Uploaded by mail

The Suture Line Himalayan Belt

International Journal of Trend in Scientific
Research and Development (IJTSRD)
International Open Access Journal
ISSN No: 2456 - 6470 | www.ijtsrd.com | Volume - 2 | Issue – 4
The Suture Line: Himalayan Belt
Biplab Tripathy
Assistant Professor
Professor, Arunachal University of Studies
Namsai, Arunachal Pradesh
Pradesh, India
Suture is very common term used to explain the plate
boundary in geography and geology. The term suture
is a medical term but geographically it refers to the
area of convergent plate margin. Area is very
important for the study of tectonic landforms. The
imalayan belt is a great example of suiter line lies
between Eurasian and Indian plate. It is longest suture
in the theory of plate-tectonic.
tectonic. The suture is very
sensitive for its destructive nature. Orogenesis process
made the region very differ from other
other. Various
natural disasters are happened on suture. Nepal earth
quake is a very recent devastating phenomenon on
Indo-Eurasian suture.
Keywords:: Suture line, Plate boundary, Convergent
plate boundary, Tectonic Landform. Indo
The term “Suture” means the line between two bones.
The term is related with medical science. It is firstly
used by Soviet paleontologists Schindewolf in the
year 1963. In the field of geography and geology the
term is generally used to show the area of subduction.
The term subduction means, the area where two
convergent plates moved face to face and heavy plate
moves under another lighter plate and in some cases
sinks into the mantle. The region of subduction is
called subduction zone or Benioff zone.
In the theory of plate tectonics suture line is very
important to study the nature of convergent plate
margin. The detail study on subduction also depends
on the surface structure of suture. Various landforms
are found on suture as like fold, faults, volcanic
mountain, folded mountain etc. Due to its vertical
location on subduction
n the suture line is highly
earthquake prone.
The best example of suture is Himalayan belt, which
is located between Indian and Eurasian plate. The
suture will be active if the plates are active. There are
two types of suture line found-1.Active
Inactive suture. But maximum sutures are active,
inactive suture is very rare.
When plate boundary becomes active, there various
destructive activities are started on suture line. Due to
long time collision the rocks of this region become
change into metamorphic.
morphic. According to Dewey
(1977) “Suture line is very simple and a collision line
between two plates”.
he suture line is the outer line on the surface of the
earth. It is a fault line between two plates. The width
of suture may vary from few kilometers to few
hundred kilometers.
@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 4 | May-Jun
Jun 2018
Page: 189
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
Suture is the line located at the frontal part of two
plates. When one plate is subducted with another,
there geosyncline occurred. Geosyncline is a first step
of collision. It is also the first step of folded mountain
formation. On the surface of the earth suture zone is
only the representative of such area beneath which
subduction zone are located. Actual line of suture is
identified by belt of earth quake and chain of folded
mountain with highest peak. Various types of fold and
fault as like anticline, syncline, Overturned fold,
recumbent fold trust fault, reverse fault etc. are found
here. The force, which is related with the landform
process on the suture area, is called orogenesis and
epeirogenesis. Intrusive landforms are mostly found
here as like batholiths, laccoliths, facoliths, etc.
Suture may be classified on the basis of its nature and
size and area. According to the size of suture it may
divide into three categories as like1.Macro Suture,
2.Meso suture 3.Micro suture. The length of the
suture is decided by plate size. After convergent
movement of two major plates, macro suture formed.
Indo- Eurasian suture or Asiatic suture is an example
of Macro suture similarly meso and micro suture is
formed by convergent movement of meso and micro
1. It is the boundary line between two plates
and separated from each other.The region is formed
before 40 to 50 million years ago, when two major
plate India and Eurasia driven by plate movement and
collided with each other. Indian North West to north
east large ‘U’ shaped margin is very active and
youngest one in the world. The line is passes through
the countries of India, Nepal and china, Bhutan and
Myanmar. This suture was formed at Cainozoic Era.
That is why it is called Cainozoic suture and
according to its location it is called Asiatic suture. The
Indian plate moving towards the north related to the
Eurasian plate and the collision creates subduction at
the interior earth. Recent study shows that presently
the average speed of Indian plate is almost 5 cm per
year. These movements are the main cause of frequent
earth quake in this area. The suture line longitudinally
divided into five zones, these are Kashmir, Punjab,
Kumaon, Central,Assam Himalaya.
The suture between India and Tibetan Plateau is
called Asiatic Suture it is extended up to north
eastcorner of India but actually extended up to
Australian plate, that’s why in some cases the portion
between Indian and Australian plate is called the
Indo- Australian plate. The line of suture on these two
plates is a result of subduction. It is divided into lots
intercontinental micro suture. These sutures are found
by fault lines, chain of mountain on the earth. The
satellite view of this region provides a chronological
order of height from center to margin. Marin of
suture is lightly folded than its middle portion. The
highest peak of Himalaya is located at the middle
chain of Suture.
2. The line is just vertical surface from subduction
3. Huge no of fold and faults are found here
4. Metamorphism of rock is very common in this
5. The area is very highly earth quake prone
6. Volcanic activities are very common here
Great Himalaya is a 2900Km longest representative of
suture line located between India and Eurasia.
According to the theory of continental drift of
Wegner, about 140 million years ago there was a
super mass of land which called Pangaea and
surrounding water body is called Panthalassa, after the
break of continent Pangaea divided into various plates
The suture line is very sensitive belt of earth. Amy
time and any moment it may be destructive in nature.
Due to such characters, it is most disaster prone.
Various endogenetic disasters as like earth quake,
@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 4 | May-Jun 2018
Page: 190
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
landslide, volcanic eruption etc. are frequently
happened in the suture zone.
Indo-Eurasian suture is a cause of many devastating
earthquakesin India and surrounding countries those
are located nearest in suture. April 2015 Nepal
earthquake is one of the example of disaster on suture
line. According to the USGS report it was happened
due to movement of Indian Plate toward underneath
the Eurasian Plate. These suture line pusses through
the Nepal and Lamjung in Nepal was the epicenter of
earth quake.
1) Ahir, Rajiv, 2013: Spectrum’s Geography,
Spectrum Books Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi
2) Wikipedia,
3) Dewey, John, 1977: Tectonophysics, Vol-40,
Issue-1-2, 8th June 1977, (P-53-67)
4) The Himalayas: Two continentals collide
5) M 7.8-36Km, E of Khudi, Nepal, 25/04/2015,
United State Geological Survey
6) International Geology Review, Ammonoid suture
line terminology, Vol 7, 1965- Issue 10.
7) Vivo Benedetto, Grasemann Bernhard, Stuwe
Kurt, 2009: Geology-Vol IV, EOLSS Publication.
8) Busch, Jay &Mezger, Klaus &Pluijim, Ben,
‘Suturing and extensional reactivation in the
Grenville orogeny, Canada’ Geology, June 1997,
@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 4 | May-Jun 2018
Page: 191