Uploaded by Angelica Joy Ramos

GARDE MANGER SANDWICHES

advertisement
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Chapter Pre-Requisites
Before reading this chapter, you should already:
• Have read “How to Use This Book,” pages xxviii-xxxiii, and
understand the professional recipe format.
• Have mastered the preparation of bound protein salads covered in
Chapter 5.
• Have mastered the preparation of cold meats and poultry covered in
Chapter 7.
• Know basic sanitation procedures for products served raw.
• Know state and local regulations for foodservice glove use.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Chapter Objectives
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
• Name the four elements of a basic sandwich, and
explain the functions of each.
• List and describe the six basic sandwich construction
types, and explain the principles of sandwich
construction.
• Properly use the tools and equipment found in a modern
sandwich station.
• Become proficient at both plated and tray presentation of
sandwiches.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Chapter Objectives
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
• Correctly package sandwiches for box lunches and to-go
service.
• Set up and maintain an efficient sandwich station.
• Correctly prepare the most popular North American cold
sandwiches as well as the hot sandwiches typically
prepared in the garde manger station.
• Combine food items and ingredients to make successful
new sandwich creations.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Understanding Sandwiches
The Four Basic Sandwich Elements
• Virtually all sandwiches are constructed from four basic elements:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Bread
Spread
Filling
Internal garnishes
• Most modern sandwiches include all four basic elements, with the
bread and filling acting as the essential elements.
• However, without a spread, most sandwiches have a dry mouthfeel;
without internal garnishes, they lack textural contrast.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Understanding Sandwiches
Bread for Sandwiches
• The majority of sandwiches are made
with leavened breads, which are
made with yeast.
• Because unleavened breads do not
contain yeast to make them rise, they
have a flat shape and are also called
flatbreads.
• Some leavened breads are fabricated
to give them a flat appearance as
well—these are called yeasted
flatbreads.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Understanding Sandwiches
Bread for Sandwiches
• The primary function of bread as a sandwich element is to encase
the filling and enable it to be eaten neatly out of hand.
• The bread product you choose for sandwich making must fulfill five
requirements:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Firm and sturdy enough to hold the filling without falling apart.
Tender and moist enough to avoid making the sandwich tough or dry.
Fresh, not stale or dried out.
Priced to fit your budget.
Shaped and sized to ensure proper portion control and minimal waste.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Understanding Sandwiches
Bread Market Forms
• Breads are classified into four basic market forms:
1. Industrial bread products
2. Commercial bread products
3. Frozen par-bake bread products
4. Artisan bread products
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Understanding Sandwiches
Breads by Flour Type and Flavor
• Breads are primarily classified according to the type of
flour from which they are made.
• Once that classification is determined, breads can also
be categorized by non-flour flavorings added to the
dough.
Bread Fabrication Types
• Breads can be shaped or formed in hundreds of ways.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Understanding Sandwiches
Guidelines for Storing Sandwich Bread and Rolls
• To prevent drying, do not store any bread product near
heat-producing equipment (i.e., ovens or refrigeration
compressors).
• To prevent rapid staling, do not store any bread product
in the refrigerator.
• Inspect for mold before each service.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Understanding Sandwiches
Guidelines for Storing Soft-crusted Bread and
Rolls
• Store soft-crusted breads and rolls wrapped in plastic
film or in sealed plastic bags at cool room temperature—
do not store in a dark, closed cabinet.
• If soft-crusted bread products must be kept longer than
1–2 days, wrap tightly and freeze.
– Place in sealed plastic bags as soon as they are completely
thawed.
– Do not refreeze.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Understanding Sandwiches
Guidelines for Storing Crisp-crusted Bread and
Rolls
• Store crisp-crusted bread products intended for sameday service at cool room temperature.
– Keep in micro-perforated bags specially manufactured to prevent
drying and surface contamination while allowing moisture to
escape.
– Alternatively, store in closed cartons or in open plastic containers
covered with kitchen towels.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Understanding Sandwiches
Guidelines for Storing Crisp-crusted Bread and Rolls
• If crisp-crusted bread products must be kept for longer periods, wrap
tightly and freeze.
– Thaw frozen bread products unwrapped on a rack at room temperature.
– Once they are completely thawed and free of surface moisture,
immediately proceed with wrapping or recrisping.
