Uploaded by mail

# Singular Third Order Multipoint Boundary Value Problem at Resonance ```International Journal of Trend in Scientific
Research and Development (IJTSRD)
International Open Access Journal
ISSN No: 2456 - 6470 | www.ijtsrd.com | Volume - 2 | Issue – 3
Singular Third
Third-Order
Order Multipoint Boundary
Value Problem at Resonance
G. Pushpalatha
Assistant Professor, Department of Mathematics,
Vivekanandha College of Arts and Sciences for
Women, Tiruchengode, Namakkal, Tamilnadu, India
S. K. Reka
Research Scholar, Department of Mathematics,
Vivekanandha College of Arts and Sciences
Science for
Women, Tiruchengode, Namakkal, Tamilnadu, India
ABSTRACT
The present paper is particularly exhibits about the
derive results of a third-order
order singular multipoint
boundary value problem at resonance using coindence
degree arguments.
Keywords: Thee present paper is particularly exhibits
about the derive results of a third-order
order singular
multipoint boundary value problem at resonance
using coindence degree arguments.
INTRODUCTION
This paper derive the existence for the third
third-order
singular multipoint boundary value problem at
resonance of the form
𝑢′′′ = 𝑔(𝑡), 𝑢(𝑡), 𝑢′ (𝑡), 𝑢′′ (𝑡))) + ℎ(𝑡)
𝑢′ (0) = 0, 𝑢′′ (0) = 0,
𝑢(1) =
𝑎𝑏 𝑢 𝜍
,
,
Where 𝑔 ∶ [0,1] &times; ℝ → ℝ is caratheodory’s function
(i.e., for each (𝑢, 𝑣) ∈ ℝ the function 𝑔(. , 𝑢, 𝑣) is
measurable on [0,1]; for almost everywhere 𝑡 ∈ [0,1],
the function 𝑔(𝑡, . , . ) is continuous on ℝ ). Let
𝜍 ∈ (0,1), 𝑖, 𝑗 = 1,2, … , 𝑚 − 3, and ⋁ , 𝑎 𝑏 =
1, where 𝑔 and ℎ have singularity at 𝑡=1.
=1.
In  Gupta et al. studied the above equation when 𝑔
and ℎ have no singularity and ⋁ , 𝑎 𝑏 ≠ 1. They
obtained existence of a 𝐶 [0,1] solution by utilizing
Letay-Schauder
Schauder continuation principle. These results
correspond to the nonresonance case. The scope of
this article is therefore to obtained the survive results
when ⋁ , 𝑎 𝑏 = 1 (the resonance case) and when
𝑔 and ℎ have a singularity at 𝑡 = 1.
Definition 1
Let 𝑈 and 𝑊 be real Banach spaces. One says that the
linear operator 𝐿: 𝑑𝑜𝑚 𝐿 ⊂ 𝑈 → 𝑊 is a Fredholm
mapping of index zero if Ker 𝐿 and 𝑊/𝐼𝑚 𝐿 are of
finite dimension, where 𝐼𝑚 𝐿 denotes the image of 𝐿.
Note
We will require the continuous projections 𝑃: 𝑈 → 𝑈,
𝑄: 𝑊 → 𝑊 such that Im P = Ker L,Ker Q = Im L,
𝑈 =Ker L ⨁ Ker 𝑃, 𝑊 =Im L ⨁ Im Q,
𝐿|
: dom L ⋂ ker 𝑃 → Im 𝐿 Iis an
⋂
isomorphism.
Definition 2
Let 𝐿 be a Fredholm mapping of index zero and Ω a
bounded open subset of U such that
dom
𝐿⋂Ω ≠ 𝜙. The map M: 𝑈 → 𝑊 is called 𝑳-compact
on 𝛀, if the map 𝑄𝑁(Ω) is bounded and 𝑅 (𝐼 − 𝑄) is
compact, where one denotes by 𝑅 ∶ Im 𝐿 →
𝑑𝑜𝑚 𝐿 ⋂ 𝐾𝑒𝑟 𝑃 the generalized inverse of 𝐿. In
addition 𝑀 is 𝐿-completely
completely continuous if it 𝐿-compact
on every bounded Ω ⊂ 𝑈.
@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 3 | Mar-Apr
Apr 2018
Page: 623
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
Where
Theorem 1
Let 𝐿 be a Fredholm operator of index zero and let 𝑁
be 𝐿-compact on Ω. Assume that the following
conditions are satisfied :
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
𝐿𝑢 ≠ 𝜅𝑀𝑢 for every (𝑢, 𝜅) ∈
[(𝑑𝑜𝑚 𝐿 ∖ 𝐾𝑒𝑟 𝐿) ∩ 𝜕𝜅] &times; (0,1).
