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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System
Description
HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
Document Version T2-030214-20060430-C-8.60
Product Version
V800R006
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Address: Administration Building, Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.,
Bantian, Longgang District, Shenzhen, P. R. China
Postal Code: 518129
Website: http://www.huawei.com
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
All Rights Reserved.
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Trademarks
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All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their
respective holders.
Notice
The information in this manual is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the
preparation of this manual to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and
recommendations in this manual do not constitute the warranty of any kind, express or implied.
HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction to the SGSN9810........................................................................................1
1.1 About This Chapter ................................................................................................................1
1.2 Structure of a GPRS/UMTS Network ....................................................................................1
1.3 Huawei GPRS/UMTS CN-PS Solution ..................................................................................2
1.3.1 SGSN ..........................................................................................................................2
1.3.2 GGSN..........................................................................................................................2
1.3.3 HA ...............................................................................................................................3
1.3.4 CG ...............................................................................................................................4
1.3.5 AAA Server..................................................................................................................4
1.3.6 DNS Server .................................................................................................................4
1.3.7 BG ...............................................................................................................................4
1.4 Overview of the SGSN9810...................................................................................................5
Chapter 2 Key Benefits .....................................................................................................................6
2.1 About This Chapter ................................................................................................................6
2.2 Large Capacity and High Degree of Integration ....................................................................6
2.3 High-Speed Hardware Forwarding ........................................................................................6
2.4 Standard Protocol Interfaces .................................................................................................6
2.5 Abundant Physical Interfaces ................................................................................................7
2.6 Rich Services and Functions .................................................................................................7
2.7 Easy Operation and Maintenance .........................................................................................8
2.8 High Reliability .......................................................................................................................9
Chapter 3 System Structure ...........................................................................................................11
3.1 About This Chapter ..............................................................................................................11
3.2 Hardware Configuration.......................................................................................................11
3.2.1 Switching Subrack.....................................................................................................13
3.2.2 Basic Subrack ...........................................................................................................14
3.2.3 Extended Subrack ...................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
Chapter 4 Services and Functions ................................................................................................17
4.1 About This Chapter ..............................................................................................................17
4.2 Services ...............................................................................................................................17
4.2.1 IP/PPP Bearer Services ............................................................................................17
4.2.2 Short Message Services ...........................................................................................18
4.2.3 Location Services ......................................................................................................19
4.2.4 CAMEL Phase 3 Services.........................................................................................20
4.2.5 Lawful Interception ....................................................................................................20
4.3 Functions .............................................................................................................................21
4.3.1 Mobility Management ................................................................................................22
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4.3.2 Session Management ...............................................................................................22
4.3.3 Routing ......................................................................................................................22
4.3.4 IPv6 Support..............................................................................................................23
4.3.5 IPSec and LLC Encryption ........................................................................................24
4.3.6 Charging....................................................................................................................25
4.3.7 QoS ...........................................................................................................................25
4.3.8 Iu-FLEX/Gb-FLEX .....................................................................................................27
4.3.9 RAN Sharing in Connected State .............................................................................28
4.3.10 MVNO......................................................................................................................28
4.3.11 UESBI-Iu .................................................................................................................29
4.3.12 Multi-SPs and 2 Mbit/s Signaling Links...................................................................30
4.3.13 NTP Client Functions ..............................................................................................30
4.3.14 Network-Assisted Cell Change ...............................................................................31
4.3.15 SIGTRAN Support...................................................................................................31
4.3.16 Gb over IP ...............................................................................................................34
4.3.17 Differential Services ................................................................................................35
4.3.18 Handover Strategy Control......................................................................................35
Chapter 5 Operation and Maintenance .........................................................................................37
5.1 About This Chapter ..............................................................................................................37
5.2 O&M System........................................................................................................................37
5.3 Configuration Management .................................................................................................38
5.4 Equipment Management......................................................................................................38
5.5 Tracing Management...........................................................................................................39
5.6 Performance Management ..................................................................................................39
5.7 Fault Management...............................................................................................................39
5.8 Security Management..........................................................................................................39
5.9 Online Help ..........................................................................................................................40
Chapter 6 Reliability ........................................................................................................................41
6.1 About this Chapter ...............................................................................................................41
6.2 Hardware Reliability.............................................................................................................41
6.2.1 Board Hot Backup .....................................................................................................41
6.2.2 ASIC Technology ......................................................................................................41
6.2.3 Quality Components..................................................................................................42
6.2.4 Load Sharing .............................................................................................................42
6.2.5 Power Supply Reliability............................................................................................42
6.3 Software Reliability ..............................................................................................................42
6.3.1 Reliability Building at Different Phases .....................................................................42
6.3.2 Error Tolerance .........................................................................................................43
6.4 Charging Reliability..............................................................................................................43
Chapter 7 Technical Specifications...............................................................................................45
7.1 About This Chapter ..............................................................................................................45
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7.2 Performance Specifications .................................................................................................45
7.3 Engineering Specifications ..................................................................................................45
7.3.1 Power Consumption..................................................................................................45
7.3.2 Dimensions and Weight of Cabinets .........................................................................46
7.3.3 Environment Requirements.......................................................................................46
7.4 Reliability Specifications ......................................................................................................47
7.5 Physical Interfaces...............................................................................................................47
Chapter 8 Installation ......................................................................................................................49
Appendix Acronyms and Abbreviations .......................................................................................50
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
Chapter 1 Introduction to the SGSN9810
1.1 About This Chapter
This chapter describes the structure of a general packet radio service / universal mobile
telecommunications system (GPRS/UMTS) network where the Huawei SGSN9810
Serving GPRS Support Node (referred to as the SGSN9810 in the following sections) is
located.
The chapter also introduces the network elements used in the Huawei GPRS/UMTS
core network-packet switching (CN-PS) solution.
1.2 Structure of a GPRS/UMTS Network
The current wireless technology is evolving from 2G global system for mobile
communications (GSM) to 3G UMTS by way of 2.5G GPRS. Mobile communication
networks now cover large areas, realize high-speed wireless data transfer, and offer
access to the Internet. They provide wide range of multimedia services (such as voice,
data, and video) and enable access anytime and anywhere.
Figure 1-1 shows the structure of a GPRS/UMTS network.
CN-CS
RAN
GSM/GPRS BSS
BSC
HLR/AuC/EIR
SMS-GMSC
MSC/VLR
SMS-IWFMSC
GMSC
PSTN,
ISDN
BTS
MS
UMTS UTRAN
SS7
Billing
Center
RNC
CG
NodeB
Firewall
Firewall
SGSN
DNS
Core
Network
Other PLMN
BG
DNS
GGSN/ HA
FA
CN-PS
Internet,
Intranet,
etc.
WAP
Gateway
AAA
Server
Figure 1-1 Structure of a GPRS/UMTS network
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As shown in Figure 1-1, a GPRS/UMTS network consists of the following parts:
Mobile station (MS): User equipment capable of originating and receiving calls
over the air interface. To handle data services, the MS establishes a logical link
with the packet switched (PS) domain.
Radio access network (RAN): handles all radio-related functions.
Core network-circuit switching (CN-CS): provides circuit services and connects to
external circuit switched networks such as a public switched telephone network
(PSTN).
CN-PS: provides packet data services and connects to external public data
networks (PDNs) such as the Internet.
1.3 Huawei GPRS/UMTS CN-PS Solution
The Huawei GPRS/UMTS CN-PS consists of the following main network entities:
Serving GPRS support node (SGSN)
Gateway GPRS support node (GGSN) and foreign agent (FA)
Home agent (HA)
Charging gateway (CG)
Authentication, authorization, accounting (AAA) server
Domain name system (DNS) server
Border gateway (BG)
The CN-PS offers the means for an MS to access an external PDN. It provides packet
data services and charging service (including prepaid and postpaid services).
The following sections describe the functions of these entities.
1.3.1 SGSN
The SGSN is a functional entity that provides packet data services. It forwards
incoming and outgoing internet protocol(IP) packets to the mobile stations (MSs) within
its service area.
The SGSN provides the following functions:
Routing and forwarding of data packets
Encryption and authentication
Session management
Mobility management
Logical link management
Generation and output of call detail records (CDRs)
1.3.2 GGSN
The GGSN is also a functional entity that provides packet data services. It routes and
encapsulates packet data between the GPRS/UMTS network and an external PDN.
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
The GGSN provides the following functions:
Interface to an external public data network(PDN)
The GGSN functions as a gateway for an MS accessing an external PDN. From
the point of view of the external network, the GGSN serves as a router for all
equipment IP addresses in the GPRS/UMTS network.
GPRS/UMTS session management
The GGSN helps in setting up communications between the MS and the external
PDN.
Data routing and forwarding
The GGSN receives data from the MS and then forwards the data to the external
PDN. It also receives data from the external PDN and selects a transport channel
in the GPRS/UMTS network based on the destination address to forward the data
to the SGSN.
