundamental discipline of
every religion. The people of past nations had,
however, mistaken self-torture for veneration of God.
They had somehow convinced themselves that the
more one suffers agony and subjects one’s body to
suffering and pain, the more one advances spiritually
towards piety and purity of soul. Therefore, falling
prey of these misconceived notions, they had taken to
strange practices, took different forms of selfmortification which they considered the doors to
spiritual elevation. Therefore, some of them refrained
from taking baths throughout their lives, some clad
themselves in tatters or tunics made of coarse material
(like hemp), some remained unclad even during
freezing cold season, some had taken a vow to remain
standing for the rest of their lives, some lived in the
deserted dens of wild beasts, some always remained
in the sun, some dwelt on bare rocks, some ate only
leaves of the trees, some scrupulously avoided contact
with women and some even hanged themselves
upside down from the trees. These ways of
worshipping God were deemed highly meritorious all
over the West during the dark ages. Other countries of
the world were no better, either.
On the other hand, we see some other nations of yore
used to sell the commandments and words of the Lord
for worldly gains. Their religious scholars and priests
gave wrong verdicts (Fatāwā) by taking bribes. They
distorted and deliberately misinterpreted the teachings
of their Prophets and the scriptures. They were always
in search of pretexts and excuses in order to remain
away from the acts of worship.
It was in this atmosphere, prevailing throughout the
world, that Islam came to set a middle path between
these two extremes. Islam, on the one hand, delivered
humanity from these fiendish practices by telling it
that self-torture and bodily exertions were neither
demanded by God nor they led to the union of the
devotee’s spirit with the Supreme Being. Islam
candidly rejects the concept of monasticism. Allah
says: “And asceticism (or, monasticism, or monkery).
We did not prescribe it for them; they innovated it,
only seeking Allah’s goodwill, but they tended it not
with the tendence due to it. {Al-Quran, Surah alHadid, Chapter 57:27}.” [9]
And Prophet Muhammad (S.A.A.w.S.) has said: “There
is no monasticism in Islam.”
On the other hand, Islam cultivated such spirit of
servitude (devotion to God) in its followers that they
never compromised with it and endeavoured to make
it dominant over all the spheres of their lives. Islam
put the conception of devotion on true and right lines
by telling that the spirit of worship lies in the
acknowledgment of complete and unquestioned
loyalty to the Lord, the Master of the Worlds.
Maulānā Abdul Majid Daryābādī writes:
Islam … does not base its system of religio-moral
perfection on the conception of the wickedness and
sinfulness of the human body; and the law of Islam
does not repudiate the earthly life in toto as
intrinsically impure. It does not demand the
suppression of fleshly impulses; it only requires that
they should be curbed and controlled in accordance
with the norm supplied by itself. Celibacy on a large
scale is designed to defeat the very aim and purpose
of nature --- the replenishment of the earth. [10]
1.3 Moderation in matters of almsgiving and
Although almsgiving and charity is considered as an
act of great virtue in all the religions but they have not
remained free of extremes with regards to it. On the
one hand, we see that the teaching of Bible regards it
the greatest virtue to spend everything in charity and
become impoverished and destitute himself. Bible
exhorts its followers to sell all they have and give the
money to the poor (so as to become penniless and
pauper himself).
On the other hand, there is a class of people who are
never moved to spend anything in the way of God.
They resort to different pretexts and excuses to
exempt themselves from spending in the way of God.
Qur’ān makes mentions of such people as under:
And when it is said to them: expend (in alms and
charity) of that with which Allah has provided you,
those who disbelieve say to the faithful: shall we feed
those whom Allah Himself would have fed, had He
willed? You are but in error manifest. {Al-Quran,
Surah Yāsīn, Chapter 36:47}
Islam adopted the middle path, free of both the
extremes, in this matter as well. Firstly, it made the
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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
concept of almsgiving and charity clear and vivid by
giving complete details of all its elements. Secondly,
it did not command its followers to spend each and
everything in almsgiving so as to fall into
impoverishment, instead it says:
And they ask thee (O Muḥammad!) as to what they
shall spend (in voluntary charity). Say thou:
“Redundant portion (i.e., whatever can be spent
without detriment to the necessities of one’s own self
or of those whose maintenance is obligatory on him.)
{Al-Quran, Surah al-Baqarah, Chapter 2: 219}.
