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Journal Baluran

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Article-1
Asian Jr. of Microbiol. Biotech. Env. Sc. Vol. 20 (Feb. Suppl.) : 2018 : S1-S4
© Global Science Publications
ISSN-0972-3005
SEMI-NATURAL BREEDING PROGRAM AS AN EFFORT TO
INCREASE THE AMOUNT OF POPULATION AND CONSERVATION
OF JAVANESE BULL’S GERMPLASM (BOS JAVANICUS) IN BALURAN
NATIONAL PARK
SITI AZIZAH1, ANIE EKA KUSUMASTUTI2 AND DEBY OKTA TYAPRADANA*2
1
Faculty of Animal Husbandry of Brawijaya University Malang Indonesia
2
Faculty of Animal Husbandry of Universitas Brawijaya
Jalan Veteran Malang 65145, East Java, Indonesia
(Received 24 September, 2017; accepted 12 November, 2017)
Key words : Javaness bull, Baluran national park, SWOT
Abstract–Baluran National Park as a bastion of biodiversity protection plays an important role in conserving
germplasm of endemic large mammals in Indonesia. However, since 1996 Javanese bull (Bos javanicus) has
been considered endangered by IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural
Resources). The purpose of this research is to know the internal and external factors causing the decline of
Javanese bull population. The research used direct survey method including qualitative descriptive analysis
and SWOT analysis (Strength-Weakness, Opportunity-Threat). The SWOT analysis was used to formulate
alternative strategies and as a consideration of the sustainability of the breeding program of increasing
population of the Javanese bull’s germplasm in Baluran National Park. The research material was a program
of bull conservation activities conducted in Savanna of Bekol area with the subject of the management of bull
conservation and the people living around Baluran National Park. The results indicated that the factors
influencing the decline of Javanese bull population in the wild are the availability of water and feed, the
quality and quantity of savanna, illegal hunting, feed competition and habitat destruction. Based on
observations and interviews, semi-natural breeding program has been proven to increase the number of
population so that semi-natural breeding program is feasible to be continued as conservation effort of
Javanese bull’s germplasm in Baluran National Park. The results of internal and external analysis conducted
in the bull breeding unit of Baluran National Park showed good results. It is known from the score that
Strengths (S) and Opportunities (O) have shown good prospects (SO = 3,225) which provide an opportunity
for the manager to continue to improve the bull population in the future by implementing growth strategy
and improving synergy with various related parties.
INTRODUCTION
Baluran National Park has considerable wildlife
potential, especially Javaness Bull (Bos javanicus).
Javanese bull is a species protected by Law No. 5 of
1990 and Government Regulation No. 7 of 1999 on
preservation of plant and animal species. In
addition, the animal has also entered into The Red
Data Book - International Union for Conservation of
Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) since 1978
with the category of endangered. The threat of
extinction of Banteng Jawa in Baluran Natuonal Park
is indicated by the survey results in 2012 showing
that there were only 26 Javanese bulls, in which it
decreased as many as 338 tails from 1992.
*Corresponding author’s email: [email protected]
Based on the survey data, Javanese bull, as
endemic animal and the mascot of Baluran National
Park, became one of the mammals that are difficult
to be witnessed by tourists in their natural habitat.
Based on the observation of National Park
Management Section I Bekol of Baluran National
Park, it showed that the fluctuation of Javanese bull
population in Baluran National Park is influenced
by several factors such as predation, availability of
water and feed, disease, illegal hunting and the
invasion of acacia plant (Sabarno, 2001).
Considering the population of Javanese bull in
Baluran National Park, conservation is highly
required to increase the population and improve the
habitat which involves priority and integration from
SITI AZIZAH ET AL
S2
all related parties (Permenhut, 2011). In January
2013, an in situ conservation program management
unit was established with a semi-natural bull
breeding in Baluran National Park.
This study aimed to reveal the factors that
influence the fluctuation of bull population, to
assess and evaluate semi-natural bull breeding
program, to measure the success rate and know the
obstacles that arise with emphasis on the balance of
the ecosystem.