FA functions
To support mobile Internet Protocol (IP) services, the GGSN is embedded with FA
functions. In this case, the GGSN/FA serves as a gateway of the GPRS/UMTS
network and an FA of the network visited by the MS.
Charging for postpaid services
The GGSN generates and outputs CDRs based on the usage of the external
network by the subscriber.
Call control and service switching functions for prepaid services
For prepaid services, the GGSN serves as a service switching point (SSP) that
connects a mobile network and an intelligent network. It provides call control and
service switching functions.
1.3.3 HA
The HA is a new entity that is used to support mobile IP access. It is an enhanced router
that also maintains the current location information of MSs.
The main functions of the HA are as follows:
Sending broadcast messages to MSs so that the MSs know if they are on the
home network.
Handling and replying to the registration requests from an MS. Establishing
mobility binding records (MBRs) between the MS home address and care-of
address.
Agency and forwarding: The HA reports the availability of network prefixes for the
MS home address so that the packets destined for the MS home address can be
routed to the home network. After encapsulating the packets, the HA tunnels them
to the GGSN/FA, which finally forwards the packets to the MS.
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
1.3.4 CG
The CG is a new device added to the GPRS/UMTS network. It collects, consolidates
and pre-processes CDRs generated by the SGSN or GGSN. It provides an interface to
the billing center.
CDRs are generated by several network entities when a GPRS or UMTS subscriber
visits the Internet. Each entity may generate several CDRs.
The CG is used to reduce the work load of the billing center by consolidating and
pre-processing the CDRs before sending them to the billing center. With the CG used in
the network, the SGSN or GGSN need not provide the charging interface to the billing
center.
1.3.5 AAA Server
The AAA server performs authentication, authorization and accounting according to the
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) protocol.
The AAA server is not specific to the GPRS/UMTS system.
1.3.6 DNS Server
Two types of DNS server exist in the GPRS/UMTS network.
The first is the DNS between the GGSN and the external PDN. Like an ordinary DNS
on the Internet, this DNS resolves the domain name of the external PDN.
The second is the DNS on the GPRS/UMTS CN. The main functions of the DNS server
include the following:
Resolves the GGSN IP address from the access point name (APN) to set up
communication with the MS when the MS attempts to access the external PDN.
Resolves the SGSN IP address from the old routing area code during the
inter-SGSN routing area update.
Resolves the SGSN IP address from the new radio network controller (RNC)
identity(ID) during RNC relocation.
The DNS server is not specific to the GPRS/UMTS system.
1.3.7 BG
The BG is a router. In addition to security functions, it provides a routing function
between the SGSN and the GGSN in different PLMNs.
The BG is not specific to the GPRS/UMTS system.
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
Note:
The FA and the HA are mandatory for mobile IP access. If the mobile IP access
function is not required, the FA and HA are not required.
1.4 Overview of the SGSN9810
The SGSN9810 can be used in a GPRS and a UMTS network. It supports up to 2
million attached subscribers at the same time.
The SGSN9810 provides full range of services, functions, protocol interfaces, and
physical interfaces. Built on the mature platform of Huawei products, it is highly reliable
and easy to operate and maintain.
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
Chapter 2 Key Benefits
2.1 About This Chapter
This chapter describes the key benefits that the SGSN9810 brings to network
operators. It includes the following sections:
Large Capacity and High Degree of Integration
High-Speed Hardware Forwarding
Standard Protocol Interfaces
Abundant Physical Interfaces
Rich Services and Functions
Easy Operation and Maintenance
High Reliability
2.2 Large Capacity and High Degree of Integration
The SGSN9810 supports up to 2 million attached 2.5G or 3G subscribers and 2 million
activated packet data protocol(PDP) contexts (2.5G or 3G subscribers) at the same
time. When fully configured, it requires five cabinets in a 2.5G network or three cabinets
in a 3G network.
2.3 High-Speed Hardware Forwarding
The user plane data of the SGSN9810 is forwarded using hardware, which improves
the processing efficiency and integration of the system. The hardware supports the
traffic at the rate of 600 Mbit/s in a 2.5G system or the traffic at the rate of 10 Gbit/s in a
3G system.
2.4 Standard Protocol Interfaces
The SGSN9810 supports a variety of 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP)
protocol interfaces to connect to the equipment from different vendors. This makes
network deployment easy for operators.
The SGSN9810 supports the following protocol interfaces — Ga, Gb, Gd, Ge, Gn, Gp,
Gf, Gr, Gs, Iu, and Lg — as shown in Figure 2-1.
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
SMS-GMSC
SMS-IWMSC
SM- SC
CAMEL GSMSCF
GLMC
Gd
MSC/VLR
HLR
Ge
Lg
Gs
Gc
Gr
Iu
TE
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Gi
UTRAN
PDN
GGSN
SGSN
TE
Gn
Gb
TE
MT
BSS
Gn
Ga
Gp
CGF
GGSN
SGSN
Ga
Gf
Billing
System
EIR
Other PLMN
Figure 2-1 Protocol interfaces supported by the SGSN9810
2.5 Abundant Physical Interfaces
The SGSN9810 provides the following physical interfaces to improve its adaptability in
different network requirements:
Gn, Gp, Ga and Iu-PS interfaces: STM-1, STM-4, 10 Mbit/s, 100 Mbit/s, and 1,000
Mbit/s Ethernet interfaces
Gb, Gd, Ge, Gf, Gr, Gs and Lg interfaces: E1, T1, STM-1, STM-4, 10 Mbit/s, 100
Mbit/s, and 1,000 Mbit/s Ethernet interfaces
For the 1,000 Mbit/s Ethernet interfaces, both optical ports and electrical ports are
supported.
2.6 Rich Services and Functions
The SGSN9810 provides a full range of services and functions. Basic functions include:
IP bearer services
Mobility management
Security management
Session management
Charging
Quality of service (QoS) and flow management
Static and dynamic routing
Simple network management protocol (SNMP) support
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
Optional functions include:
Point-to-Point Protocol(PPP) bearer services
Short message service (SMS)
Customized applications for mobile network enhanced logic (CAMEL) 3 intelligent
services
Location service (LCS)
Internet protocol security extensions (IPSec) function
Lawful interception
2 Mbit/s signaling link
Multiple signaling points
Network time protocol (NTP)
Multiple HPLMNs
Iu-FLEX
Mobile virtual network operator (MVNO)
Network assisted cell change (NACC)
IP multimedia subsystem (IMS) bearing
IPv6
RAN sharing in connected mode
UESBI-Iu
Enhanced data rates for GSM evolution (EDGE)
High speed downlink packet access (HSDPA)
Differential service
Handover strategy control
Gb over IP
Signaling transport (SIGTRAN) support
2.7 Easy Operation and Maintenance
The SGSN9810 has the following operation and maintenance (O&M) features:
Multiple and flexible O&M methods
The O&M system can be flexibly built according to the network structure and
customer requirements. Multiple maintenance interfaces are supported, including
the interfaces to the local maintenance terminal (LMT), the Huawei centralized
network management system iManager 2000, and the Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP) based network management system. Through the
Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) interface provided by the
iManager 2000, more network management requirements can be fulfilled.
Friendly user interfaces
The SGSN9810 provides O&M interfaces that combines the merits of both
man-machine language (MML) and graphic user interface (GUI).
Powerful signal tracing
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
The SGSN9810 provides functions to trace the messages of designated
subscribers and the signals on the protocol interfaces such as the Iu, Gb, Gs, and
Gr. Message explanation and filtering functions are also available.
Function-level software patching
Through online software patching, software errors can be solved without
interrupting services. The SGSN9810 also supports remote patching and version
fallback.
2.8 High Reliability
The SGSN9810 is highly reliable because of the following features:
Backup of important data
The SGSN9810 automatically backs up important data, such as the configuration
data, performance data, and operation logs.
Operation security management
Different management privileges are assigned to different users. Stringent user
identity checks are performed upon user login, and a comprehensive operation
log is maintained after user login to ensure system security.
CG redirection and bill buffering
When the active CG or the link to the active CG fails, the SGSN9810 automatically
sends the bills to the standby CG. If the standby CG is also faulty, the SGSN9810
stores the bills in its buffer.
Hardware redundancy design
All critical boards are configured in the 1+1 backup or N+1 redundancy to ensure
the high reliability of the system.
Protection against exceptions
The SGSN9810 provides comprehensive protection mechanisms against system
exceptions including:
− System power-off
− Maloperation on system power switch
− Lightning surge on the system power
− High voltage and low voltage
− Short circuit of power supply
− Lightning surge on E1/T1 links
− Current surge and high voltage on the power supply and interfaces
System overload control
In the case of center processing unit (CPU) overload or resource congestion, the
SGSN9810 adjusts the traffic smoothly to avoid system down.
Board locking and system shutdown
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
This function enables a slow service exit from a board or the system if required,
and thus guarantees that services are not disrupted suddenly.
