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lab report 3

Experiment # 03
Determination of total solids (TS) in water sample
Total solids, TS, is a measure of all the suspended, colloidal, and dissolved solids in a sample of
Water. This includes dissolved salts such as sodium chloride, NaCl, and solid particles such as,
silt and plankton. Total solids, is also a measure of the suspended and dissolved solids in water.
Suspended solids are those that can be retained on a water filter and are capable of settling out of
the water column onto the stream bottom when stream velocities are low. While, the
total dissolved solids (TDS) is a measure of the combined content of all inorganic and organic
substances contained in a liquid in molecular, ionized or micro-granular (colloidal sol)
suspended form.
Sources of total solids:
Soil erosion
Due to silt, clay, sand, and minerals in them run off with the water and cause total solids
in the water.
Agricultural runoff
Due to fertilizers used in crops fields, pesticides, etc. the rain water take these fertilizers
remain with it and total solids are formed. Also soil erosion due to lack of trees also cause
total solids in the water
Industrial waste
Due to treatment of different products and chemicals, there is a huge amount of dissolved
salts and different other harmful chemicals which cause total solids in the water.
Due to microorganisms like, algae, and other water plants, there come total solids in the
water. Decayed plants and animals also cause total solids in the water.
Sewage system
Sewage of houses and different industries and buildings is also a major cause of total
solids in the water.
Environmental significance of total solids:
Environmental significances of total solids in the water are following:
1. Water & waste water:
There is no specified guidelines of total solid (TS) in drinking water and waste water. But
there are guidelines of total dissolve solids (TDS) and total suspended solids (TSS) given
for drinking and waste water.
Waste water:
NEQS has given the guidelines for both total dissolve solids (TDS) and total
suspended solids (TSS).
For waste water total dissolve solids should be less than 3500 mg/l. And for total
suspended solids should be less than 150 mg/l.
Drinking water:
There are no specified guidelines given for total suspended solids (TSS) in
drinking water which means that it should be near to zero. But for the total
dissolve solids the guidelines are given that is the total dissolve solids TDS should
be less than 1000 mg/l.
2. Effects on aquatic life:
Some fishes and aquatic plants are used to live in saline waters and some are live in fresh
waters with high concentrations of salts. But if the concentration for these salts become
over then it may be harmful for aquatic life and then for their consumers. These salts may
cause the toxicity of water by containing the heavy metal like chromate, copper, and also
detergents. This can cause the death of aquatic life and also harmful for human beings
who are consumers of the aquatic life.
3. Decrease in photosynthetic rate in water:
If there is a high concentration of total suspended solids in water, it can affect the process
of aquatic photosynthesis. Total solids blocks the incoming sun lights and this makes the
penetration of sunlight very low and cost the photosynthesis process. This can lead to the
death of aquatic life.
4. Corrosion in water supply system:
Total solids contain many type of impurities such as, iron, etc. which are corrosion
causing metals. So, when the water containing total solids pass through the water supply
system, it will cause the corrosion of the pipes of the system and that material will
supplied to the consumers that can cause serious health problems.
5. Increase water temperature:
Total solids do not allow the sunlight to penetrate through the surface of water but they
also cause the increase in the temperature of the water. This happens because when the
water is cloudy, sunlight will warm it more efficiently. This occurs because the
suspended particles in the water absorb the sunlight which, in turn, warms the
surrounding water. This leads to other problems associated with increased temperature
Apparatus required:
sampling bottles
china dish
water bath
drying oven
analytical balance (0.001 g)
Apparatus using:
Any solid residue which is left behind after evaporation and drying at 103-105 °C, then
the remains will be the exact amount of total solids. This principle is also the standard
definition of the total solids in water.
1. Take 25 ml water sample in a pre-weighted china dish.
2. Evaporate the sample in water bath till the evaporation.
3. Cool the sample in desiccator to room temperature.
Dry the sample in oven at 103-105 °C.
5. Find the weight of the China dish after drying.
6. Measure the total solids (TS) in terms of concentration and units are mg/l. the
calculation will be calculated by this formula:
TS (mg/l) = B-A * 1000* 1000/ ml of water sample
Where, A= weight in g before drying
B =weight in g after drying
Observation and calculations:
A= weight of china dish before experiment =
B= weight of china dish after drying =
Sample of water = 25 ml
Total solids mg/l = 𝐌𝐋 𝐨𝐟 𝐠𝐢𝐯𝐞𝐧 𝐬𝐚𝐦𝐩𝐥𝐞
= 0.001*1000*1000/25
= 1000/25
Total solids
= 40 mg/l as CaCO3
Results and Comments:
I have performed my experiment and observed that total solids were 40mg/l which is very
suitable value. For aesthetic reason a limit of 500mg/l has established for secondary drinking
water standard of total dissolved solid present in water. These dissolved solids can be concerned
to conductivity of water, but this relation is not constant.