𝑀𝑢 ∉ 𝐼𝑚 𝐿, for every 𝑢 ∈ 𝐾𝑒𝑟 𝐿 ∩ 𝜕𝜅.
deg (𝑄𝑀|
∩ , 𝜅 ∩ 𝐾𝑒𝑟 𝐿, 0) ≠ 0,
𝑑𝑜𝑚 𝐿 =
𝑢 ∈ 𝑈 ∶ 𝑢′ (0) = 0, 𝑢′′ (0) = 0, 𝑢(1)
=
𝑎 𝑏 𝑢(𝜍)
,
And 𝑀: 𝑈 → 𝑊 is defined by
with 𝑄: 𝑊 → 𝑊 being a continuous projection such
that 𝐾𝑒𝑟 𝑄 = 𝐼𝑚 𝐿. then the equation 𝐿𝑢 = 𝑀𝑢 has at
least one solution in 𝑑𝑜𝑚 𝐿 ∩ Ω.
𝐿𝑢 = 𝑔 𝑡, 𝑢(𝑡), 𝑢′ (𝑡), 𝑢′′ (𝑡) + ℎ(𝑡).
(3)
Then boundary value problem (1) can be written as
Proof :
We shall make use of the following classical spaces,
𝐶[0,1], 𝐶 [0,1], 𝐶 [0,1], 𝐿 [0,1], 𝐿 [0,1],
∞ [0,1].
and 𝐿
Let 𝐴𝐶[0,1] denote the space of all
absolute continuous functions on [0,1], 𝐴𝐶 [0,1] =
{𝑢 ∈ 𝐶 [0,1] ∶ 𝑢′′ (𝑡) ∈ 𝐴𝐶[0,1]}, 𝐿 [0,1] =
𝑢: 𝑢|[ , ] ∈ 𝐿 [0,1] for every compact interval
[0, 𝑑] ⊆ [0,1].
𝐴𝐶
[0,1) = 𝑢: 𝑢|[
, ]
∈ 𝐴𝐶[0,1] .
Therefore 𝐿 = 𝑁.
Lemma
If ⋁ ,
(i)
𝑎 𝑏 = 1 then
𝐾𝑒𝑟 𝐿 = {𝑢 ∈ 𝑑𝑜𝑚 𝐿: 𝑢(𝑡) = 𝑐, 𝑐 ∈ ℝ, 𝑡 ∈
[0,1]} ;
𝑣 ∈ 𝑧:
𝐼𝑚 𝐿 = ⋁
𝑎 𝑏 ∫ ∫ ∫ 𝑣(𝜚)𝑑𝜚𝑑𝑠 = 0
,
(ii)
Let U be the Banach space defined by
𝑈 = {𝑢 ∈ 𝐿
𝐿𝑢 = 𝑁𝑢.
(iii)
𝐿: 𝑑𝑜𝑚 𝐿 ⊂ 𝑈 → 𝑊 is a Fredholm operator
𝑄: 𝑊 → 𝑊 can be defined by
[0,1] ∶ (1 − 𝑡 )𝑢(𝑡) ∈ 𝐿 [0,1]},
𝑄𝑣 =
With the norm
‖𝑣‖ =
𝑒
ℎ
𝑎𝑏
𝑣(𝜚)𝑑𝜚𝑑𝑠,
,
(4)
(1 − 𝑡 ) |𝑣(𝑡)|𝑑𝑡.
Where
Let 𝑈 be the Banach space
𝑈 = {𝑢 ∈ 𝐶 [0,1): 𝑢 ∈ 𝐶[0,1], lim
𝑡 ) 𝑢′′ 𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑠} ,
→
ℎ=
(1 −
,
(iv)
With the norm
‖𝑢‖ = max ‖𝑢‖∞ , (1 − 𝑡 )𝑢′′ (𝑡)
(1)
Where ‖𝑢‖∞ = sup
∈[ , ] |𝑢(𝑡)|
∞
.
(2)
The linear operator 𝑅 : 𝐼𝑚 𝐿: →
𝑑𝑜𝑚 𝐿 ⋂ 𝐾𝑒𝑟 𝑃 can be defined as
𝑅 =
(v)
.