At another place Allah says:
Let not your hand be chained to your neck, nor stretch
it forth to its extremity (i.e., do not be either niggardly
or profuse, but observe the mean between the two
extremes.) lest you sit down reproached. {Al-Quran,
Surah al-Isrā’, Chapter 17: 29}.
When ‘Umar (Raḍ.A) [11] approached the Prophet
(S.A.A.w.S.) and asked his opinion as to giving away,
in charity, his best garden in Khyber, the Prophet
advised him to keep the garden for himself and give
away only its produce in charity. This proves that
regard for others does not mean disregard for the self.
The self is to be cared for and developed so that it
may be of greater service to others. But this does not
mean unrestrained development of self nor does it
mean self-destruction but a careful development
bearing in mind one’s duties to others.
It is the reason that Islam, by way of Īthār
(unselfishness), also exhorts its followers to give
preference to others who are in more need than
yourselves. Islam also instructs that charity should be
given only with utmost sincerity; only to seek the
pleasure of the Lord, not for the worldly gains,
display, showoff and ostentation. Neither should there
be any intention to hurt the sentiments of the receiver,
or to put any burden upon him. The holy Qur’ān has
quoted the behaviour of Ansār (Helpers at Madīnah)
with the Muhājirūn (Emigrants from Makkah) as
praiseworthy as they had offered full help to them.
Allah says: “Preferring them (Muhājirūn) above
themselves even though there was want among them
(Ansār). {Al-Quran, Surah al-Isrā’, Chapter 59: 9}.”
They themselves were thirsty and hungry but they, in
the spirit of self-sacrifice, offered whatever they had
to the Muhājirūn (Emigrants from Makkah) and
proved ideal hosts to them.
Those who feed the hungry, orphans, destitute and
captives etc. are praised by Allah. Allah says: “And
they feed, for love of Him, with food the destitute, the
orphan and the captive. {Al-Quran, Surah al-Insān,
Chapter 76: 8}”
Regarding the sincerity of thought and avoiding any
kind of display and ostentation, and maintaining
kindly feelings towards the receiver, the holy Quran
O you who believe! Void not your charities by taunt
and by harm, like unto him who spends his riches to
be seen of men. {Al-Quran, Surah al-Baqarah,
Chapter 2: 264}.
At another place, Allah says: “an honourable word (of
refusal) and forgiveness (granted to the beggar if he is
wantonly insolent) are better (a thousand times) than
an alms followed by injury. {Al-Quran, Surah alBaqarah, Chapter 2: 263}.”
The whole phrase means: ‘Refusal with pleasing or
gracious speech and prayer expressed to the beggar
that God may sustain him, and forgiveness granted to
the beggar for his importunity … are better than an
alms with annoyance followed by reproach for a
benefit conferred and for begging.’
1.4 Moderation regarding the behaviour with
menstruating women
The Biblical regulations concerning menstruating
women are much rigid. According to Bible:
She shall be put apart for seven days: and whosoever
toucheth her shall be unclean until the even. And
everything that she lieth upon in her separation shall
be unclean: everything also that she sitteth upon shall
be unclean. And whosoever toucheth her bed shall
wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be
unclean until the even.”(Leviticus: The Third Book of
Moses 15:19-21). [12]
Still more rigid are the laws prescribed by the Jewish
doctors. According to them:
The woman must reckon seven days after the
termination of the period. If then, this lasts seven
days; she cannot become pure until the fifteenth day.
Purification, furthermore, can be gained only by a
ritual bath; and until the woman has taken this, she
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remains unclean….in addition to all this, a woman who
does not menstruate regularly is unclean for a certain time
before she becomes aware that the period has begun, and
objects which she touches are defiled.’ (The Jewish
Encyclopedia, IX, p. 301). [13]
There are many other communities in whom a
menstruating woman has to, according to their code,
refrain from all household duties, especially from the
preparation of food, and to approach her is often an
offence. She must, like the leper of the medieval
times, wear a special garment, or call aloud to warn
all who approach her that she is unclean. [14]
This is one extreme, the other extreme is that there are
others who do not even consider it any filth and
pollution but unhesitatingly have intercourses with
their wives in the period of their menstruation. They
do not even take heed of its biological harms and
dreadful consequences out of their extreme zeal of
carnal pleasures and uncontrolled sexual desires.