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
Chapter 3 System Structure
3.1 About This Chapter
This chapter describes the structure of the SGSN9810 system. It includes the following
sections:
Hardware Configuration
3.2 Hardware Configuration
Figure 3-1 shows the hardware configuration of the SGSN9810.
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
Power Distribution Box
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Figure 3-1 Hardware configuration of the SGSN9810
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
The SGSN9810 uses a standard 19-inch cabinet. Each cabinet houses four standard
19-inch subracks that are called Packet Service Module (PSM) subracks. Each PSM
subrack has 21 slots. Boards can be inserted from both the front side and the rear side
of the subrack.
Based on the functions, PSM subracks are classified into the switching subrack, basic
subrack, and extended subrack.
3.2.1 Switching Subrack
The switching subrack implements the following functions:
Interconnection between the basic subrack and extended subracks, and data
exchange between these two types of subrack
External Gn, Gp, and Iu-PS interfaces
Transfer of user plane data
Figure 3-2 shows the configuration of boards in the switching subrack.
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Figure 3-2 Boards in the switching subrack
Note:
In Figure 3-2, the boards in the upper half of the subrack are inserted from the rear, and
the boards in the lower half are inserted from the front.
Table 3-1 briefs the functions of the boards in the switching subrack.
Table 3-1 Functions of the boards in the switching subrack
Board
Sub-rack control unit (URCU)
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Function
Implements bus mediation, board configuration,
maintenance, and management of the PSM
subrack.
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
Board
Function
PSM back interface unit (UBIU)
Provides optical ports, network ports, and serial
ports for the Subrack Control Unit (URCU).
Auxiliary control unit (UACU)
Helps the URCU board control the two buses in
the PSM subrack.
Controls hot swapping of the service processing
boards in the PSM subrack.
Controls the switchover of URCU boards.
PSM alarm unit (UALU)
Monitors the power module of the PSM subrack.
Monitors back board status.
Monitors subrack temperature.
PSM power module (UPWR)
Provides power supply for the PSM subrack.
Frame connect unit (UFCU)
Forwards service subrack data.
Packet interface unit (UPIU)
Receives and forwards Asynchronous Transfer
Mode (ATM) data and Ethernet link data.
GTP forwarding unit (UGFU)
Forwards GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) data.
Charging detail record unit
(UCDR)
Collects, encodes, and sends CDRs, and stores
CDRs in the buffer.
Back storage unit (UBSU)
Provides external interfaces and a hard disk for
the UCDR.
Lawful interception processing
unit (ULIP)
Provides interfaces for lawful interception,
including the interfaces for receiving interception
requests and the interfaces for collecting and
transmitting interception messages.
3.2.2 Basic Subrack
The basic subrack implements the maintenance and management functions of the
SGSN9810 and processes various services.
Figure 3-3 to Figure 3-5 show the configuration of boards in the basic subrack
respectively for a 2.5G network, 3G network not supporting the Signaling Transport
(SIGTRAN) protocol, and 3G network supporting SIGTRAN.
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U
R
C
U
U U U U U
A B A F F
C I C S S
U U U U U
U
R
C
U
U
O
M
U
U
O
M
U
U
L
A
N
U
G
T
P
U
C
K
I
U
G
T
P
U
C
K
I
U
G
T
P
U
G
T
P
U
A
L
U
U
P
W
R
U
P
W
R
U
P
W
R
U
P
W
R
Figure 3-3 Boards in the basic subrack (2.5G network)
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
U U U U U
E E E E B
P P P P I
I I I I U
U U U U U
I I S S S
C C P P P
P P U U U
U
S
P
U
U U U U U
A B A F F
C I C S S
U U U U U
U
R
C
U
U
R
C
U
U
O
M
U
U
O
M
U
U
L
A
N
U
G
T
P
U
C
K
I
U
G
T
P
U
C
K
I
U
G
T
P
U
G
T
P
U
A
L
U
U
P
W
R
U
P
W
R
U
P
W
R
U
P
W
R
Figure 3-4 Boards in the basic subrack (3G network not supporting
SIGTRAN)
U
B
I
U
U U U U U
A B A F F
C I C S S
U U U U U
U U U U U U U
I I S S S S R
C C P P I I C
P P U U G G U
U
R
C
U
U
O
M
U
U
O
M
U
U
L
A
N
U
G
T
P
U
C
K
I
U
G
T
P
U
C
K
I
U
G
T
P
U
G
T
P
U
A
L
U
U
P
W
R
U
P
W
R
U
P
W
R
U
P
W
R
Figure 3-5 Boards in the basic subrack (3G network supporting SIGTRAN)
Table 3-2 briefs the functions of the boards in the basic subrack.
Table 3-2 Functions of the boards in the basic subrack
Board
Function
Clock unit (UCKI)
Provides operational clock for the SGSN9810.
Packet service signal
processing unit (USPU)
Implements application layer protocols such as
Session Management (SM), Mobility Management
(MM), and Customized Applications for Mobile network
Enhanced Logic (CAMEL).
Processes Signaling System No.7 (SS7) L3 messages.
Gb interface unit (UGBI)
Iu_PS control processing
unit (UICP)
GTP processing unit
(UGTP)
Implements Gb interface protocols.
Implements Iu-PS control plane protocols.
Forwards GPRS tunnelling protocol for control plane
(GTP-C) signaling messages and implements the
charging function of GPRS tunnelling protocol for user
plane (GTP-U) data.
Implements NTP, DNS client and IPSec functions.
Packet service O&M unit
(UOMU)
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Implements the operation and maintenance functions
of the SGSN9810.
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
Board
Function
PSM flashdisk storage
unit (UFSU)
Provides external interfaces and a hard disk for the
UOMU.
E1 processing interface
unit (UEPI)
Provides external E1 interfaces for the Packet Service
Signal Processing Unit (USPU) or Gb Interface Unit
(UGBI).
T1 processing interface
unit (UTPI)
Provides external T1 interfaces for the USPU or UGBI.
LAN switch card (ULAN)
Implements the functions of a local area network (LAN)
switch to provide a connection between the UOMU and
URCU.
SIGTRAN process unit
(USIG)
Implements the MTP3 User Adaptation Layer (M3UA)
and Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)
functions of the SIGTRAN.
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
Chapter 4 Services and Functions
4.1 About This Chapter
This chapter describes the services and functions provided by the SGSN9810. These
contents help you further understand the roles of the SGSN9810 in a GPRS or UMTS
network.
4.2 Services
The SGSN9810 provides a full range of services to meet the demands of various
subscribers. This section introduces the following services:
IP/PPP bearer services
Short message services (SMS)
Location services
CAMEL Phase 3 services
Lawful interception
4.2.1 IP/PPP Bearer Services
The GPRS/UMTS network supports protocols such as the Internet Protocol version 4
(IPv4), Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6), and Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP). The
IP/PPP packets can travel transparently on the GPRS/UMTS network. Subscribers can
use various IP and PPP applications, such as web browsing, File Transfer Protocol
(FTP), and Virtual Private Network (VPN), through the GPRS/UMTS network.
Figure 4-1 and Figure 4-2 respectively shows the structure of the protocol stack that
provides IP and PPP bearer services in a 3G network and a 2.5 network.
Application
E.g.,
IP,PPP
E.g.,
IP,PPP
Relay
Relay
GTP-U
PDCP
PDCP
GTP-U
GTP-U
RLC
RLC
UDP/IP
UDP/IP
MAC
MAC
L2
L1
L1
L1
Uu
MS
UTRAN
L2
L1
Iu-PS
GTP-U
UDP/IP
UDP/IP
L2
L2
L1
3G-SGSN
L1
Gn
3G-GGSN Gi
Figure 4-1 IP/PPP bearer protocols (3G)
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
Application
IP
IP
Relay
SNDCP
SNDCP
LLC
LLC
Relay
GTP-U
GTP-U
UDP
UDP
RLC
RLC
BSSGP
BSSGP
IP
IP
MAC
MAC
Network
Service
Network
Service
L2
L2
GSM RF
L1bis
L1bis
L1
GSM RF
Um
Gb
MS
BSS
L1
Gn
Gi
SGSN
GGSN
Figure 4-2 IP/PPP bearer protocols (2.5G)
4.2.2 Short Message Services
Short message services (SMS) include normal SMS and enhanced SMS.
Normal SMS allows for the messages that contain up to 160 bytes (including
control bytes).
Enhanced SMS allows for formats in a message in addition to texts. These formats
may include objects such as animations and images. A short message can contain
more than one object.
SMS consists of two types of basic service: mobile terminated short message (SM-MT)
and mobile originated short message (SM-MO).
SM-MT is the capability that enables the GSM/UMTS system to deliver the short
messages submitted by the service center (SC) to the specified MS. At the same time,
result (success or failure) of the message delivery is provided. In the case of delivery
failure, a repeat strategy is implemented.
SM-MO is the capability that enables the GSM/UMTS system, with the help of the SC,
to forward the short messages submitted by an MS to the short message entity (SME).
At the same time, result (success or failure) of the message submission is provided.
