CRITIQUE PAPER Title of the Article: THE IMPACT OF THE INTERNET ON CHILDREN’S DAILY LIVES: PHYSICAL, SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING Name of the Journal or Publication which it appeared: The University of Georgia Date of Publication: May 2003 A good research paper reflects the researcher’s exemplar or worldviews. The context of the research focuses on how the internet affects the children’s daily living on any aspect. This research starts with the premise that most children already have access to the Internet either in school, library or at home. Thus, it examines the actual use of the Internet for children and how the use of the Internet changes the daily lives of children in terms of physical, social and psychological health by investigating the level of physical activity, social interaction and relationship and solitude. The research also looks at how children assign their attention to different media and everyday activities. The researcher believes that there has been a variety of arguments made regarding the potential negative effects of the Internet on the everyday lives of children. There have been some questions about the Internet's negative effects on children with regard to violent and sexual content and a displacement effect in areas such as social relationships, including contact with family and friends, physical activity and other leisure-time activities, such as reading and playing, and a negative influence on psychological well-being, such as isolation. There weren't many studies on this subject, however. Also, previous work has conflicting results. In particular, this research explored how children allocated their time to various media and everyday activities, as well as the relationship between the use of the Internet for children and the degree of physical activity, social participation and relationship and solitude. This research aimed to establish if there was a possible displacement effect for daily activities and an influence on the physical, social, and psychological well-being of children. No work has been conducted on the displacement effect of the Internet for children and conflicting results have been seen from the study that does exist. This research primarily explored the usage of the Internet for children and its effect on their current use of the media, non-media activities, physical activity, social participation and relationships, and loneliness. The literature review focuses not only to internet and the ways the children uses them but also how often the children uses them. Different types of internet or medias were offer in the literature review and did not focus on one scope only which was best. In the study’s theoretical background, it uses time as a variable to measure how much impact the media has given the respondents or the children. In particular, the researchers use the time displacement effect in order to explain thoroughly the impact of media. Additionally, the research discussed in their theoretical background the displacement of existing media which are the television and are replaced by social media or internet itself. In a research study which caters respondents who are minor, ethical considerations were not mentioned in the study. These ethical standards include issues such as honesty requirements, requirements for informed consent, anonymisation and data storage, the right of participants to access data, and the duty of confidentiality for all those conducting research. Although it was not mentioned in the study, the names of the participants were not stated and there were consents provided for both the child and the parents. In the study, the research design was not specifically stated. The researchers conducted a pilot study with a less number of respondents in order to improve the questions for the better understanding of the participants. The final data collection did happen using the self-reported survey from children 4th through 9th grades during February 2003. Five schools in Clarke County, Barrow County, and Jackson County in Georgia were included. This study comprised in detail of two private schools and three public schools, including one elementary, one middle, and one high school. The step by step distribution of the questionnaire which consists of one cover letter, two parental consent forms, two child assent forms, and the questionnaire. A total of 1,600 questionnaires were distributed to children and the sample returned to 297 students. The response rate was 19%. Since children were expected to take the questionnaire home for parental permission and returned the filled out questionnaire to school, more effort was needed for children than other surveys and therefore could result in a slightly lower response rate. The sample size acquired was far from the expected number of respondents. The questionnaire consists of questions regarding the demographic variables of the respondents, perception about the influence of the Internet and about the Internet credibility. In addition, the questionnaire also focuses on the independent variables which are the internet. It consists questions about how often the respondents’ uses internet and what type of internet they use. Lastly, the third part of the questionnaire is about the dependent variable which is the social and physical activities performed by the respondents. The results of the study were thoroughly discussed. It offers various tables and discusses the findings thru variables. First, it tackles about the sample which consists of 105 boys (35.4%) and 184 girls (62%). 8 respondents did not specify and give their gender. Some 80 % of respondents attend public school. The interviewee’s age range was 8 to 16 years. The majority of respondents were aged between 9 and 14. Approximately 70 % of children reported living with both parents while 4 % said they lived with others (e.g., grandparents). 19.5 % of children lived with their mothers and 4.7 % lived with their fathers. Also, the study shows the results on the respondent’s media activity, physical activity, and social activity. Furthermore, it also discusses the displacement of the new media and the non-media. The result shows that the usage of internet has no impact on the children’s daily living. This study found no displacement impact of the Internet on day-to-day activities of children. Instead, it was found that children who spent more time on the Internet were more likely to spend more time with other media, more time on some form of physical activity, and more social participation. The Internet has provided the children with a forum for contact and social relationships. Children of the net generation surrounded by media did not automatically give up other activities that were also important for their mental, physical, social and psychological growth. The discussion of the results was presented in by presenting the objective of the study which is to determine the impact of internet on the daily lives of the children. Kids who spent more time on the Internet often spent more time with other traditional outlets such as television, radio, video games, and books. Children who engaged consistently in one activity were more likely to engage even in other activities. There are some repercussions to this research. Firstly, it accepted the "more, the more" theory of displacement for current media. Children who use one medium a lot spent more time with other media. The time spent on a new medium, in other words, did not come from the time spent on current media. This did not come from the time spent in non-media practices, either. In addition, children who use high internet spent more time on their own physical activities and attending social events than children with low internet usage did. Since this study did not include all sorts of activities in detail, it is possible that time spent on the Internet might be from activities that were not measured in this study. The discourse in this research on the displacement effect indicates that an alternative hypothesis should be established for the displacement effect. For example, while there was no time displacement of children's activities over the Internet, a psychological or attitudinal displacement may occur. Throughout this research, children who spent more time on the Internet appeared to have negative attitudes towards physical activity (throughout social development, social continuity, and dimensions of health & fitness), whereas children who were moderate Internet users were more likely to spend more time on personal physical activity. This demonstrated the displacement effect of Internet-based attitudes of children towards physical activity. Therefore the impact of displacement should be studied on a multidimensional basis. This study is similar to other survey research and does not provide evidence of cause and effect. Luckily, the study, not expecting the desired results, provided ways for the future studies to further improve their work. In the discussion, they presented ways to improve their study. First, it strongly suggests that Internet use forms should be investigated for evaluating the displacement impact of digital media. Second, it advises that further research on isolation and the use of the Internet should look at social and emotional isolation. Thirdly, it would also be possible to compare the findings by gathering data not only from children but also from parents. It is also proposed that a longitudinal study investigate the longitudinal impact of the Internet on significant stages of growth from the younger children to teenagers and adults. One idea would be to look in school time at the displacement effect. Since school time is fixed for most kids and it takes nearly half of the day, the displacement effect would be interesting to see. It will be fascinating to explore how the Internet displaces class tasks, such as maths or time spent on library studies for school work. The researcher presented all the references it uses in its study accurately and precisely. It was presented in an APA (American Psychological Association) format.