The Qur’ānic injunction regarding this matter is given
in the following Āyah (verse):
And they ask thee (O Prophet!) of menstruation (and
cohabitation in that period). Say thou: “it is pollution,
so keep away from women during menstruation (i.e.,
do not cohabit with them during this period), and go
not in unto them till they have cleansed themselves.
Then when they have thoroughly cleansed themselves
(of menstrual pollution, and have washed themselves)
go in unto them as Allah has directed you (i.e., in a
way that is natural, lawful and clean). Surely Allah
loves the repentants, and He loves the cleansers of
themselves. {Al-Quran, Surah al-Baqarah, Chapter 2:
It follows from this Āyah (verse) that it is only the
cohabitation which is prohibited during the period
when one’s wife is passing through the period of
menstruation. In household matters neither is she
refrained from performing her duties nor the things
she touches, are considered as defiled and unclean.
1.5 Moderation with regards to the matters of
The course of divorce or the dissolution of the
marriage tie, among ancient nations has been erratic,
some making it too loose, others making it too tight.
Speaking sociologically, every religion has to meet
two ends in the sphere of marriage and family --- to
raise the standard of morality and to sanctify the
marriage contract. But in practice some religions have
become too lenient, others too rigid. The Jewish law
takes treats it as a matter of no great concern. If
husband finds ‘some uncleanness in her; then let him
write her a bill of divorcement, and give it in her
hand, and send her out of his house. And when she
has departed from his house, she may go and be
another man’s wife.’(Deuteronomy: 24:1, 2).
Christianity, on the other hand, taking its stand on the
reported saying of Jesus: ‘what therefore God hath
asunder……whosoever shall put away his wife, and
marry another, committeth adultery against her.
(Gospel according to St. Mark 10: 9, 11), and also
upon the dictum of Paul: ‘let not the wife depart from
her husband.’ (Paul’s First Epistle to the
Corinthinians; 7:10), has interdicted divorce
altogether. The Catholics hold: ‘when the sacrament
of matrimony has been received by a man and a
woman and ratified by their cohabitation as husband
and wife, their union cannot be dissolved except by
death.’ (New Catholic Dictionary, p.no. 477). The
climax was reached in the rules of Roman Catholic
Church… (It) ‘Treats marriage as a sacrament, and
demands indissolubility and non-changeability. This
in itself is unreasonable. Judaism takes account of the
mutability of human feelings, and free people when
the chains of matrimony become fetters; but the
Catholic Church refuses to recognize any such change
of feeling. The bonds of matrimony become a chain as
heavy and galling as iron in which two people must
languish for the term of their natural lives.’ The
Protestants allow it no doubt, but only on such
grounds as are of comparatively rare occurrence --fornication, for instance.
Islam has steered its course midway between the two,
avoiding the extremes of either making divorce too
rigid or banning it altogether, or of making it too
loose and frivolous. Islam has adopted the only wise
course open --- that of imposing certain conditions
and limitations upon the right of the husband to
dissolve the matrimonial bond, the object of which is
‘to ensure that the husband does not act in haste or
anger and that separation becomes inevitable in the
interests of the husband and wife and the children.’ …
divorce, though perfectly legitimate in itself, is not to
be had recourse to light-heartedly or on flimsy
grounds. There are verses, in Qur’ān, which tend to
discourage the practice, unless, of course, there be
strong reasons for taking the step, or the
incompatibility of temperaments be well-established.
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The Prophet (S.A.A.W.S) is also reported to have
observed: __‘Of all the permissible acts, divorce is the
most disapproved of by Allah.’….the goal of
matrimony in Islam is to unite two lives, to bring
happiness to the couple, and to instill mutual amity,
harmony, responsible co-partnership and good
fellowship in the pair. Now, human nature being what
it is, it sometimes happens that even with the best of
motives and after repeated trials, the union remains
unhappy. The only remedy then is to unfasten the
wedding-tie. Even then, the husband is enjoined by
the Qur’ān not to dismiss the wife in disgrace, or with
a view to humiliating her but to let her off kindly,
with due regard to his chivalry and her tenderness,
and with a view to securing peace of mind both for
her and himself. [15]
1.6 Moderation in other matters of the human life
In addition to the above discussed matters there are
numerous other such matters in which other religions
have taken one or the other extremities but Islam
adopted and showed humanity the path which is
balanced and free from all extremes. For example,
regarding the manner of spending on one’s needs the
holy Qur’ān says:
And squander not in squandering; truly the
squanderers are the brethren of the devils, and the
Devil is ever ungrateful to his Lord. {Al-Quran, Surah
al-Isrā, Chapter 17:26-27}.
