Uploaded by D'Ette Wagar

DNA Fingerprinting GN

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DNA Fingerprinting Guided Notes
1. _________ is the genetic material in our cells.
2. No two people (except ______________ _________) have the exact same DNA.
3. DNA fingerprinting is also known as _______ _________________.
4. DNA fingerprinting is a technique used by scientists to distinguish between individuals of
the same species using only samples of their ________.
5. DNA fingerprinting has been used to help solve crimes by ______________
______________ __ ______________ and by helping ______________ bodies of
victims.
6. DNA fingerprinting can also be used to
a. establish ______________ and ___________________
b. Identify victims of ________ and large scale _________________
c. study _________________ of species
d. track ________________ ________________ crops
e. settle ___________________ disputes
7. Small amounts of biological evidence left at crimes scenes is called _____________
__________________.
8. ______________ _______________ is the source of DNA needed for DNA
fingerprinting.
9. Biological evidence includes:
a. ______________
b. ______________
c. ______________
d. ______________
e. ______________ _____________
f. ______________ ______________ ___________
g. ______________
10. The human _______________ is the total amount of DNA in a cell. It consists of
approximately _____ ____________ base pairs.
11. Not all of the 3 billion bases are ___________ code.
12. __________ are encoded DNA, with directions to build molecules. The make up _____
of the entire genome.
13. ___________ are un-encoded DNA , that do not code for the production of molecules.
They make up _______ of DNA, often referred to as ____________ DNA.
14. ___________ are very useful in forensic science.
15. Most of the human genome is the __________ in all humans, but there is some
variation.
16. Most variation in DNA is in the ___________.
17. Many of the ___________ are in the form of _________________ __________
__________________. Some of these sequences can be repeated ___________
__________.
18. _____________________ are the non-coded DNA segments (also called __________)
that contain unique _______________ ____ ________________ ______________
________________ that are ____________ to individuals.
19. The number of times the sequence repeats ___________ between individuals.
20. 2 types of repeating DNA sequences:
a. ________________ _____________ ____ ______________ _____________
(________) that are ___________________ in length.
b. ________________ _____________ ______________ (________) that are
___________________ in length.
21. VNTR and STR data from ________ _______________ can be analyzed for 2 main
purposes:
a. ____________ matching
i. Comparing _____ _______________ from a crime scene with DNA taken
from a suspect.
ii. 2 samples that have the same __________ ____________ are from the
same person.
b. ______________ matching
i. Comparing familial members’ DNA for proof of _________________
_____________________.
ii. Each band in a child’s DNA fingerprint must be present in at least ______
______________. ***When interpreting the sample, start with the child.
EVERY band in the child’s sample MUST be in at least one parent
22. Evidence that is very small is called ___________ _____________.
23. Many forensic tests will ____________ the evidence sample, so prior to DNA
fingerprinting, ________ is a technique that is used to make _____________ of copies
of segments of DNA that investors want to analyze.
24. PCR stands for __________________ _____________ ______________.
25. Steps of DNA fingerprinting:
a. _____________ of DNA
b. Cutting the DNA into restriction _____________ (RFLPs)
c. ________________, (making many copies of those fragments) using _____
d. ______________________, a process that separates RFLPs according to their
_____________, creating a ________ _____________________.
26. Steps of Gel Electrophoresis:
a. _________________ ______________ cut DNA segments into various smaller
sizes
b. _________ _______________ are loaded into wells in a porous gel within a
chamber
c. An ________________ _________________ is passed through chamber taking
the DNA in the wells from an area of negative charge to an area of positive
charge
d. _____________ DNA segments move faster and farther than larger ones
27. One well should contain a ____________, a solution containing DNA fragments of
known lengths (for comparison).
28. Other wells should contain DNA from _____________ _____________, _____________,
and _______________.
Analysis of DNA Fingerprints:
29. In order for DNA fingerprints to match, the columns must have bands in the exact same
____________ with the exact same ______________.
30. DNA fingerprinting can
a. ____________ crime scene DNA with a suspect
b. ________________ a suspect
c. ________ a falsely imprisoned individual
d. _______________ determine maternity, paternity, or match to other relative
e. _____________ human remains
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