Article-1 Asian Jr. of Microbiol. Biotech. Env. Sc. Vol. 20 (Feb. Suppl.) : 2018 : S1-S4 © Global Science Publications ISSN-0972-3005 SEMI-NATURAL BREEDING PROGRAM AS AN EFFORT TO INCREASE THE AMOUNT OF POPULATION AND CONSERVATION OF JAVANESE BULL’S GERMPLASM (BOS JAVANICUS) IN BALURAN NATIONAL PARK SITI AZIZAH1, ANIE EKA KUSUMASTUTI2 AND DEBY OKTA TYAPRADANA*2 1 Faculty of Animal Husbandry of Brawijaya University Malang Indonesia 2 Faculty of Animal Husbandry of Universitas Brawijaya Jalan Veteran Malang 65145, East Java, Indonesia (Received 24 September, 2017; accepted 12 November, 2017) Key words : Javaness bull, Baluran national park, SWOT Abstract–Baluran National Park as a bastion of biodiversity protection plays an important role in conserving germplasm of endemic large mammals in Indonesia. However, since 1996 Javanese bull (Bos javanicus) has been considered endangered by IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources). The purpose of this research is to know the internal and external factors causing the decline of Javanese bull population. The research used direct survey method including qualitative descriptive analysis and SWOT analysis (Strength-Weakness, Opportunity-Threat). The SWOT analysis was used to formulate alternative strategies and as a consideration of the sustainability of the breeding program of increasing population of the Javanese bull’s germplasm in Baluran National Park. The research material was a program of bull conservation activities conducted in Savanna of Bekol area with the subject of the management of bull conservation and the people living around Baluran National Park. The results indicated that the factors influencing the decline of Javanese bull population in the wild are the availability of water and feed, the quality and quantity of savanna, illegal hunting, feed competition and habitat destruction. Based on observations and interviews, semi-natural breeding program has been proven to increase the number of population so that semi-natural breeding program is feasible to be continued as conservation effort of Javanese bull’s germplasm in Baluran National Park. The results of internal and external analysis conducted in the bull breeding unit of Baluran National Park showed good results. It is known from the score that Strengths (S) and Opportunities (O) have shown good prospects (SO = 3,225) which provide an opportunity for the manager to continue to improve the bull population in the future by implementing growth strategy and improving synergy with various related parties. INTRODUCTION Baluran National Park has considerable wildlife potential, especially Javaness Bull (Bos javanicus). Javanese bull is a species protected by Law No. 5 of 1990 and Government Regulation No. 7 of 1999 on preservation of plant and animal species. In addition, the animal has also entered into The Red Data Book - International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) since 1978 with the category of endangered. The threat of extinction of Banteng Jawa in Baluran Natuonal Park is indicated by the survey results in 2012 showing that there were only 26 Javanese bulls, in which it decreased as many as 338 tails from 1992. *Corresponding author’s email: [email protected] Based on the survey data, Javanese bull, as endemic animal and the mascot of Baluran National Park, became one of the mammals that are difficult to be witnessed by tourists in their natural habitat. Based on the observation of National Park Management Section I Bekol of Baluran National Park, it showed that the fluctuation of Javanese bull population in Baluran National Park is influenced by several factors such as predation, availability of water and feed, disease, illegal hunting and the invasion of acacia plant (Sabarno, 2001). Considering the population of Javanese bull in Baluran National Park, conservation is highly required to increase the population and improve the habitat which involves priority and integration from SITI AZIZAH ET AL S2 all related parties (Permenhut, 2011). In January 2013, an in situ conservation program management unit was established with a semi-natural bull breeding in Baluran National Park. This study aimed to reveal the factors that influence the fluctuation of bull population, to assess and evaluate semi-natural bull breeding program, to measure the success rate and know the obstacles that arise with emphasis on the balance of the ecosystem. RESEARCH METHODS The research was conducted at Resort Bama SPTNW (Section of Regional Park Management) I Bekol of Baluran National Park in Banyuputih, Situbondo, and East Java. The location of the study was determined by purposive sampling based on the smallest population of Javanese bull compared to other national parks in East Java. The research used direct survey through interview and observation. There were primary and secondary data. Primary data collection was done through in-depth interview (in-depth interview), while secondary data was obtained from records of several related sources such as literature studies or media intermediaries. Data analysis employed (1) qualitative descriptive approach to interpret the data and analyze the factors that influence the decrease of the bull population; and (2) SWOT analysis to identify and analyze internal (S&W) and external (O&T) strategic factors in determining/selecting the final strategy alternative to be implemented (Rangkuti 2001). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION General Overview of Baluran National Park Baluran National Park is one of the natural resource conservation areas located in the eastern tip of Java Island, particularly Banyuputih, Situbondo, East Java. Area of conservation of natural resources that has been defined is ± 25,000 ha of land area and 3,750 ha. Baluran National Park has complete vegetation so it has an enough high diversity of plant species. There are ± 422 species of plants from various vegetation’s included in 87 families. There are also 155 types of aves and 26 species of mammals. Some of the most important mammals are derived from the hoofed animals, one of which is Javanese bull (Bos javanicus). Influential Factors against the Decline of Javanese Bull Population Based on data from the census of 1997 to 2015, the population of Javanese bull has fluctuated and tended to decrease. Lakspriyanti (2015) stated that the number of bull population continues to decline since 2002 influenced by the state of the habitat. Factors influencing the population decline of Javanese bull in Baluran include water and feed availability, quality and quantity of savanna, habitat destruction, illegal hunting in the area and wild grazing resulting in competition of feed. According to IUCN (2004), the main threat to the sustainability of the bull consists of the destruction or loss of native habitat, the emergence of invasive foreign species, excessive hunting and the presence of disease/pathogens. Water and Feed Availability Baluran National Park is an area that is dry, has low rainfall, minimal source of water and does not have a watered river throughout the year. Based on the Forest Ecosystem Control Team Report (2005), the site inventory in the dry season shows that there are 18 springs in Baluran National Park area used as drinking place by animals. In the current situation, in meeting the needs of drinking water the wild bulls that depend on the artificial drinking tub that has been provided by the manager and the existence of natural puddles. Natural tusks scattered at several points such as Perengan and Bama are reliable sources of springs. However, the current condition of the tusks has decreased in line with the declining number of wild bull population. There is an interrelated positive relationship between the number of bull population and the availability of natural puddles. Wild bull has a habit of wallowing, which can dilute the sludge so that the springs are not covered by the sludge. The sludge in the puddle will be attached to the buffalo body so that the volume of sludge can be reduced gradually. Quality and Quantity of Savana Baluran National Park’s savanna area is ± 10,000 ha. One of threats faced by Baluran National Park is the invasion of Acacia Thorns (Acacia nilotica) because almost 50% of the savannah has been degraded by stands of Acacia plantations and turned into the shady and dense Acacia plantations with tree Natural Breeding Program as an Effort to Increase the Amount of Population and Conservation densities up to 1500 trees/ha, which cause the underlying grass species to die as sunlight is blocked by the shade of the Acacia plant canopy. In this case, the manager seek eradication of thorny Acacia plant with a smear system on the surface of the stem with Triclopyr herbicide and continued by planting the White Lamuran grass (Dichantium caricosum) with a spacing of 1mx1m which was carried out in January 2013. In addition, the manager also has controlled, logged, burnt and removed the plant stem of thorny Aksia (Acacia nilotica). However, the growth rate is very fast and has a physical and biological nature of plants that can grow on marginal or extreme land, so that eradication efforts that have been made into have not been optimal. This is in line with the opinion Djufri (2004) that the attempts to advocate the invasion of Acacia have not succeeded optimally and even led to new problems such as changes in soil structure, dormant seed growth and vegetative regeneration of milestones which is left behind. Currently, most savanna conditions, especially Bekol, Kramat, Kajang and some of the area in Balanan, have been invaded by Acacia nilotica which causes savanna narrowing. As the main feeding ground area that provides feed source for wildlife, fluctuations in the number of large mammal populations, one of which is bull, is indirectly affected. It is stated in Sabarno (2001) one of the layouts of the residence of the bull is the area of pasture (savanna) as a place to eat, drink, play and rest. Habitat Damage As a conservation area that has a direct boundary with human settlements that are easily accessible from various directions, both land and sea routes, this has an impact on regional management. Most of the people around the area are still dependent on the potential of Baluran National Park in various ways, for example by looking for firewood, grazing in the wild, harvesting (tamarind, gadung, honey, grass, etc.) and illegal hunting. Environmental damage is the occurrence of physical changes that might cause the habitat to be disturbed and not even able to play the role as its function. Basically, bull is included into animals that