At another place, enumerating the noble qualities of
true believers, and His loyal slaves, Allah says:
And those who when they expend, are neither
extravagant nor stingy; and it (i.e., their mode of
spending) is a medium in between. {Al-Quran, Surah
al-Furqān, Chapter 25:67}
Thus the Quranic instructions on the one hand
restricts one from being niggardly, and on the other
hand it does not permit to be extravagant and
With regards to the manner of walking on the earth,
Qur’ān says:
And be thou modest in thy gait (neither going too
slowly nor too quickly). {Al-Quran, Surah Luqmān,
Chapter 31:19}
With regards to maintaining moderation in the voice
during speaking and talking, Qur’ān says:
and lower thy voice; for the harshest of sounds
without doubt is the braying of the ass. {Al-Quran,
Surah Luqmān, Chapter 31:19}
Even during the worship and acts of adoration the
voice should remain moderate; it should neither be
raised too high nor should it be dropped too low,
though during supplication low voice is
recommended. Allah says:
Neither speak thy Prayer aloud, nor speak it in a low
tone, but seek a middle course between. {Al-Quran,
Surah al-Isrā, Chapter 17: 110}.
Call on your Lord with humility and in private: for
Allah loveth not those who trespass beyond
bounds. {Al-Quran, Surah al-Aʻrāf, Chapter 7: 55}.
With regards to the manner of eating and filling the
stomach, the Qur’ānic injunction is:
And eat (freely of clean, lawful foods) and drink
(freely of clean, lawful beverages), and be not
extravagant; surely He does not approve of the
extravagants. {Al-Quran, Surah al-Aʻrāf, Chapter
With regards to the matter of Fear and Hope ( ‫اجر و‬
‫ )فوخ‬with Allah, Islam again teaches the principle of
moderation --- neither letting its followers to become
despaired of Allah’s Mercy nor letting them to
become heedless of His Wrath and Punishment.
The holy Quran quotes the words of Prophet Yaʻqūb /
Jacob (A.S.) when he said to his sons:
My sons! Go and ascertain about Yūsuf and his
brother, and despair not of the Mercy of Allah; none
despair of the Mercy of Allah except a people
disbelieving. {Al-Quran, Surah Yūsuf, Chapter 12:
The sinners and the transgressors whose hearts are
melted and are inclined to repent are thus
affectionately addressed as:
Say thou (on My behalf, O Prophet!): my bondmen
who have committed extravagance against themselves
(by acts of infidelity and impiety): despair not of the
Mercy of Allah: verily Allah will forgive the sins
altogether (to those who sincerely repent and confess
His Unity). Verily He! He is the Forgiving, the
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Merciful. {Al-Quran, Surah al-Zumar, Chapter 39:
means of gaining the goodwill and pleasure of the
Lord of the worlds.
The most decisive Āyah (verse) in this regard is the
following one:
1. The phrase may also be rendered as: ‘We have
exalted you, or ennobled you, as a nation
conforming to the just mean; or, just or equitable,
or good.’ [Lane’s ‘Arabic-English Lexicon’] as
quoted by Maulānā Abdul Majid Daryābādī in his
Tafsīr, Tafsīr al-Quran. See Daryābādī, Moulānā
Abdul Mājid, (English) Tafsīr al-Qur’ān (4 vols),
Academy of Islamic Research And Publications,
Nadwatul - Ulama, Lucknow-226007, India, 2011.
Vol. 1, p. 93.
Is he who is devout in the watches of the night
prostrating himself and standing, bewaring of the
Hereafter and hoping for the Mercy of his Lord to be
dealt with like a wicked infidel? Say thou (O
Prophet!): shall they who know and those who know
not be held equal (in the sight of Allah)? It is only
men of understanding who receive admonition. {AlQuran, Surah al-Zumar, Chapter 39: 9}.