• To recrisp crisp-crusted breads and rolls:
– Place them on a rack set on a sheet tray and bake in a preheated
400°F (200°C) oven, just until the crusts regain their original crispness
and the bread reaches an interior temperature of 140°F (60°C).
– Cool to room temperature on the rack.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Understanding Sandwiches
Spreads for Sandwiches
• A sandwich spread is a liquid or paste-like dressing usually applied
to the bread element of the sandwich.
• Sandwich spreads are intended to fulfill several functions:
1. Form a liquid-resistant barrier that prevents a moist filling from seeping
into the bread and making it soggy.
2. Add moisture and a rich, smooth mouthfeel to sandwiches having less
moist fillings.
3. Help the sandwich hold together by acting as a kind of glue, binding the
bread, filling, and internal garnishes to one another.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Understanding Sandwiches
Spreads for Sandwiches
• Sandwich spreads are intended to fulfill several functions
(cont’d):
4. Add a particular flavor or combination of flavors to the sandwich.
5. Add a particular color to the sandwich’s visual effect.
6. In à la carte service, the choice of spread is often left to the
customer, who specifies it when ordering.
• There are some classic sandwiches in which a particular spread,
such as mayonnaise on a BLT or Russian dressing on a corned
beef special, is dictated by tradition.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Understanding Sandwiches
Spreads for Sandwiches
• Types of Spreads
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Butter
Mayonnaise
Prepared Mustards
Cheese Spreads
Vegetable Purées and Fresh Salsas
Ketchups, Relishes, and Processed Salsas
Flavored Oils and Vinaigrettes
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Understanding Sandwiches
Sandwich Fillings
• The filling is the heart of the sandwich and is considered
its main ingredient.
• A sandwich filling may consist of a single ingredient or a
combination of ingredients.
• Deli Meats
– The most widely used sandwich fillings in North America are
industrially processed deli meats.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Understanding Sandwiches
Sandwich Fillings
• House-Made Cooked Meats and Poultry
– There are several advantages to preparing sandwich meats from
scratch.
– By choosing from the full range of raw products, you can offer
unusual fillings, such as roast lamb or grilled duck.
• Bacon
– Bacon makes three important contributions to a cold sandwich:
1.
2.
3.
Cooked crisp; it adds textural interest.
High in fat; it adds richness.
Its salty flavor; it helps season the sandwich.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Understanding Sandwiches
Sandwich Fillings
• Cheese
– Any of the semisoft and firm cheeses may be sliced and used as
sandwich fillings, either alone or in combination with other
ingredients.
– Deli cheeses are specially fabricated for use on an electric
slicing machine.
• Seafood
– Smoked and cured seafood is featured in some sandwiches,
particularly in small sandwiches such as canapés.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Understanding Sandwiches
Sandwich Fillings
• Bound Protein Salads
– Salads made from meats, poultry, and seafood bound with a
thick mayonnaise dressing are among the most popular
sandwich fillings in North America.
• Vegetable and Vegetarian Fillings
– Today, most delis, sandwich shops, and restaurants offer a
respectable selection of meatless sandwich fillings.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Understanding Sandwiches
External and Internal Garnishes
• External garnish: A piece of food served outside the
sandwich rather than included inside it.
• Internal garnish: Part of the sandwich that is enclosed
within the bread (except in open-face sandwiches made
with a single bread slice).
• In North America, the most common internal sandwich
garnishes are lettuce leaves and tomato slices, although
there are many others.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Types of Sandwiches
Sandwiches can be categorized into six basic
construction types:
1. Simple sandwiches
2. Double-decker and multi-decker sandwiches
3. Open-face sandwiches
4. Long roll sandwiches
5. Pocket sandwiches
6. Wrap sandwiches
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Types of Sandwiches
Sandwiches can be categorized into six basic
construction types:
1. Simple sandwiches
– A simple sandwich that consists of two slices of bread with the
spread, filling, and internal garnishes between them.
2. Double-Decker sandwiches
– A sandwich having one deck, then another layer of filling on top
of the ceiling slice, and finally a third slice of bread on top.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Types of Sandwiches
Sandwiches can be categorized into six basic
construction types:
3. Open-Face Sandwiches
– A sandwich with a single slice of bread topped with a spread,
filling ingredients, and garnishes.