can move in the daytime (diurnal) and night (nocturnal). However, when bull coexists with humans, it tends to conduct their activities in the evening and turns into a nocturnal animal. This change indicates that the presence of disturbance and high intensity of human activity either in or around the region has changed bull’s pattern of life. The high disturbance in the area is indicated by the change of land cover or the transfer of land function within the park area, for instance, the existence of settlement of ex HGU (Hak Guna Usaha/ Cultivation Rights) Gunung Gumitir located in Labuhan Merak in SPTN Region II Karangtekok. This area was originally a settlement for workers of PT. Mount Gumitir, but then the function switched to a cultivation area. In addition, there are several changes in land function and the extent within the park area that can be seen in Table 1. Illegal Hunting Nugroho (2014) stated that in addition to the consequences of habitat destruction, bull population is also threatened by illegal hunting activities. Nurdiansyah (2015) added that illegal hunting is a problem of forest abuses that often occur in national parks, especially in Baluran National Park, in which large mammals and bulls become main target. Hunting, based on the motive, is generally done for fulfilling satisfaction or hobbies and daily needs. Animals targeted for hunting are Javanese bull (Bos javanicus), wild bull (Bubalus bubalis), Timor deer (Cervus timorensis), wild boar (Sus sp), roe (Muntiacus muncak), Lutung (Trachypithecus cristata), bat (Pteropus vampyrus), Pangolin (Manis javanica) Table 1. Area of Land Function Changes in Baluran National Park No Forms of Land Function Changes Area 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Setlements of ex HGU PT. Gunung Gumitir Translok TNI-AD Wild grazing area Bajulmati dam Land use in Gentong Source: Baluran National Park Hall (2014) S3 Width (Ha) 360 57 3.450 28 22 Location Labuhan Merak Pandean Including Karangtekok Wongsorejo (borderline) Karangtekok SITI AZIZAH ET AL S4 and various bird species (Wahono et al., 2016). This activity influences on the availability of germplasm resources to be preserved. Wild Grazing Wild grazing is mainly caused by the existence of the settlement, especially ex HGU in Labuhan Merak. Wild grazing is mostly found in the northern national park area, particularly in SPTN Region II in Karangtekok and in Watunumpuk, freshwater savanna and Labuhan Merak. This is basd on the report of Sabarno (2001) that this activity (wild grazing) is found in the northern national park area. It is because the north still has a vast expanse of savanna and grass supplies are abundant with low levels of acacia invasion. The existence of wild grazing within the conservation area causes some problems, for example: the widespread of grazing areas, food competition between livestock and protected large mammals, the spread of diseases that animals can infect to wildlife and vice versa, wildlife/home range changes and solidity of soil structure caused by thousands of livestock every day. Activity of wild grazing can be seen as in Fig. 1. Fig. 1. Wild grazing by the community in Watu Numpuk Sabarno (2001) stated that grazing has been carried out by the community for generations and from time to time the number of cattle grazing is growing. Uncontrolled wild grazing activities can turn national parks into domestic livestock grazing which influences the expulsion of wildlife due to feed competition and disturbance due to human activities. The number of cattle population in Labuhan Merak that is grazed is presented in Table 2. Internal Factor Analysis The implementation of semi-natural breeding program of Javanese bull in Baluran National Park is influenced by various internal factors such as: a) Banteng Jawa as the icon of Baluran National Park Banteng Jawa is the icon for Baluran National Park. Therefore, its existence becomes significant for the national park. b) Breeding activities which have been shown to increase the bull population Implementation of the Javanese Bull Breeding Unit has been shown to increase the population with low mortality rates. c) Carrying capacity of bull habitat in Baluran National Park Baluran National Park is a unique area because it is composed by a complete vegetation type. This can support the needs of bulls related to its properties, so that the conservation process can run naturally and sustainably. d) Numerous support from NGOs The large number of support from various NGOs is an opportunity to realize the objectives of conservation goals. This is consistent with Rachman’s (2012) assertion that the conservation movement is a collective work that should not be an exclusive movement to establish a conservation movement that gets support and engages the public. e) Potential breeding activities that can be used as one of the objects of education and tourism (ecotourism) Making bull conservation as an object of ecotourism is an appropriate breakthrough target and as a medium of learning and tourism. Table 2. The number of population of Ongole crossbreed cattle and non-Ongole crossbreed cattle in Labuhan Merak Livestock Ownership Total Ongole crossbreed cattle Non-Ongole crossbreed cattle Male Female 721 178 114 785 Source: Database of Labuhan Merak Resort (2016) 899 Natural Breeding