RESEARCH METHODS
The research was conducted at Resort Bama SPTNW
(Section of Regional Park Management) I Bekol of
Baluran National Park in Banyuputih, Situbondo,
and East Java. The location of the study was
determined by purposive sampling based on the
smallest population of Javanese bull compared to
other national parks in East Java.
The research used direct survey through
interview and observation. There were primary and
secondary data. Primary data collection was done
through in-depth interview (in-depth interview),
while secondary data was obtained from records of
several related sources such as literature studies or
media intermediaries.
Data analysis employed (1) qualitative
descriptive approach to interpret the data and
analyze the factors that influence the decrease of the
bull population; and (2) SWOT analysis to identify
and analyze internal (S&W) and external (O&T)
strategic factors in determining/selecting the final
strategy alternative to be implemented (Rangkuti
2001).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
General Overview of Baluran National Park
Baluran National Park is one of the natural resource
conservation areas located in the eastern tip of Java
Island, particularly Banyuputih, Situbondo, East
Java. Area of conservation of natural resources that
has been defined is ± 25,000 ha of land area and
3,750 ha. Baluran National Park has complete
vegetation so it has an enough high diversity of
plant species. There are ± 422 species of plants from
various vegetation’s included in 87 families. There
are also 155 types of aves and 26 species of
mammals. Some of the most important mammals
are derived from the hoofed animals, one of which
is Javanese bull (Bos javanicus).
Influential Factors against the Decline of Javanese
Bull Population
Based on data from the census of 1997 to 2015, the
population of Javanese bull has fluctuated and
tended to decrease. Lakspriyanti (2015) stated that
the number of bull population continues to decline
since 2002 influenced by the state of the habitat.
Factors influencing the population decline of
Javanese bull in Baluran include water and feed
availability, quality and quantity of savanna, habitat
destruction, illegal hunting in the area and wild
grazing resulting in competition of feed. According
to IUCN (2004), the main threat to the sustainability
of the bull consists of the destruction or loss of
native habitat, the emergence of invasive foreign
species, excessive hunting and the presence of
disease/pathogens.
Water and Feed Availability
Baluran National Park is an area that is dry, has low
rainfall, minimal source of water and does not have
a watered river throughout the year. Based on the
Forest Ecosystem Control Team Report (2005), the
site inventory in the dry season shows that there are
18 springs in Baluran National Park area used as
drinking place by animals. In the current situation,
in meeting the needs of drinking water the wild
bulls that depend on the artificial drinking tub that
has been provided by the manager and the existence
of natural puddles.
Natural tusks scattered at several points such as
Perengan and Bama are reliable sources of springs.
However, the current condition of the tusks has
decreased in line with the declining number of wild
bull population. There is an interrelated positive
relationship between the number of bull population
and the availability of natural puddles. Wild bull has
a habit of wallowing, which can dilute the sludge so
that the springs are not covered by the sludge. The
sludge in the puddle will be attached to the buffalo
body so that the volume of sludge can be reduced
gradually.
Quality and Quantity of Savana
Baluran National Park’s savanna area is ± 10,000 ha.
One of threats faced by Baluran National Park is the
invasion of Acacia Thorns (Acacia nilotica) because
almost 50% of the savannah has been degraded by
stands of Acacia plantations and turned into the
shady and dense Acacia plantations with tree
Natural Breeding Program as an Effort to Increase the Amount of Population and Conservation
densities up to 1500 trees/ha, which cause the
underlying grass species to die as sunlight is
blocked by the shade of the Acacia plant canopy. In
this case, the manager seek eradication of thorny
Acacia plant with a smear system on the surface of
the stem with Triclopyr herbicide and continued by
planting the White Lamuran grass (Dichantium
caricosum) with a spacing of 1mx1m which was
carried out in January 2013. In addition, the
manager also has controlled, logged, burnt and
removed the plant stem of thorny Aksia (Acacia
nilotica). However, the growth rate is very fast and
has a physical and biological nature of plants that
can grow on marginal or extreme land, so that
eradication efforts that have been made into have
not been optimal. This is in line with the opinion
Djufri (2004) that the attempts to advocate the
invasion of Acacia have not succeeded optimally
and even led to new problems such as changes in
soil structure, dormant seed growth and vegetative
regeneration of milestones which is left behind.