Figure 4-3 shows the basic network structure of the SMS.
SME
..
SC
Outside the scope of the GSM
specifications
SMS-GMSC /
*
SMS-IWMSC
MSC/SGSN**
MS
Inside the scope of the GSM
specifications
Figure 4-3 Basic network structure of the SMS
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
The GPRS-attached MSs or the GPRS-attached but international mobile subscriber
identity (IMSI) -unattached MSs submit and receive short messages through the PS
domain.
The GPRS-attached and IMSI-attached MSs submit and receive short messages
through either the PS domain or the circuit switching (CS) domain. If the messages are
submitted through the CS domain, the SGSN can be used for paging.
4.2.3 Location Services
The LCS enables the GPRS/UMTS network to determine the location of an MS in the
network and provide the geographic location of the MS after data conversion and
calculation.
The location data can be applied internally or externally. For internal purposes, the
location data can be used by the operator to fulfill certain requirements such as
location-based charging. For external purposes, the location data of the MS can be
used by the network to provide various location-based services such as on-demand
services, customized messages, and customized services.
Figure 4-4 shows the network of the LCS.
2GMSC
A
gsmSCF
GERAN
Gb
Um
Lg
Proprietary
2GSGSN
OSA SCS
Lc
Lg
Proprietary
Iu
UE
GMLC
Iu
Uu
Lg
Iu
Le
3GSGSN
Iu
MSC
server
External LCS
Client
LIF-MLP
Lh
Lg
UTRAN
OSA API
HSS
Figure 4-4 Network of the LCS
The LCS network includes the following main entities:
LCS client:
The LCS client originates location requests. Corresponding to the application of
LCS, the LCS client includes the internal LCS client and external LCS client.
Gateway mobile location center (GMLC):
The GMLC provides an access for the LCS client to communicate with the public
land mobile network (PLMN). After receiving the location request from the LCS
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
client, the GMLC demands routing data from the home location register (HLR) or
Home Subscriber Server (HSS). At the same time, the GMLC forwards the request
to the visited mobile switching center (VMSC), SGSN, or MSC server after
authentication. The location result is also forwarded through the GMLC.
MSC/ Visitor location register (VLR), MSC server, and SGSN:
These entities connect to the GMLC through the Lg interface. They receive,
process, and respond to the location request.
4.2.4 CAMEL Phase 3 Services
The CAMEL enables operators to provide subscribers special services such as the
prepaid service.
Figure 4-5 shows how the SGSN supports CAMEL Phase 3 services in a GPRS/UMTS
network.
Home Network
HLR
gsmSCF
MAP
CAP
gprsSSF
SGSN
Interrogating Network
MS
Visiting Network
Home/Interrogating/Visiting Network
Figure 4-5 SGSN support to CAMEL Phase 3 services
As shown in the figure, the SGSN integrates the GPRS service switching function
(gprsSSF) and provide CAMEL Phase 3 services under the control of the GSM service
control function (gsmSCF).
4.2.5 Lawful Interception
The lawful interception is a capability of the mobile network to provide the content of
communication (CC) of MSs and intercept related information (IRI) to a law
enforcement agency (LEA).
Figure 4-6 shows the procedure of lawful interception.
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
Intercept request
Intercept reques
X1-1
Network node
ADMF
LEA
X2
DF2
X3
IRI
CC
DF3
Figure 4-6 Procedure of lawful interception
The procedure for lawful interception is as follows:
1
The LEA sends an intercept request to the administration function (ADMF) entity.
2
The ADMF forwards the request to the network node.
3
The network node starts intercepting the CC of the target subscriber.
4
The network node forwards the IRI and CC of the target subscriber to the LEA
through the delivery function (DF).
As shown in Figure 4-6, the logical entities relating to the interception in a mobile
network include the network nodes (SGSN and GGSN), ADMF, and DF. The ADMF
controls the interception while the DF collects and forwards the IRI and the CC.
Relevant interfaces include the X1-1 interface, X2 interface, and X3 interface.
X1-1 interface is between the ADMF and the network node. It transfers
interception-related management messages from the ADMF to the network node.
X2 interface is between the DF2 and the network node. It transfers the IRI.
X3 interface is between the DF3 and the network node. It transfers the CC.
4.3 Functions
The SGSN9810 provides powerful functions to meet the requirements of network
operators. This section introduces the following functions:
Mobility management
Session management
Routing
IPv6 support
IPSec and logical link control (LLC) encryption
Charging
QoS
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
Iu-FLEX/Gb-FLEX
RAN sharing in connected state
MVNO
UESBI-Iu
Multi-SPs and 2 Mbit/s signaling link
NTP client functions
Network assisted cell change (NACC)
SIGTRAN support
Gb over IP
Differential services
Handover strategy control
4.3.1 Mobility Management
The MM function is used to control an MS access to the GPRS/UMTS network and
trace the location of the MS, such as the routing area (RA) and SGSN information of the
MS.
The MM function is fulfilled mainly by attach, detach, and route updating procedures. It
ensures that the location of the MS is updated while the MS is moving, such as the
updating of the current SGSN information in the HLR.
4.3.2 Session Management
The SM carries out Packet Data Protocol (PDP) context management. The PDP
context is a group of messages related to the PDP. The network elements, such as the
MS, SGSN, and GGSN, send and manage the PDP data based on the PDP context.
Session management includes PDP context activation, modification, and deactivation.
Before the MS transmits data, it must activate the PDP context. During the data transfer,
the PDP context can be modified based on the requirement of the QoS. After data
transfer, the PDP context must be deactivated to release network resources.
4.3.3 Routing
The SGSN9810 supports various routing protocols to ensure the flexible networking
using the Gn/Gp interface.
I. Static Routing
Static routes are manually configured by the administrator. Users can configure static
routes to set up a connected network. When the network is faulty, the static route
cannot adjust itself and requires reconfiguration.
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
In a simple network, static routes can be used to ensure the stable operation of the
router. Well configured static routes can improve the performance of the network and
ensure the bandwidth for critical applications.
II. OSPF
The open shortest path first (OSPF) is an interior gateway protocol (IGP) developed by
the internet engineering task force (IETF). The OSPF is implemented based on link
status. It has the following features:
Large scope: The OSPF can be used for the networks of various sizes and support
up to hundreds of routers.
Fast convergence: After the network topology is changed, an update message is
sent at once to synchronize the data in the autonomous system.
Loop free: The OSPF uses the shortest path algorithm to determine a route based
on the link status. The algorithm ensures that the route is loop free.
Area division: The network of the autonomous system can be divided into several
areas so that the network is easy to manage. The route information transferred
between the areas is abstracted, so the required bandwidth is further reduced.
Equivalent route: Multiple equivalent routes to the same destination are
supported.
Hierarchical routes: Routes are classified into four categories. They are (from high
to low priority) intra-area routes, inter-area routes, class-1 external routes, and
class-2 external routes.
III. RIP II
The routing information protocol (RIP) is a simple IGP that is used in small networks.
The RIP is widely used in networks thanks to the following features:
Easy to implement
Little protocol overhead, which makes almost no impact on the network
performance.
Easy to configure and maintain compared with the OSPF and intermediate
system-to-intermediate system (IS-IS) intra-domain routing information exchange
protocol.
4.3.4 IPv6 Support
The rapid development of Internet services requires more and more IP addresses,
which are beyond the capability of the IPv4 protocol. As a result, the IPv6 is developed
to address this problem.
Compared with the IPv4, the IPv6 boasts of the following advantages:
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
Extended IP addresses: IP addresses are extended from 32 bits in the IPv4 to 128
bits in the IPv6, indicating that the address resources are abundant. This address
structure also improves routing efficiency.
Simplified packet header format: The packet header is simplified to minimize the
processing by routers; thus it improves routing efficiency.
Enhanced support for extension and option capability: The IPv6 satisfies
additional requirements without affecting the routing of normal packets or special
packets.
Flow identity: The flow identity is used to improve the processing of packet flows,
especially real-time applications.
Identity verification and security: Enhanced identity verification and security
measures make IPv6 especially suitable for sensitive commercial information.
The data plane and the signaling plane of the SGSN9810 Gn/Gp interface supports
both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. Operators can choose one of the following four
operational modes:
Supporting IPv6 addresses only
Preferring IPv6 addresses
Supporting IPv4 addresses only
Preferring IPv4 addresses
4.3.5 IPSec and LLC Encryption
To ensure the security of data transfer, the SGSN9810 supports IPSec encryption for
the signaling massages on the Gn/Gp interface and data encryption for the Gb
interface messages.
I. IPSec
The SGSN9810 encrypts the Gn/Gp signaling messages by using the IP Security
(IPSec) protocols.
The IPSec is a series of protocols developed by the IETF to ensure the security of the
data that is transmitted on the Internet. Through encryption and data source verification
on the IP layer, the privacy and integrity of data packets can be guaranteed when the
packets are transferred on the Internet.