It has been made clear in this Āyah (verse) that the
attitude of true believers is in between two extremes;
they are neither heedless of the wrath and punishment
of Allah nor lose hope in His Mercy. Enumerating the
noble qualities of true believers, Allah says:
Their sides leave off the couches (while yet there is
night) calling upon their Lord in fear and in desire,
and they expend of that with which We have provided
them. {Al-Quran, Surah al-Sajdah, Chapter 32: 16}.
Thus the principles governing Islamic way of life are
highly balanced. They are free from either extremes.
The Islamic teachings aim at establishing such a
balanced human community which is free from
excesses and deficiencies and steers away to the way
which is moderate and justly balanced. This
moderation is not seen in one or the two aspects only
but it encompasses all the aspects of human life. From
the above discussion it is clear that Islam has
maintained the principle of moderation and
equilibrium intact in matters related to the beliefs, acts
of worship and adoration, mutual dealings and
transactions, family and social life and even to the
matters related to the international relationships.
This principle of moderation plays a threefold role in
the human life. Firstly, it saves humanity from the
detriments which are caused by the extremism,
secondly, it is the basis for the establishment of a
justly balanced human community which is
prosperous and happy in all respects, thirdly, it
safeguards humans from falling to the extremism
pleasing to Satan that leads to astray from the straight
path. Above all this upholding the principle of
moderation propounded by the holy Quran is also the
2. See al-Quran Surah Āl-i ‘Imrān, Chapter 3, verse
110. The Quran says: You are the best community
ever sent forth to mankind (to benefit it by your
precept and practice, O Muslims!); you enjoin
what is right and forbid what is wrong, and you
believe in Allah.
3. Asad, Muhammad, Islam at the crossroads, Adam
Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi-110002,
(India), 2011, p. 32.
4. Ezra of the Bible, whose official title in the Jewish
tradition is the ‘Scribe of the words of the
commandments of the Lord and His statutes for
Israel’ (Friedlander, ‘Jewish religion’, p. 125) and
whose work constitutes a landmark in the history
of Judaism. (Daryābādī, op. cit. vol. 2, p. 226).
5. Masīḥ literally is ‘wiped over with some such
thing as oil,’ and Al-Masīḥ (with the definite
article AL) is ‘the Anointed, the Christ.’ Note that
the holy Quran never disputes the title of Jesus to
Messiahship. It is only his Divinity whether as Son or
as Child or Incarnation that Islam so consistently
denounces. (Daryābādī, op. cit. vol. 2, p. 227).
6. (A.S.): It is an abbreviation for Arabic “ ‫مﻼسﻼ و‬
‫ ”ةولصﻼ هيلع‬which can be translated in English as
“May Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him”.
7. Palestine might at once have been occupied, or its
conquest at any rate commenced, if the people had
had faith. But, on the near approach of danger,
their hearts failed them (Rawlinson, Moses: His
life and times, p. 177). As quoted by Daryābādī,
op. cit. vol. 1, p. 421.
8. (S.A.A.W.S): It is an abbreviation for Arabic “ ‫ملس و‬
‫ ”هيلع للها يلص‬which can be translated in English as
“May Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him”.
It is necessary for a Muslim, and it a source of
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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
great reward for him to read “‫”ملس و هيلع للها يلص‬
whenever Prophet’s name is mentioned.
9. For better understanding of the Islamic injunctions
related to the rahbāniyyah (asceticism /
monasticism) see: Shafīʻ, Muftī Muḥammad,
Maʻārif al-Qur’ān (8 vols; rendered in English
by: Prof. Muhammad Shamim, Muhammad Ishrat
Husain, Muhammad Walī Raazi, Moulānā Ahmad
Khalil Aziz, Prof. Muhammad Hasan Askari),
Farid Exports, New Delhi, India. Vol. 8, pp. 338342.
10. Daryābādī, op. cit. vol. 4, p. 331.
11. (Raḍ.A): It is an abbreviation for Arabic “ ‫\مهنع‬
‫ ”هنع للها يضر \اهنع \امهنع‬which can be translated in
English as “May Allah be pleased with him / her /
both of them / all of them.”
12. Quoted by Daryābādī, op. cit. vol. 1, p. 148.
13. Ibid. vol. 1, p. 148.
14. Ibid. vol. 1, p. 148.
15. Daryābādī, op. cit. vol. 1, p. 153.
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