We denote the norm in 𝐿 [0,1] by ‖. ‖ . we define the
linear operator 𝐿: 𝑑𝑜𝑚 𝐿 ⊂ 𝑈 → 𝑊 by
𝐿𝑢 = 𝑢′′′ (𝑡),
𝑎 𝑏 𝑒+𝜁 +𝜁 −𝑒 −𝑒 −1
𝑅 𝑣
≤ ‖𝑣‖
𝑣(𝜚)𝑑𝜚
(5)
for all 𝑣 ∈ 𝑊.
Proof :
(i)
It is obvious that
𝐾𝑒𝑟 𝐿 = {𝑢 ∈ 𝑑𝑜𝑚 𝐿: 𝑢(𝑡) =
𝑐, 𝑐 ∈ ℝ}.
@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 3 | Mar-Apr 2018
Page: 624
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
(ii)
𝑤(𝑡) = 𝑤(0) +
We show that
𝐼𝑚 𝐿 =
𝑣 ∈ 𝑊:
𝑎 𝑏 ∫ ∫ ∫ 𝑣(𝜚)𝑑𝜚𝑑𝑠 = 0 .
⋁,
Where 𝑣 ∈ 𝑍
(7)
𝑤 ′′′ (𝑡) = 𝑣(𝑡)
(iii)
To do this, we consider the problem
𝑤 ′′′ (𝑡) = 𝑣(𝑡)
𝑄𝑣 =
And we show that (5) has a solution 𝑤(𝑡) satisfying
𝑎𝑏𝑤 𝜁𝜁
(12)
For 𝑣 ∈ 𝑍, we define the projection 𝑄𝑣 as
(8)
𝑤 ′′ (0) = 0, 𝑤 ′ (0) = 0, 𝑤(𝑡) =
𝑣(𝜚)𝑑𝜚𝑑𝑠,
𝑒
ℎ
𝑎𝑏
𝑣(𝜚)𝑑𝜚𝑑𝑠 ,
,
𝑡 ∈ [0,1],
(13)
Where
,
ℎ=
If and only if
𝑎 𝑏 𝑒 + 𝜁 + 𝜁 − 𝑒 − 𝑒 − 1 ≠ 0.
,
𝑎𝑏
We show that 𝑄: 𝑊 → 𝑊 is well defined and
bounded.
𝑣(𝜚)𝑑𝜚𝑑𝑠 = 0
,
(9)
|𝑄𝑣(𝑡)| ≤
Suppose (3) has a solmution 𝑤(𝑡) satisfying
𝑤 ′′ (0) = 0, 𝑤 ′ (0) = 0, 𝑤(𝑡) =
|𝑒 |
|ℎ|
=
𝑎𝑏𝑤 𝜁𝜁
1
|ℎ|
,
Then we obtain from (5) that
𝑤(𝑡) = 𝑤(0) +
‖𝑄𝑣‖
𝑣(𝜚)𝑑𝜚𝑑𝑠,
≤
(10)
1
|ℎ|
,
,
|𝑎 | 𝑏 ‖𝑣‖ |𝑒 |
,
(1 − 𝑡) |𝑄𝑣(𝑡)|𝑑𝑡
≤
,
=
𝑣(𝜚)𝑑𝜚𝑑𝑠
(1 − 𝑠) |𝑣(𝑠)|𝑑𝑠
|𝑎 | 𝑏 ‖𝑣‖ |𝑒 | (1 − 𝑠) 𝑑𝑠
And applying the boundary conditions we get
𝑎𝑏
|𝑎 | 𝑏
1
|ℎ|
|𝑎 | 𝑏 ‖𝑣‖ ‖𝑒 ‖ .
,
In addition it is easily verified that
=
Since ⋁ ,
𝑣(𝜚)𝑑𝜚𝑑𝑠,
(11)
𝑎 𝑏 = 1, and using (i) and we get
𝑎𝑏
𝑣(𝜚)𝑑𝜚𝑑𝑠 = 0
𝑄 𝑣 = 𝑄𝑣, 𝑣 ∈ 𝑊.
(14)
We therefore conclude that 𝑄: 𝑊 → 𝑊 is a projection.