II. LLC Encryption
In a 2.5G system, the encryption on the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer between the
MS and SGSN is the traditional stream encryption using the GPRS-A5 algorithm. The
data to be encrypted includes the information field and the authentication field carried
by LLC frames.
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
4.3.6 Charging
Figure 4-7 shows the GPRS/UMTS charging network. The SGSN and GGSN collect
the charging information relating to radio network resource usage and core network
(CN) resource usage by each MS. Then they generate CDRs and send them to the CG
through the Ga interface.
UTRAN
SGSN
Gn
Ga
MS
GGSN
Ga
CG
BSS
Billing Centre
Figure 4-7 GPRS/UMTS charging network
The SGSN9810 can generate the following seven CDRs:
SGSN generated - CDR(S-CDR): records the information relating to certain PDP
contexts in the SGSN
Mobility management generated - CDR(M-CDR): records the mobility-related
information
SGSN delivered short message mobile originated - CDR(S-SMO-CDR): records
the information relating to SM-MO services
SGSN delivered short message mobile terminated - CDR(S-SMT-CDR): records
the information relating to SM-MT services
Mobile terminated LCS CDR(LCS-MT-CDR): records the information relating to
mobile-terminated location services
Mobile originated LCS CDR(LCS-MO-CDR): records the information relating to
mobile-originated location services
Network induced LCS CDR(LCS-NI-CDR): records the information relating to
network-initiated location services
4.3.7 QoS
The 3GPP R99 specifications define four classes of QoS, as described in Table 4-1.
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
Table 4-1 UMTS QoS classes
Traffic class
Characteristics
Example of the
application
Conversational
class
Preserve time
relation between
entities of the
stream
Conversational
pattern (high
quality, low
delay)
Voice
Streaming
class
Interactive
class
Background
class
Preserve
time relation
between
entities of the
stream
Request
response
pattern
Destination
does not
expect the
data within a
certain time.
Video
Web
browsing
Download or
e-mails
The SGSN9810 support the four QoS classes by using the following mechanisms:
Access control
When the subscriber activates the PDP context, the SGSN9810 negotiates the
QoS with the MS. If the negotiation fails, the SGSN9810 denies the MS access.
QoS queue management
The data packets are assigned to corresponding QoS queues based on the QoS
class. The SGSN9810 dispatch the queues using the class-based weighted fair
queuing (CBWFQ) algorithm to decide the order of transmission.
In case of congestion, the SGSN9810 decides the discard criteria of packets by
using the weighted random early detection (WRED) algorithm. This ensures the
transmission reliability of the high-priority data.
Differential services (DiffServ)
DiffServ is an IP QoS model that is used in a backbone network to meet various
service requirements. In the DiffServ system, the network node determines the
per-hop behavior (PHB) according to the differentiated services code point (DSCP)
in the IP header.
The SGSN9810 supports the following PHBs: expedited forwarding (EF), assured
forwarding (AF), and best-effort (BE). It also supports the three discard priorities of
the AF.
QoS mapping
QoS mapping converts the QoS attributes of different bearer protocols. It includes
the mapping between the 3GPP QoS and DSCP, between the DSCP and the ATM
QoS, and between the R97/98 and the R99 QoS attributes.
CAR and Remarking
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
If the actual data packet stream requires the QoS higher than the requested one,
the SGSN9810 handles the packets based on the committed access rate (CAR)
and discard the extra packets. It can also carry out a Remarking process to lower
the QoS of the data packet.
4.3.8 Iu-FLEX/Gb-FLEX
The Iu-FLEX/Gb-FLEX function allows one RAN or base station subsystem (BSS) to
connect to several CN nodes in the same domain.
The Iu-FLEX/Gb-FLEX function introduces the concept of pool areas. Similar to an
MSC or SGSN service area, a pool area contains one or more RAN/BSS service areas,
but it is served by multiple CN nodes (MSC or SGSN) at the same time. See Figure 4-8
for details.
MSC 6
MSC 5
MSC 4
MSC 3
MSC 2
MSC 1
CS poolarea 2
CS poolarea 1
RAN
node
Area 1
RAN
node
Area 5
RAN
node
Area 6
Area 3
Area 4
RAN
node
Area 7
RAN
node
Area 8
PS poolarea 2
SGSN 3
SGSN 4
SGSN 5
SGSN 2
RAN
node
RAN
node
RAN
node
Area 2
PS poolarea 1
SGSN 1
MSC 7
SGSN 6
Figure 4-8 Example of pool area configuration
The Iu-FLEX/Gb-FLEX function expands the service areas of each CN node and
reduces the effort required for the inter-node update, handover, relocation, and HLR
update.
This function also improves system availability. If one CN node in the pool area is faulty,
other nodes can provide services.
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
4.3.9 RAN Sharing in Connected State
Figure 4-9 shows the scenario of RAN sharing in connected state. In this scenario, the
networks of operator A and operator B together cover a large area in which an overlap
area exists. The RANs of operator A and operator B are connected through the CNs, so
the user equipment (UE) of operator B can operate in the network of operator A. In the
overlap area, the UE of operator B must access the RAN of operator B rather than the
network of operator A.
Core Network A
Radio Access Network
A
Core Network B
Radio Access Network
B
Figure 4-9 RAN sharing between operators
To solve the problem mentioned above, the R5 protocol introduces the concept of
shared network area (SNA). An SNA corresponds to one or more location areas (Las)
that control the UE access.
The SNA is configured in the CN. The CN provides the SNA information (an SNA ID list)
of the specified UE to the RAN. The SNA ID list contains the SNAs that the UE can
access.
If the location area (LA) is in the SNA that the UE can access, the RAN allows the UE
to access the network. Otherwise, it denies the UE.
4.3.10 MVNO
A mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) uses the resources authorized by a mobile
network operator (MNO) to provide services and maintain the authorized resources.
The MVNO function enables more operators to invest on and share the network to
lower investment risk and maximize resources usage.
The network resources authorized by the MNO can be the RAN, part of the CN, or the
whole CN. Figure 4-10 shows the example of partial CN sharing. In the example, the
MNO shares its SGSN with the MVNO, and the MVNO owns the GGSN, CG, and other
network equipment.
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
MNO
CG
UTRAN
MS
SGSN
GERAN
GGSN
GGSN
CG
PDN
MVNO
GGSN
MVNO
CG
Figure 4-10 MVNO network
4.3.11 UESBI-Iu
Different UEs may have potential standard or manufacture problems. The RAN needs
UE-specific behavior information (UESBI) regarding 3GPP features to help the lower
layer process the local 3GPP features.
UESBI corresponds to the following two sets of information:
UESBI-Uu: The messages are sent by the UE to the RAN through the messages
defined by the Radio Resource Control (RCC) protocol.
UESBI-Iu: The message is obtained by the CN from the International Mobile
Station Equipment Identity and Software Version number (IMEISV) of the UE. The
CN then sends the messages to the RAN through the Iu interface.
Figure 4-11 shows the network structure of the UESBI-Iu.
Attach and IMEISV
interrogation
1
2
3
IMEISV
Storage
UESBI
IMEISV UE
BTS
SRNC
SGSN/MSC
Figure 4-11 Network structure of the UESBI–Iu
When the UE accesses the VLR or SGSN, the IMEISV from the UE is saved in the VLR
or SGSN. When an Iu connection (such as CS voice session and PS data transfer) is
set up later, the IMEISV is read from the MM context of the VLR or SGSN to obtain the
UESBI. The UESBI is then sent to the serving RNC (SRNC).
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
4.3.12 Multi-SPs and 2 Mbit/s Signaling Links
Ever increasing equipment capacity boosts the signaling flow between signaling points.
The 16 signaling links specified by the protocol are far from enough to fulfill actual
networking requirements. To solve this problem, the SGSN9810 provides the multiple
signaling points (multi-SPs) function and 2 Mbit/s signaling links.
I. Multi-SPs Function
The SGSN9810 entity can be divided virtually into several logical signaling points. Thus
the restriction of 16 signaling links between two signaling points is broken.
As shown in Figure 4-12, from the aspect of other signaling points, the SGSN9810
contains multiple signaling points, and there are 16 links for each signaling point.
16
SP
SP
SGSN
16
SP1
SP
SP2
SGSN
16
Figure 4-12 Multiple signaling points supported by the SGSN9810
II. 2 Mbit/s Signaling Links
A 2 Mbit/s signaling link bundles multiple timeslots into an E1/T1 link to increase the
throughput of a link.
4.3.13 NTP Client Functions
The NTP is a protocol that broadcasts precise time over the entire IP network. The
transmission of messages is based on the user datagram protocol (UDP). To ensure
the accuracy of clock synchronization, the RFC1305 standard defines the algorithm
used by the NTP.
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
The SGSN9810 supports a remote server that is configured as the local time server. In
this case, the SGSN9810 acts as the client.