Currently, most savanna conditions, especially
Bekol, Kramat, Kajang and some of the area in
Balanan, have been invaded by Acacia nilotica which
causes savanna narrowing. As the main feeding
ground area that provides feed source for wildlife,
fluctuations in the number of large mammal
populations, one of which is bull, is indirectly
affected. It is stated in Sabarno (2001) one of the
layouts of the residence of the bull is the area of
pasture (savanna) as a place to eat, drink, play and
rest.
Habitat Damage
As a conservation area that has a direct boundary
with human settlements that are easily accessible
from various directions, both land and sea routes,
this has an impact on regional management. Most of
the people around the area are still dependent on
the potential of Baluran National Park in various
ways, for example by looking for firewood, grazing
in the wild, harvesting (tamarind, gadung, honey,
grass, etc.) and illegal hunting.
Environmental damage is the occurrence of
physical changes that might cause the habitat to be
disturbed and not even able to play the role as its
function. Basically, bull is included into animals that
can move in the daytime (diurnal) and night
(nocturnal). However, when bull coexists with
humans, it tends to conduct their activities in the
evening and turns into a nocturnal animal. This
change indicates that the presence of disturbance
and high intensity of human activity either in or
around the region has changed bull’s pattern of life.
The high disturbance in the area is indicated by
the change of land cover or the transfer of land
function within the park area, for instance, the
existence of settlement of ex HGU (Hak Guna Usaha/
Cultivation Rights) Gunung Gumitir located in
Labuhan Merak in SPTN Region II Karangtekok.
This area was originally a settlement for workers of
PT. Mount Gumitir, but then the function switched
to a cultivation area.
In addition, there are several changes in land
function and the extent within the park area that can
be seen in Table 1.
Illegal Hunting
Nugroho (2014) stated that in addition to the
consequences of habitat destruction, bull population
is also threatened by illegal hunting activities.
Nurdiansyah (2015) added that illegal hunting is a
problem of forest abuses that often occur in national
parks, especially in Baluran National Park, in which
large mammals and bulls become main target.
Hunting, based on the motive, is generally done for
fulfilling satisfaction or hobbies and daily needs.
Animals targeted for hunting are Javanese bull
(Bos javanicus), wild bull (Bubalus bubalis), Timor
deer (Cervus timorensis), wild boar (Sus sp), roe
(Muntiacus muncak), Lutung (Trachypithecus cristata),
bat (Pteropus vampyrus), Pangolin (Manis javanica)
Table 1. Area of Land Function Changes in Baluran National Park
No
Forms of Land Function Changes Area
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Setlements of ex HGU PT. Gunung Gumitir
Translok TNI-AD
Wild grazing area
Bajulmati dam
Land use in Gentong
Source: Baluran National Park Hall (2014)
S3
Width (Ha)
360
57
3.450
28
22
Location
Labuhan Merak
Pandean
Including Karangtekok
Wongsorejo (borderline)
Karangtekok
SITI AZIZAH ET AL
S4
and various bird species (Wahono et al., 2016). This
activity influences on the availability of germplasm
resources to be preserved.
Wild Grazing
Wild grazing is mainly caused by the existence of
the settlement, especially ex HGU in Labuhan
Merak. Wild grazing is mostly found in the northern
national park area, particularly in SPTN Region II in
Karangtekok and in Watunumpuk, freshwater
savanna and Labuhan Merak. This is basd on the
report of Sabarno (2001) that this activity (wild
grazing) is found in the northern national park area.
It is because the north still has a vast expanse of
savanna and grass supplies are abundant with low
levels of acacia invasion.