– In other words, an open-face sandwich is a sandwich with no lid.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Types of Sandwiches
Sandwiches can be categorized into six basic
construction types:
4. Long Roll Sandwiches
– Sandwiches made with long, narrow French and Italian breads
can be constructed in two different ways.
1. Simple long roll sandwich: the rolls are split completely in half
horizontally and then filled.
2. Hollowed long roll sandwich: the roll is slit along one side, opened
out, and flattened into a canoe shape.
– The Italian Sandwich is probably the best-known long roll
sandwich.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Types of Sandwiches
Sandwiches can be categorized into six basic
construction types:
5. Pocket Sandwiches
– Sandwiches made with yeasted flatbreads that are fabricated
and baked in a way that gives them a hollow center.
6. Wrap Sandwiches
– Thin, pliable flatbreads may be rolled with or around a filling and
internal garnishes to make wrap sandwiches.
– There are two ways to roll wraps:
1. Pinwheel-style
2. Burrito-style
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Making Sandwiches
The Sandwich Station
• In small operations with varied menus, there is usually
only one garde manger area responsible for salads and
cold appetizers, as well as sandwiches.
• In large operations, an entire station may be dedicated to
sandwiches.
• Sandwiches are the main menu items in delis and
sandwich shops, so the stations in them are planned
expressly for sandwich production.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Making Sandwiches
Mise-en-Place
• A well-planned and complete mise en place is
essential for effective à la carte sandwich service.
• Sandwiches are usually ordered during lunch service,
when most customers have limited time; in addition,
customers perceive them to be quick to order.
• Well-prepared garde manger chefs ensure that the time
between the order and arrival of food at the table is brief.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Making Sandwiches
Guidelines for Preparing Sandwiches
• Slice enough deli meats and cheeses for the day’s service.
– Portion fillings ahead of time.
– Place the proper portion scoops near containers of bound protein salad.
• Clean and fabricate all garnishes.
– When fabricating items portioned by count, make sure each is of the
correct size.
– Pre-portion when possible.
• Prepare all spreads and place in appropriate containers.
– Place oils and semi liquid spreads in multi tip squeeze bottles.
– Whip or soften butters and semisolid spreads.
• Slice breads and rolls.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Making Sandwiches
Guidelines for Preparing Sandwiches
• Arrange ingredients in assembly-line fashion.
– Place items in such a way that you can use two hands at the same time.
• Use color-coded sandwich picks or other appropriate markers to
identify orders.
– For example, you could use yellow frill picks for a ham sandwich with
mustard and clear frill picks for one with mayonnaise.
• Have plates, baskets, wrappers, or take-out containers at hand.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Making Sandwiches
Packaging Sandwiches for Take-out and Catering
• Sandwiches are ordered to-go more often than any other
type of food.
• As sandwiches must be neat and easy to eat, it is crucial
that they arrive at their destination in good shape.
• Even the most delicious sandwich is ruined if it falls apart
while being transported.
• Customers do not appreciate soggy, oily wrappers and
leaky condiment containers.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Making Sandwiches
Packaging Sandwiches for Take-out and Catering
• Wrapped Sandwiches
– Most take-out sandwiches are wrapped in a paper product.
– Tight wrapping holds sandwiches together, even if they are
jostled during transport.
• Box Lunch Sandwiches
– The main element of most box lunches is some sort of cold
sandwich.
– Most sandwiches for box lunches are prepared and wrapped in
the same way as for take-out, but with the condiment packets on
the side to avoid a soggy sandwich.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Making Sandwiches
Packaging Sandwiches for Take-out and Catering
• Sandwich Trays
– For catering, sandwiches are arranged on durable or disposable
trays in an attractive presentation.
– For successful sandwich trays, it is essential to construct the
sandwiches neatly and securely.
– Plan sandwich trays to consist of an assortment that will suit
virtually all guests.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter
9
Garde Manger Sandwiches
Making Sandwiches
Guidelines for Sandwich Sanitation
• Wear food-service gloves when preparing sandwiches. (Change
gloves frequently.)
• Do not allow a counterperson making sandwiches to handle money.
• Wipe knives with sanitizer solution between each task.
• Keep perishable fillings, spreads, and garnishes refrigerated during
the service.
• Keep lids of the sandwich/salad units closed when not in active use.
• Regularly wash and sanitize the tops of squeeze bottles after each
service, at least once per week.
Copyright © 9011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Download