4.3.14 Network-Assisted Cell Change
When an MS initiates cell reselection between base station controllers (BSCs) during
data transfer, the network assisted cell change (NACC) function is used to reduce the
time delay and improve the QoS. In most cases, service interruption can be controlled
within 300 ms to 700 ms, which is a great improvement compared with the normal 1
second or 2 seconds.
To assist fast cell reselection, the MS must know the system information of the target
cell. If the target cell belongs to another BSC or RNC, the system information is
transferred across the BSCs or RNCs. In this case, the system information is included
in the RAN-Information message and sent to the target BSC or RNC by the SGSN.
4.3.15 SIGTRAN Support
The Signaling Transport (SIGTRAN) protocol stack is defined by the Internet
Engineering Task Force (IETF) to enable the interworking between SS7 and IP
networks.
The SIGTRAN enables an IP network to transfer the signals of a legacy switched circuit
network (SCN). It supports the standard inter-layer primitive interfaces defined in the
SCN signaling protocol model to ensure that SCN signaling messages can be used
without any modification. With the standard IP transport protocol as its lower layer, the
SIGTRAN provides special functions to meet the requirements for SCN signaling
transfer.
Functionally, the SIGTRAN protocol stack is classified into the following two types:
General signaling transmission protocols, which fulfills the efficient and reliable
transfer of SS7 signaling messages on an IP network. The Stream Control
Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is now used for this purpose.
SS7 signaling adaptation protocols, which are designed to adapt the various
signaling protocols used by the SCN. They include M2UA, M3UA, IUA, and V5UA.
Figure 4-13 shows the SIGTRAN protocol stack model.
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M3UA
M2UA
IUA
SUA
M2PA
V5UA
SCTP
IP
M3UA: MTP3 User Adaptation Layer
IUA: ISDN Q.921 User Adaptation Layer
V5UA: V5 User Adaptation Layer
SCTP: Stream Control Transmission Protocol
M2UA: MTP2 User Adaptation Layer
M2PA: MTP2 Peer Adaptation Layer
SUA: SCCP User Adaptation Layer
IP: Internet Protocol
Figure 4-13 SIGTRAN protocol stack model
Note:
This manual introduces only the SCTP and M3UA used by the SGSN9810.
In the SGSN9810, the SIGTRAN protocols are applied on the Iu-PS interface signaling
plane and the SS7 interface. Figure 4-14 shows how the SGSN9810, RNC, and HLR
communicate on an IP network using the SIGTRAN protocols.
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IP
RNC/HLR.etc
SGSN
SCCP
SCCP
M3UA
M3UA
SCTP
SCTP
IP
IP
Figure 4-14 Communication with the RNC and HLR on an IP network using
the SIGTRAN protocols
The SGSN9810 can also use a signaling gateway (SG) to communicate with the
signaling points that do not support SIGTRAN functions, as shown in Figure 4-15.
No.7
HLR
IP
SG
NIF
SCCP
SGSN
SCCP
MTP3
MTP3
M3UA
M3UA
MTP2
MTP2
SCTP
SCTP
MTP1
MTP1
IP
IP
Figure 4-15 Communication between an SS7 network and an IP network
using the SIGTRAN (M3UA)
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4.3.16 Gb over IP
On the Gb interface, the Network Service (NS) layer implements the following functions
for the upper layer:
Service data unit (SDU) transfer between the SGSN9810 and the BSS.
Network congestion indication
Status indication
Figure 4-16 shows the protocol stacks on the Gb interface.
LLC
RELAY
BSSGP
RLC
BSS
GP
MAC
NS
NS
L1
L1
Gb
BSS
SGSN
Figure 4-16 Protocol stacks on the Gb interface
The NS layer consists of two sublayers — NS control protocol and Sub-NS protocol —
as shown in Figure 4-17.
Network Service
Network Service Control /
Network Service Control protocol
Sub-Network Service /
Sub-Network Service protocol
Figure 4-17 Structure of the NS layer
The 3GPP protocols specify that Sub-NS messages can be carried by a frame relay
network or an IP network. The SGSN9810 version earlier than V800R006 supports
frame relay network. In version V800R006, the Gb over IP feature is added to support
Sub-NS message transfer over an IP network on the Gb interface.
The end-to-end communication on the Gb interface between two remote networks is
implemented through network service – virtual circuits (NS-VC). An NS-VC is a virtual
path between two peer entities on the NS control layer. It is defined by a quadruple
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consisting of the SGSN IP address, SGSN UDP port number, BSS IP address, and
BSS UDP port number.
4.3.17 Differential Services
The differential service provides various access control strategies according to
subscriber priorities and service levels.
Subscribers are grouped into three classes according to their priorities:
Special subscribers
High-end subscribers
Common subscribers
The service level depends on the following QoS parameters in the PDP context:
Traffic class
Guaranteed bit rate for downlink
Traffic handling priority
Operators offer different services to different subscribers through the following two
methods:
Specify the threshold of system resource usage to restrict the attach and routing
area update (RAU) operations of some subscribers.
Specify the threshold of PDP context resources to restrict certain services of some
subscribers.
4.3.18 Handover Strategy Control
The handover strategy control helps operators in distributing traffic and balancing load
between 2G networks and 3G networks.
This function is applicable to the 2G and 3G supportive terminals that are allowed to
access these two types of network.
When a terminal is in a 3G network, the handover strategies include:
Handover to 2G network recommended
Handover to 2G network not recommended
Stay in the 3G network
The handover strategy control information is sent as a cell to the RNC during radio
access bearer (RAB) Assignment and Relocation procedures.
When a terminal is in a 2G network, the handover strategies include:
Handover to 3G network recommended
Handover to 3G network not recommended
Stay in the 2G network
The handover strategy control information is sent as a cell to the BSS during the
Create-BSS-PFC procedure.
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Chapter 5 Operation and Maintenance
5.1 About This Chapter
This chapter introduces the structure and functions of the SGSN9810 O&M system. It
includes the following contents:
O&M System
Configuration Management
Equipment Management
Tracing Management
Performance Management
Fault Management
Security Management
Online Help
5.2 O&M System
Figure 5-1 shows the structure of the O&M system.
LMT
SGSN9810
SNMP Client
M2000 Client
M2000 Server
M2000 Client
SNMP Server
SNMP Client
Figure 5-1 O&M system of the SGSN9810
As shown in Figure 5-1, the SGSN9810 provides three O&M methods:
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Local maintenance through the local O&M terminals: This method is applicable to
original system installation and fault location.
Central maintenance through the iManager M2000: This is the main method for
regular maintenance.
Reporting the maintenance information to the SNMP-based network management
system through the SNMP interface: Only alarms and performance data are
reported.
5.3 Configuration Management
Configuration management includes operations such as the addition, deletion,
modification, and query of system data. The SGSN9810 provides two ways of data
configuration:
Dynamic configuration: Data can be configured when the system is running.
Static configuration: The text data file (MML or TXT) is edited offline and the data
takes effect when the system is reset.
5.4 Equipment Management
Equipment management monitors, controls and tests system entities such as hardware
components and links.
The SGSN9810 provides the following equipment management features:
Status query
The SGSN9810 allows operators to query the operational status of the system
entities. The entities include boards, optical ports, E1 ports, SS7 links, Frame
Relay (FR) links, Signaling ATM Adaptation Layer (SAAL) links, GTP path, Bear
Channels (BCs), NS-VCs, destination signaling point, subsystems, Point To Point
(PTP) BSSGP Virtual Connections (BVCs), and Special Interest Group (SIG)
BVCs.
Status control
The status control function allows for the following operations:
− Board reset and switchover
− Blocking, unblocking, and reset of optical ports, E1 ports, SS7 links, FR links,
− SAAL links, GTP paths and BCs
− Inhibiting and enabling of destination signaling points and subsystems.
Test function
Testing is an effective way to locate faults. The SGSN9810 supports loopback
tests on E1 ports and SAAL links, as well as GTP path tests.
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5.5 Tracing Management
The SGSN9810 provides interface tracing and subscriber tracing. It is a powerful tool
for equipment maintenance.
The interface tracing can trace messages on standard interfaces such as the Gb, Iu,
Gn/Gp, Gs/Gd/Gr, and Ga. It can also trace messages based on the protocol layer.
The subscriber tracing traces the messages of the specified IMSI or mobile station
international ISDN number (MSISDN).
Operators can save the trace results to handle any queries in the future.
5.6 Performance Management
Performance management assesses the SGSN9810 system and the surrounding
networks and provides the data relating to network operation.
The SGSN9810 performance management system has the following features:
Wide range of measurements
Diversified time attributes
Measurement templates
Measurement customization
Suspension and resuming of measurement tasks
Modification of measurement tasks
View of real-time data regarding performance measurement
Setting of measurement thresholds
5.7 Fault Management
The alarm system monitors the operational status of the SGSN9810 and reports faults.
The alarm system has the following features:
Comprehensive alarm information and accurate alarm identification
The SGSN9810 provides over 300 types of alarm covering all software functions,
hardware components, and system peripherals. The alarms are grouped into
different categories with different severity levels. This ensures that all faults can be
detected and handled in time.