The existence of wild grazing within the
conservation area causes some problems, for
example: the widespread of grazing areas, food
competition between livestock and protected large
mammals, the spread of diseases that animals can
infect to wildlife and vice versa, wildlife/home
range changes and solidity of soil structure caused
by thousands of livestock every day. Activity of wild
grazing can be seen as in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Wild grazing by the community in Watu Numpuk
Sabarno (2001) stated that grazing has been
carried out by the community for generations and
from time to time the number of cattle grazing is
growing. Uncontrolled wild grazing activities can
turn national parks into domestic livestock grazing
which influences the expulsion of wildlife due to
feed competition and disturbance due to human
activities. The number of cattle population in
Labuhan Merak that is grazed is presented in
Table 2.
Internal Factor Analysis
The implementation of semi-natural breeding
program of Javanese bull in Baluran National Park is
influenced by various internal factors such as:
a) Banteng Jawa as the icon of Baluran National
Park
Banteng Jawa is the icon for Baluran National
Park. Therefore, its existence becomes
significant for the national park.
b) Breeding activities which have been shown to
increase the bull population
Implementation of the Javanese Bull Breeding
Unit has been shown to increase the population
with low mortality rates.
c) Carrying capacity of bull habitat in Baluran
National Park
Baluran National Park is a unique area because
it is composed by a complete vegetation type.
This can support the needs of bulls related to its
properties, so that the conservation process can
run naturally and sustainably.
d) Numerous support from NGOs
The large number of support from various
NGOs is an opportunity to realize the objectives
of conservation goals. This is consistent with
Rachman’s (2012) assertion that the conservation
movement is a collective work that should not
be an exclusive movement to establish a
conservation movement that gets support and
engages the public.
e) Potential breeding activities that can be used as
one of the objects of education and tourism
(ecotourism)
Making bull conservation as an object of
ecotourism is an appropriate breakthrough
target and as a medium of learning and tourism.
Table 2. The number of population of Ongole crossbreed cattle and non-Ongole crossbreed cattle in Labuhan Merak
Livestock Ownership
Total
Ongole crossbreed
cattle
Non-Ongole
crossbreed cattle
Male
Female
721
178
114
785
Source: Database of Labuhan Merak Resort (2016)
899
Natural Breeding Program as an Effort to Increase the Amount of Population and Conservation
f)
The reproduction process which takes a long
time
One reason that a species may be endangered is
its low reproductive capacity. Destriana (2008)
argued that the bull began to breed at the age of
three of low population size and high cruising
range with the threat of hunting in the past. This
makes the bulls is increasingly likely to
experience extinction.
g) High operational costs
Based on the logical framework of the strategy
and the bull conservation action plan of 20102020, funds for bull conservation can be
minimal up to USD 2,000,000 up to 2020 both
from central and regional government, sourced
from national and international institution.
h) Slow adaptation of bulls
Bull in the breeding unit is a relocation animal
originating from Taman Safari Prigen is striped
of Baluran bull’s offspring. Conservation does
not merely move the bull from one place to
Baluran National Park. Animals that are born in
a zoo or captivity environment require special
handling to adapt to the new environment in
their natural habitat. Bulls can starve to death
because they do not know which foods to eat or
survive in the forest.
i) Unavailability of new breeds
The sustainability of the semi-natural breeding
program of Javanese bull in Baluran National
S5
Park depends on the presence of new breeds to
avoid the risk of inbreeding.
j) The absence of an ideal breeding model for bulls
One of the weaknesses in the breeding unit is
Baluran National Park is appointed as the first
in the conservation program of the bull. The
absence of an ideal in-situ management success
guide is one that can hamper the target
population increase.
k) The lack of management skill
The conservation and semi-natural bull
breeding unit is a homework that requires
thinking, finance and energy. Currently the
keeper is poorly trained and professional in the
management and handling of animals due to
the lack of literature on the conservation of the
bull.
l) Inadequate facilities and infrastructure
A number of facilities are damaged, such as the
malfunction of stun shock wire, some rusted
railings, collapsed rehabilitation cage buildings
and broken roof. In addition, it is necessary to
consider the construction of supporting
facilities such as solar cells to meet the
electricity needs in the breeding unit of the bull.
The summary of some of the internal factors is
presented in Table 3.