Program as an Effort to Increase the Amount of Population and Conservation f) The reproduction process which takes a long time One reason that a species may be endangered is its low reproductive capacity. Destriana (2008) argued that the bull began to breed at the age of three of low population size and high cruising range with the threat of hunting in the past. This makes the bulls is increasingly likely to experience extinction. g) High operational costs Based on the logical framework of the strategy and the bull conservation action plan of 20102020, funds for bull conservation can be minimal up to USD 2,000,000 up to 2020 both from central and regional government, sourced from national and international institution. h) Slow adaptation of bulls Bull in the breeding unit is a relocation animal originating from Taman Safari Prigen is striped of Baluran bull’s offspring. Conservation does not merely move the bull from one place to Baluran National Park. Animals that are born in a zoo or captivity environment require special handling to adapt to the new environment in their natural habitat. Bulls can starve to death because they do not know which foods to eat or survive in the forest. i) Unavailability of new breeds The sustainability of the semi-natural breeding program of Javanese bull in Baluran National S5 Park depends on the presence of new breeds to avoid the risk of inbreeding. j) The absence of an ideal breeding model for bulls One of the weaknesses in the breeding unit is Baluran National Park is appointed as the first in the conservation program of the bull. The absence of an ideal in-situ management success guide is one that can hamper the target population increase. k) The lack of management skill The conservation and semi-natural bull breeding unit is a homework that requires thinking, finance and energy. Currently the keeper is poorly trained and professional in the management and handling of animals due to the lack of literature on the conservation of the bull. l) Inadequate facilities and infrastructure A number of facilities are damaged, such as the malfunction of stun shock wire, some rusted railings, collapsed rehabilitation cage buildings and broken roof. In addition, it is necessary to consider the construction of supporting facilities such as solar cells to meet the electricity needs in the breeding unit of the bull. The summary of some of the internal factors is presented in Table 3. According to IFAS table, it is known that the sub total score of strength is (1.515) which is greater than the sub total score of weakness (1.029). This Table 3. Internal factor analysis on development strategy of semi-natural bull breeding unit No. Internal Strategy Factor Weight Rating Weight * Rating Score 0,114 0.086 0,086 0,114 0,057 4,0 4,0 3,0 3,0 2,0 0,457 0,344 0,258 0,342 0,114 Strenghts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Banteng Jawa as the icon of Baluran National Park Breeding activities which have been shown to increase the bull population Carrying capacity of bull habitat in Baluran National Park Numerous supports from NGOs Potential breeding activities that can be used as one of the objects of education and tourism (ecotourism) Total Weaknesses The reproduction process which takes a long time High operational costs Slow adaptation of bulls Unavailability of new breeds The absence of an ideal breeding model for bulls The lack of management skill Inadequate facilities and infrastructure Total Total 0,457 0,086 0,057 0,086 0,114 0,086 0,057 0,057 0,543 1,00 1,515 3,0 2,0 2,0 1,0 1,0 3,0 2,0 0,258 0,114 0,172 0,114 0,086 0,171 0,114 1,029 2,544 S6 SITI AZIZAH ET AL indicates that the strength/advantage possessed by the Semi-Natural Breeding of Bull Unit is bigger than its weakness. 9. External Factors Analysis k) The lack of management skill The implementation of semi-natural breeding program of Javanese bull in Baluran National Park is influenced by various external factors such as: a) The existence of government support Javanese bull is included in 14 endangered species that serve as the main species for 3% population increase in 2010-2014 and 5% by 2020 (Permenhut, 2011). b) Expansion plan of breeding unit and making sanctuary Bull conservation not only focuses on population increase and rehabilitation of habitat in Baluran National Park, but also rescues shelters, protects and does rehabilitation of bull from disturbance and pressure by humans originating from outside the area before the animals are returned to the wild. c) Plan as research center and bull rescue Building a research center and bull rescue is a step to tackle the problem of population decline and the threat of extinction of the bull that needs to be realized. This is in accordance with the statement of Santoso (2014) that as a conservation area of various species of animals, Baluran National Park should be able to cope with the condition. d) Germplasm source Indonesia’s genetic resources are threatened by the presence of imported livestock on the grounds of the issue of food security. Imported livestock is considered more prominent and economical. This is in accordance with the opinion of Maskur (2012) that in Indonesia the practice of breeding and cross breeding is done to increase the productivity of local livestock by importing livestock that has higher