Flexible and easy alarm handling
The alarm terminal of the SGSN9810 provides flexible and convenient operations
to ensure that you can handle the alarm effectively and in time.
5.8 Security Management
The SGSN9810 ensures the security in two ways:
Privilege management
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The privilege of an operator is defined by a command set that contains a group of
commands. Commands are assigned to a command set, and then a command set
is assigned to an operator.
Operating log
The operating log records all the user operation information, including the user
name, user ID, login IP address, command, time, and result.
5.9 Online Help
Both the SGSN9810 LMT and the iManager M2000 provide compressive and
easy-to-use online help. The help allows operators to quickly access required
information during operation and maintenance.
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
Chapter 6 Reliability
6.1 About this Chapter
This chapter introduces the reliability of the SGSN9810 hardware, software, and
charging devices. It includes the following sections
Hardware Reliability
Software Reliability
Charging Reliability
6.2 Hardware Reliability
The SGSN9810 uses the following reliability designs.
Board backup
Load sharing
Board fault detection and isolation
System fault detection and isolation
6.2.1 Board Hot Backup
The SGSN9810 boards are configured in the 1+1 backup or N+1 redundancy. The
following are the two major considerations in the backup design:
Board fault detection
When a board is powered on, it checks its memory and key external chips such as
the network chips. Key signals (such as the clock signal) used by the board are
monitored online. Loopback test of service code flow is conducted when the board
is idle.
Switchover mechanism
The active-standby switchover is carried out by two cross-connected signals
between the active board and the standby board. They are the output signal
effective to the active board and the input signal effective to the standby board.
6.2.2 ASIC Technology
All the network chips used in the boards are special application specific integrated
circuits (ASICs). These ASICs provide reliable measures to detect and report internal
(chip-level) errors.
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6.2.3 Quality Components
The SGSN9810 uses quality components that have passed burn-in tests and proved to
meet stringent requirements. The hardware is assembled under strict control to ensure
that the system remains stable and reliable in the long term.
6.2.4 Load Sharing
Load sharing means that two or more boards perform relevant functions under normal
operation. When one of the boards is faulty, other boards perform the task of the faulty
board to ensure certain performance indexes (such as call loss).
Load sharing is applied to secondary power modules, signaling links, and STM-1
interfaces.
6.2.5 Power Supply Reliability
The SGSN9810 uses a distributed power supply. Each subrack or functional module
has its own high-frequency DC/DC secondary power module that is highly efficient and
stable.
The secondary power supply adopts the active/standby hot backup design to ensure
the reliable power supply.
The power inputs and the external interfaces (such as the E1 interfaces) of boards
provide protection against high voltages and current surges. The measures meet the
international telecommunication union - telecommunication standardization sector
(ITU-T) recommendation G.703 and other relevant specifications.
6.3 Software Reliability
This section describes the measures that build up the reliability of the SGSN9810
software.
6.3.1 Reliability Building at Different Phases
The key to improve software reliability is reducing software defects. The reliability of the
SGSN9810 software is ensured at various phases from system requirements analysis
to system test.
From the requirements analysis phase, the software development is carried out under
the guidance of various capability maturity model (CMM) specifications. This reduces
errors in the initial phase.
The SGSN9810 software is designed in modules. The modules are loosely coupled so
that the fault of one module does not affect the performance of other modules. In
additional, measures such as error check, error isolation, and recovery, are added to
improve system reliability.
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Code walk-through, inspection, and tests at every phase further improve the software
reliability.
6.3.2 Error Tolerance
The error tolerance of a software system indicates the resilience of the system under
minor software faults. That means the system does not break down on minor faults and
has self-healing ability when an error occurs.
The error tolerance of software involves the following measures:
Regular check of key resources
For various software resources in the system (such as the network board
resources), long-time seizure check mechanism is provided. If resources do no
respond due to a software exception, the check mechanism releases the
resources and generates logs and alarms.
Task monitoring
Output channels are provided for the internal software faults and some of the
hardware faults detected during system operation. These output channels monitor
the status of a task and report system exceptions to external devices.
Storage protection
The software system uses the segment and page protection mechanism for the
CPU memory management unit (MMU) to protect the storage of codes and
important data segments. It also provides functions of online query, modification of
variables and data, and memory monitoring.
Data check
To ensure the consistency of the data on various service processing boards, the
system performs regular or event-triggered consistency checks. It can also
restore data consistency based on certain criteria and generate logs and alarms.
Operation log storage
The SGSN9810 records user operations at a certain period and stores them in the
system log. Faults can be located by analyzing the operation log for unknown
errors in the system.
Load control
In the case of CPU overload or resource congestion, the load control mechanism
adjusts the load smoothly to avoid system down.
6.4 Charging Reliability
The SGSN9810 generates CDRs on various service processing boards and sends
them to the UCDR board. The UCDR board then sends the CDRs to the CG over the
Ga interface.
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If the CG or the network is faulty, the CDRs in the CDR pool are saved to the hard disk
on the UCDR board. The CDRs can be written back to the CDR pool and sent to the CG
when the CG recovers.
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
Chapter 7 Technical Specifications
7.1 About This Chapter
This chapter lists the technical specifications of the SGSN9810. It includes the
following sections:
Performance Specifications
Engineering Specifications
Reliability Specifications
Physical Interfaces
7.2 Performance Specifications
Table 7-1 lists the performance specifications of the SGSN9810.
Table 7-1 Performance specifications of the SGSN9810
Parameter
Value (2.5G)
Value (3G)
Maximum number of attached
subscribers
2 million
2 million
Maximum number of PDP context
can be activated simutaneously
2 million
2 million
Maximum packet data transfer
capacity (pps)
600,000
4 million
Maximum packet data transfer flow
600 Mbit/s
10 Gbit/s
7.3 Engineering Specifications
Engineering specifications include the power consumption of the SGSN9810,
dimensions and weight of cabinets, and environment requirements.
7.3.1 Power Consumption
Table 7-2 lists the power consumption of the SGSN9810.
Table 7-2 Power consumption of the SGSN9810
Parameter
Value
Power consumption of a PSM switching subrack
560 W
Power consumption of a PSM service subrack
460 W
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
Parameter
Value
Power consumption of a power distribution subrack
20 W
Maximum configuration for 3G systems (3 cabinets, 11
subracks, not supporting SIGTRAN)
5,220 W
Maximum configuration for 3G systems (3 cabinets, 12
subracks, supporting SIGTRAN)
5,680 W
Maximum configuration for 2.5G systems (5 cabinets, 19
subracks)
8,940 W
7.3.2 Dimensions and Weight of Cabinets
Table 7-3 lists the dimensions and weight of a SGSN9810 cabinet.
Table 7-3 Dimensions and weight of a SGSN9810 cabinet
Parameter
Value
Cabinet dimension (H x W x D)
2200 mm x 600 mm x 800 mm
Cabinet weight
≤ 350 kg
7.3.3 Environment Requirements
I. Storage Environment
The SGSN9810 complies with the "not temperature-controlled storage" requirements
specified in European ETS 300 019-1-1. The SGSN9810 must be stored in the
following environment:
Relative humidity: 10% to 100%
Temperature: –40°C to +70°C
II. Transportation Environment
The SGSN9810 complies with "Class 2.3 Public transportation" requirements specified
in European ETS 300 019-1-2. The SGSN9810 must be transported in the following
environment:
Temperature: –40 °C to +70 °C
Relative humidity: 5% to 100%
III. Operational Environment
The SGSN9810 complies with "Temperature-controlled locations" requirements
specified in European ETS 300 019-1-3. The SGSN9810 must operate in the following
environment:
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Normal operation: Temperature (0°C to + 45°C), humidity (5% to 85%)
Safe operation: Temperature (–5 °C to + 55 °C), humidity (5% to 95%)
Safe operation indicates the conditions in which the SGSN9810 must not work for
continuously over 96 hours and accumulated over 15 days in a year.
IV. Electromagnetic Compatibility
The SGSN9810 complies with the GR-1089-CORE standard on electromagnetic
compatibility.
V. Power Supply
Power voltage range: –40 V to –57 V DC
Input current: 50 A for a cabinet
7.4 Reliability Specifications
Table 7-4 shows the reliability specifications of the SGSN9810.
Table 7-4 Reliability specifications of the SGSN9810
Parameter
Value
System availability in typical
configuration
≥ 99.999%
Mean time between failure (MTBF)
≥ 300,000 hours
Mean time to repair (MTTR)
≤ 30 minutes
7.5 Physical Interfaces
Table 7-5 shows the physical interfaces provided by the SGSN9810.