According to IFAS table, it is known that the sub
total score of strength is (1.515) which is greater than
the sub total score of weakness (1.029). This
Table 3. Internal factor analysis on development strategy of semi-natural bull breeding unit
No.
Internal Strategy Factor
Weight
Rating
Weight *
Rating
Score
0,114
0.086
0,086
0,114
0,057
4,0
4,0
3,0
3,0
2,0
0,457
0,344
0,258
0,342
0,114
Strenghts
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Banteng Jawa as the icon of Baluran National Park
Breeding activities which have been shown to increase the bull population
Carrying capacity of bull habitat in Baluran National Park
Numerous supports from NGOs
Potential breeding activities that can be used as one of the objects of
education and tourism (ecotourism)
Total
Weaknesses
The reproduction process which takes a long time
High operational costs
Slow adaptation of bulls
Unavailability of new breeds
The absence of an ideal breeding model for bulls
The lack of management skill
Inadequate facilities and infrastructure
Total
Total
0,457
0,086
0,057
0,086
0,114
0,086
0,057
0,057
0,543
1,00
1,515
3,0
2,0
2,0
1,0
1,0
3,0
2,0
0,258
0,114
0,172
0,114
0,086
0,171
0,114
1,029
2,544
S6
SITI AZIZAH ET AL
indicates that the strength/advantage possessed by
the Semi-Natural Breeding of Bull Unit is bigger
than its weakness.
9. External Factors Analysis
k) The lack of management skill
The implementation of semi-natural breeding
program of Javanese bull in Baluran National
Park is influenced by various external factors
such as:
a) The existence of government support
Javanese bull is included in 14 endangered
species that serve as the main species for 3%
population increase in 2010-2014 and 5% by
2020 (Permenhut, 2011).
b) Expansion plan of breeding unit and making
sanctuary
Bull conservation not only focuses on
population increase and rehabilitation of habitat
in Baluran National Park, but also rescues
shelters, protects and does rehabilitation of bull
from disturbance and pressure by humans
originating from outside the area before the
animals are returned to the wild.
c) Plan as research center and bull rescue
Building a research center and bull rescue is a
step to tackle the problem of population decline
and the threat of extinction of the bull that needs
to be realized. This is in accordance with the
statement of Santoso (2014) that as a
conservation area of various species of animals,
Baluran National Park should be able to cope
with the condition.
d) Germplasm source
Indonesia’s genetic resources are threatened by
the presence of imported livestock on the
grounds of the issue of food security. Imported
livestock is considered more prominent and
economical. This is in accordance with the
opinion of Maskur (2012) that in Indonesia the
practice of breeding and cross breeding is done
to increase the productivity of local livestock by
importing livestock that has higher productivity,
resulting in decreasing biodiversity and
threatening the existence of genetic resources of
local livestock. Conservation of Javanese bull in
Baluran National Park is one of the
considerations to improve the quality of local
genetic. Bull breeding program in Baluran
National Park has a great opportunity as a
source of germplasm.
e) Manufacture of biogas digester for power plant
Utilizing the feces spread in the breeding unit as
biogas that generates alternative electrical
energy (PLTB) for the cage and using sludge as
compost is a continuous activity. This is to
reduce the risk of disease and parasites
transmission. Besides, it is able to apply zero
waste concepts and support clean development.
f) Access to adequate transportation
Ease of access to the national park area is one
factor that is beneficial as well as detrimental to
conservation efforts. It facilitates the handling of
animals yet it can disrupt the animals.
g) Potential of new jobs
The sanctuary as well as the research and rescue
center plan needs the quality and quantity of
Human Resources (HR) managers in a sufficient
number so that the conservation of the bull can
be done effectively and efficiently. This is in line
with opinion …
h) The risk of inbreeding
The problem of inbreeding is one of the serious
threats that will be faced by the bull breeding
unit. A small population size will have an
impact on the extinction rate which will also
result in inbreeding depressions and reduced
genetic diversity.
i) The threat of disease and parasites
The condition of Baluran National Park which
has a dry climate type F with temperature
ranges between 27.2o - 30.9oC and air humidity
up to 77% is the ideal temperature of parasitic
worms to develop. Therefore, Javanese bulls can
easily be infected with various parasites present
in feeds obtained from nature.
j) The nature of animals that are easy to stress and
sensitive
A careful human intervention effort is required in
the management and protection of conservation
areas. Lakspriyanti (2015) stated that bull is a
sensitive animal to human existence.