If 𝑣 ∈ 𝐼𝑚 𝐿, then from (6) 𝑄𝑣(𝑡) = 0. Hence
𝐼𝑚 𝐿 ⊆ 𝐾𝑒𝑟 𝑄. Let 𝑣 = 𝑣 − 𝑄𝑣 ; that is, 𝑣 ∈
𝐾𝑒𝑟 𝑄. Then
,
On the other hand if (6) holds, let 𝑢 ∈ ℝ; then
@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 3 | Mar-Apr 2018
Page: 625
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
(𝐿𝑅 )𝑣(𝑡) =
𝑣 (𝜚)𝑑𝜚𝑑𝑠
𝑎𝑏
′′
𝑅 𝑣 (𝑡) = 𝑣(𝑡)
(17)
And for 𝑢 ∈ 𝑑𝑜𝑚 𝐿 ∩ 𝐾𝑒𝑟 𝑃 we know that
,
=
𝑎𝑏
𝑣(𝜚)𝑑𝜚𝑑𝑠
−
1
ℎ
𝑢′′ (𝜚)𝑑𝜚𝑑𝑠
(𝑅 𝐿) 𝑢(𝑡) =
,
𝑣(𝜚)𝑑𝜚𝑑𝑠
(𝑡 − 𝑠)𝑢′′ 𝑑𝑠
=
,
(18)
Here ℎ = 0 we get
= 𝑢(𝑡) − 𝑢′ (0) 𝑡 − 𝑢(0) = 𝑢(𝑡)
𝑣 (𝜚)𝑑𝜚𝑑𝑠
𝑎𝑏
Since 𝑢 ∈ 𝑑𝑜𝑚 𝐿 ∩ 𝐾𝑒𝑟 𝑃, 𝑢(0) = 0, and 𝑃𝑢 = 0.
,
=
𝑎𝑏
𝑣(𝜚)𝑑𝜚𝑑𝑠
This shows that 𝑅 = (𝐿|
(v)
,
𝑅 𝑣
Therefore 𝑣 = 𝑣.
∞
≤ max
≤
Thus 𝑣 ∈ 𝐼𝑚 𝐿 and therefore 𝐾𝑒𝑟 𝑄 ⊆ 𝐼𝑚 𝐿 and
hence
𝑊 = 𝐼𝑚 𝐿 + 𝐼𝑚 𝑄 = 𝐼𝑚 𝐿 + ℝ.
∩
∈[ , ] ∫
) .
(𝑡 − 𝑠) |𝑣(𝑠)|𝑑𝑠
(𝑡 − 𝑠) |𝑣(𝑠)|𝑑𝑠
≤ ‖𝑣‖
.
We conclude that
It follows that since 𝐼𝑚 𝐿 ∩ ℝ = {0}, then 𝑊 =
𝐼𝑚 𝐿 ⨁ 𝐼𝑚 𝑄.
𝑅 𝑣
≤ ‖𝑣‖
.
Therefore,
References
dim 𝐾𝑒𝑟 𝐿 = dim 𝐼𝑚 𝑄 = dim ℝ = 𝑐𝑜𝑑𝑖𝑚 𝐼𝑚 𝐿 = 1.
 Gupta C.P, Ntouyas S.K, and Tsamatos P.C,
“Solvability of an 𝑚-point boundary value problem
for second order ordinary differential equations,”
Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications,
vol. 189, no. 2, pp. 575-584, 1995.
This implies that 𝐿 is Fredholm mapping of index
zero.
(iv)
We define 𝑃 ∶ 𝑊 → 𝑊 by
𝑃𝑢 = 𝑢(0),
(15)
And clearly 𝑃 is continuous and linear and 𝑃 𝑢 =
𝑃(𝑃𝑢) = 𝑃𝑢(0) = 𝑢(0) = 𝑃𝑢
and
𝐾𝑒𝑟 𝑃 =
{𝑢 ∈ 𝑈 ∶ 𝑢(0) = 0}. We
now show that the
generalized inverse 𝐾 = 𝐼𝑚 𝐿 → 𝑑𝑜𝑚 𝐿 ∩ 𝐾𝑒𝑟 𝑃 of
𝐿 is given by
𝑅 𝑣=
For 𝑣 ∈ 𝐼𝑚 𝐿 we have
𝑣(𝜚)𝑑𝜚
(16)
 Ma R and O’Regan D, “Solvability of singular
second order 𝑚-point boundary value problem,”
Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications,
vol. 301, no. 1, pp. 124-134, 2005.
 Infante G, and Zima M.A, “Positive solutions of
multi-point boundary value problems at resonance,”
Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods and
Applications, vol. 69, no. 8, pp. 2458-2465, 2008.
 Kosmatov N, “A singular non-local problem at
resonance,” Journal of Mathematical Analysis and
Applications, vol. 394, no. 1, pp. 425-431, 2012.
@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 2 | Issue – 3 | Mar-Apr 2018
Page: 626
```