productivity, resulting in decreasing biodiversity and threatening the existence of genetic resources of local livestock. Conservation of Javanese bull in Baluran National Park is one of the considerations to improve the quality of local genetic. Bull breeding program in Baluran National Park has a great opportunity as a source of germplasm. e) Manufacture of biogas digester for power plant Utilizing the feces spread in the breeding unit as biogas that generates alternative electrical energy (PLTB) for the cage and using sludge as compost is a continuous activity. This is to reduce the risk of disease and parasites transmission. Besides, it is able to apply zero waste concepts and support clean development. f) Access to adequate transportation Ease of access to the national park area is one factor that is beneficial as well as detrimental to conservation efforts. It facilitates the handling of animals yet it can disrupt the animals. g) Potential of new jobs The sanctuary as well as the research and rescue center plan needs the quality and quantity of Human Resources (HR) managers in a sufficient number so that the conservation of the bull can be done effectively and efficiently. This is in line with opinion … h) The risk of inbreeding The problem of inbreeding is one of the serious threats that will be faced by the bull breeding unit. A small population size will have an impact on the extinction rate which will also result in inbreeding depressions and reduced genetic diversity. i) The threat of disease and parasites The condition of Baluran National Park which has a dry climate type F with temperature ranges between 27.2o - 30.9oC and air humidity up to 77% is the ideal temperature of parasitic worms to develop. Therefore, Javanese bulls can easily be infected with various parasites present in feeds obtained from nature. j) The nature of animals that are easy to stress and sensitive A careful human intervention effort is required in the management and protection of conservation areas. Lakspriyanti (2015) stated that bull is a sensitive animal to human existence. The summary of some external factors is presented in Table 4. Based on EFAS Table, it is known that the total score of opportunity and threat factor is 2.065 where the total sub score of opportunity (1,710) is greater than sub total score of threat which is (0.355). This indicates that the current condition is sufficient to provide support and opportunities for the bull semibreeding unit to support the bull population increase as well as minimize or overcome the threats that arise. Based on the result of weighting in IFAS and Natural Breeding Program as an Effort to Increase the Amount of Population and Conservation S7 Table 4. External Factor Analysis Development Strategy of Semi-natural bull breeding unit No External Factor Strategy Opportunities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The existence of government support Expansion plan of breeding unit and making sanctuary Plan as research center and bull rescue Germplasm source Manufacture of biogas digester for power plant Access to adequate transportation Potential of new jobs Total Threats The risk of inbreeding The threat of disease and parasites The nature of animals that are easy to stress and sensitive Total Total 1. 2. 3. Weight Rating Weight * Rating Score 0,097 0,129 0,129 0,097 0,032 0,064 0,097 0,645 3,0 3,0 3,0 2,0 1,0 2,0 3,0 0,291 0.387 0,387 0,194 0,032 0,128 0,291 1,710 0,129 0,097 0,129 0,355 1,00 1,0 1,0 1,0 0,129 0,097 0,129 0,355 2,065 EFAS table, the sum of the S, W, O and T factors is presented in Table 5. Table 5. IFAS and EFAS Matrix Unit of semi-natural bull breeding SO WO Score (S) + Score (O) 1,515 + 1,710 = 3,225 Score (W) + Score (O) 1,029 + 1,710 = 2,739 ST Score (S) + Score (T) 1,515 + 0,355 = 1.870 WT Score (W) + Score (T) 1,029 + 0,355 = 1,384 The highest score obtained is on SO of 3.225 so that the strategy or step chosen by the semi-natural bull breeding unit in developing the bull population is to optimize S (Strengths) and utilize the existing Opportunities. While the score on WT is quite small (1,384) which means Weaknesses and Threats are relatively small or weak compared to their strengths and opportunities. In this condition, the alternative strategy chosen is to increase cooperation with various related parties so that the preservation can be done optimally in increasing the number of bull’s population. 10. Positioning of Semi-Natural Bull Breeding Unit Based on the combination of total score of IFAS (2,544) and EFAS (2,065), it is known that the seminatural bull breeding unit position is in quadrant I (upper right), where both factors are positive. This Fig. 2. The position of the bull breeding policy in Baluran National Park indicates that the environment faced relatively have more opportunities than the threat, as well as the strength is relatively superior to the weakness. This means that the condition of semi-natural bull breeding unit is currently running, but not optimal because there are threats and weaknesses that have not been addressed, especially related to the condition of the bull. Improvement efforts can be done by avoiding threats and minimizing weaknesses by utilizing the strengths and opportunities that Baluran National Park has. 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