The summary of some external factors is
presented in Table 4.
Based on EFAS Table, it is known that the total
score of opportunity and threat factor is 2.065 where
the total sub score of opportunity (1,710) is greater
than sub total score of threat which is (0.355). This
indicates that the current condition is sufficient to
provide support and opportunities for the bull semibreeding unit to support the bull population
increase as well as minimize or overcome the threats
that arise.
Based on the result of weighting in IFAS and
Natural Breeding Program as an Effort to Increase the Amount of Population and Conservation
S7
Table 4. External Factor Analysis Development Strategy of Semi-natural bull breeding unit
No
External Factor Strategy
Opportunities
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
The existence of government support
Expansion plan of breeding unit and making sanctuary
Plan as research center and bull rescue
Germplasm source
Manufacture of biogas digester for power plant
Access to adequate transportation
Potential of new jobs
Total
Threats
The risk of inbreeding
The threat of disease and parasites
The nature of animals that are easy to stress and sensitive
Total
Total
1.
2.
3.
Weight
Rating
Weight *
Rating
Score
0,097
0,129
0,129
0,097
0,032
0,064
0,097
0,645
3,0
3,0
3,0
2,0
1,0
2,0
3,0
0,291
0.387
0,387
0,194
0,032
0,128
0,291
1,710
0,129
0,097
0,129
0,355
1,00
1,0
1,0
1,0
0,129
0,097
0,129
0,355
2,065
EFAS table, the sum of the S, W, O and T factors is
presented in Table 5.
Table 5. IFAS and EFAS Matrix Unit of semi-natural bull
breeding
SO
WO
Score (S) + Score (O)
1,515 + 1,710 = 3,225
Score (W) + Score (O)
1,029 + 1,710 = 2,739
ST
Score (S) + Score (T)
1,515 + 0,355 = 1.870
WT
Score (W) + Score (T)
1,029 + 0,355 = 1,384
The highest score obtained is on SO of 3.225 so
that the strategy or step chosen by the semi-natural
bull breeding unit in developing the bull population
is to optimize S (Strengths) and utilize the existing
Opportunities. While the score on WT is quite small
(1,384) which means Weaknesses and Threats are
relatively small or weak compared to their strengths
and opportunities.
In this condition, the alternative strategy chosen
is to increase cooperation with various related
parties so that the preservation can be done
optimally in increasing the number of bull’s
population.
10. Positioning of Semi-Natural Bull Breeding
Unit
Based on the combination of total score of IFAS
(2,544) and EFAS (2,065), it is known that the seminatural bull breeding unit position is in quadrant I
(upper right), where both factors are positive. This
Fig. 2. The position of the bull breeding policy in Baluran
National Park
indicates that the environment faced relatively have
more opportunities than the threat, as well as the
strength is relatively superior to the weakness. This
means that the condition of semi-natural bull
breeding unit is currently running, but not optimal
because there are threats and weaknesses that have
not been addressed, especially related to the
condition of the bull. Improvement efforts can be
done by avoiding threats and minimizing
weaknesses by utilizing the strengths and
opportunities that Baluran National Park has. The
right policy direction implemented under these
conditions is “Growth Strategy” by focusing on
Rapid Growth, which is a rapidly growing role
strategy.
SITI AZIZAH ET AL
S8
CONCLUSION
It is concluded that semi-natural breeding programs
have been shown to increase the population by the
risk of death or other failure. Based on internal and
external analysis conducted in bull breeding unit of
Baluran National Park, it showed good results so as
to provide an opportunity for the management to
continue to increase the bull population in the
future by implementing growth strategy and
increase the synergy with various related parties.
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