Table 7-5 Physical interfaces provided by the SGSN9810
Interfaces
Iu-PS
(control
plane)
Iu-PS (user
plane)
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Physical
characteristics
Protocol
STM-1 (single-mode
and multi-mode)
ATM
STM-4 (single-mode
and multi-mode)
ATM
STM-1 (single-mode
and multi-mode)
ATM
STM-4 (single-mode
and multi-mode)
ATM
Gigabit Ethernet(GE)
IP
Maximum ports
80
40
80
40
80
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
Physical
characteristics
Interfaces
Gn, Gp,
Ga, X1-1,
X2, and X3
Gb
Protocol
Maximum ports
Fast Ethernet(FE)
IP
80
GE
IP
80
FE
IP
80
STM-1
IP over ATM
(IPOA)
80
STM-4
IPOA
40
E1/T1
FR
800
SS7
2 Mbit/s signaling links: 34;
Or
64 kbit/s signaling links:
1,088
IP
2
SS7
E1/T1
O&M
FE
Note:
The Gn, Gp, Ga, X1-1, X2, and X3 interfaces share 160 STM-1, 160 FE, 160 GE, and
80 STM-4 ports or a combination of these four types physical port.
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
Chapter 8 Installation
The installation of the SGSN9810 includes the hardware, the terminal software, and the
board software.
Hardware
The cabinets, subracks and cables are installed before delivery. Installation
engineers only need to install external cables and boards.
For board installation, the SGSN9810 provides coding slots so that installation
engineers can insert boards only in the correct slots. This avoids damage to
boards when engineers attempt to install boards in the wrong slots.
Terminal software
The SGSN9810 provides a standard Windows installation wizard to guide the
installation of the terminal software. Following the instructions, field engineers can
complete the installation easily.
Board software
The SGSN9810 provides MML commands for engineers to install software for all
the boards or only specified boards.
Note:
For detailed installation procedures, refer to the installation manuals delivered with the
product.
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Appendix Acronyms and Abbreviations
3
3GMS
3rd Generation Mobile Communications System
3GPP
3rd Generation Partnership Project
A
AAA
Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting
ADMF
Administration Function
AF
Assured Forwarding
APN
Access Point Name
ASIC
Application Specific Integrated Circuit
ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AUC
Authentication Center
B
BC
Bear Channel
BE
Best-Effort
BG
Border Gateway
BITS
Building Integrated Timing Supply
BSC
Base Station Controller
BSS
Base Station Subsystem
BSSGP
Base Station Subsystem GPRS Protocol
BVC
BSSGP Virtual Connection
C
CAMEL
Customized Applications for Mobile network Enhanced
Logic
CAR
Committed Access Rate
CBWFQ
Class-Based Weighted Fair Queuing
CBR
Constant Bit Rate
CC
Content of Communication
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CDMA
Code Division Multiple Access
CDR
Call Data Record
CG
Charging Gateway
CGF
Charging Gateway Functionality
CLNP
Connectionless Network Protocol
CMM
Capability Maturity Model
CN
Core Network
CN-CS
Core Network – Circuit Switch domain
CN-PS
Core Network – Packet Switch domain
CORBA
Common Object Request Broker Architecture
CPU
Central Processing Unit
D
DC
Direct Current
DF
Delivery Function
DiffServ
Differential Services
DNS
Domain Name Server
DOPRA
Distributed Object-oriented Programmable Real-time
Architecture
DSCP
Differentiated Services Code Point
E
EDGE
Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution
EF
Expedited Forwarding
EIR
Equipment Identification Register
EMS
Enhanced Messaging Service
ETS
European Telecommunication Standards
F
FA
Foreign Agent
FE
Fast Ethernet
FR
Frame Relay
FTP
File Transfer Protocol
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
G
GE
Gigabit Ethernet; Gigabit Ethernet
GERAN
GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network
GGSN
Gateway GPRS Support Node
GMLC
Gateway Mobile Location Center
GPRS
General Packet Radio Service
gsmSCF
GSM Service Control Function
gprsSSF
GPRS Service Switching Function
GSM
Global System for Mobile Communications
GSN
GPRS Support Node
GTP
GPRS Tunneling Protocol
GTP-C
Control plane part of GPRS tunneling protocol
GTP-U
User plane part of GPRS tunneling protocol
GUI
Graphic User Interface
H
HA
Home Agent
HLR
Home Location Register
HPLMN
Home PLMN
HSDPA
High Speed Downlink Packet Access
HSS
Home Subscriber Server
I
I-CSCF
Interrogating- Call State Control Function
IETF
Internet Engineering Task Force
IGP
Interior Gateway Protocol
IMEISV
International Mobile station Equipment Identity and
Software Version number
IMS
IP Multimedia Subsystem
IMSI
International Mobile Subscriber Identity
IP
Internet Protocol
IPSec
Internet Protocol Security extensions
IRI
Intercept Related Information
ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
IS-IS
Intermediate System-Intermediate System
ISO
International Organization for Standardization
ITU-T
International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector
IUA
ISDN Q.921 User Adaptation Layer
L
LA
Location Area
LAN
Local Area Network
LCS
Location Service
LEA
Law enforcement agency
LIS
Logical IP Subnet
LLC
Logical Link Control
LMT
Local Maintenance Terminal
M
M2PA
MTP2 Peer Adaptation Layer
M2UA
MTP2 User Adaptation Layer
M3UA
MTP3 User Adaptation Layer
MAC
Media Access Control
MAP
Mobile Application Part
MBR
Mobility Binding Record
MIP
Mobile IP
MM
Mobility Management
MML
Man-Machine Language
MMU
Multiplication and Management Unit
MNO
Mobile Network Operator
MO
Mobile Originated
MS
Mobile Station
MSC
Mobile Service Switching Center
MSISDN
Mobile Station International ISDN Number
MT
Mobile Terminated
MTBF
Mean Time Between Failures
MTP3
Message Transfer Part 3rd Layer
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MTP3B
Message transfer part (broadband)
MVNO
Mobile Virtual Network Operator
N
NACC
Network Assisted Cell Change
NS
Network Service
NS-VC
Network Service Virtual Connection
NTP
Network Time Protocol
O
OS
Operational System
OSI
Open Systems Interconnection
OSPF
Open Shortest Path First
P
P-CSCF
Proxy CSCF
PDN
Public Data Network
PDP
Packet Data Protocol
PDU
Packet Data Unit
PHB
Per-Hop Behaviors
PLMN
Public Land Mobile Network
POS
Packet Over SDH
PPP
Point-to-Point Protocol
PS
Packet Switched
PSM
Packet Service Module
PSTN
Public Switched Telephone Network
PTP
Point To Point
Q
QoS
Quality of Service
R
RA
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
RADIUS
Remote Authentication Dial in User Service
RAN
Radio Access Network
RANAP
Radio Access Network Application Part
RRC
Radio Resource Control
RIP
Routing Information Protocol
RIPng
RIP next generation
RNC
Radio Network Controller
S
SAAL
Signaling ATM Adaptation Layer
SC
Service Center
SCCP
Signaling Connection and Control Part
SCP
Service Control Point
S-CSCF
Serving CSCF
SCTP
Stream Control Transmission Protocol
SDH
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SDU
Service Data Unit
SGSN
Serving GPRS Support Node
SIGTRAN
Signaling Transport protocol
SIP
Session Initiation Protocol
SM
Session Management
SME
Short Message Entity
SMS
Short Message Service
SM-SC
Short Message Service - Service Centre
SMS-GMSC
Short Message Service Gateway MSC
SMS-IWMSC
Short Message Service Interworking MSC
SNA
Shared Network Area
SNDCP
Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol
SPF
Shortest Path First
SRNC
Serving RNC
SS7
CCITT Signaling System No.7
SSP
Service Switching Point
Commercial in Confidence
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
STM-1
SDH Transport Module -1
STM-4
SDH Transport Module -4
SUA
SCCP User Adaptation Layer
T
TCP
Transport Control Protocol
TE
Terminal Equipment
TEID
Tunnel End ID
U
UACU
Auxiliary Control Unit
UALU
PSM Alarm Unit
UBIU
PSM Back Interface Unit
UBR
Unspecified Bit Rate
UBSU
Back Storage Unit
UCDR
Charging Detail Record unit
UCKI
Clock Unit
UDP
User Datagram Protocol
UE
User Equipment
UEPI
E1 Processing Interface unit
UESBI
UE Specific Behavior Information
UFCU
Frame Connect Unit
UFSU
Flash Storage Unit
UGBI
Gb Interface unit
UGFU
GTP Forwarding Unit
UGTP
GTP processing unit
UICP
Iu-PS Control Processing unit
ULAN
LAN switch card
ULIP
Lawful Interception Processing unit
UMTS
Universal mobile telecommunication services/Universal
Mobile Telecommunications System
UOMU
Packet Service O&M Unit
UPIU
Packet Interface Unit
UPWR
PSM PoWeR module
Commercial in Confidence
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HUAWEI SGSN9810 System Description
URCU
Subrack Control Unit
USIG
SIGTRAN Process Unit
USPU
Packet Service Signal Processing Unit
USS7
SS7 Signaling Link Processing Unit
UTPI
T1 Processing Interface unit
UTRAN
UMTS Terrestrial radio access network
V
V5UA
V5 User Adaptation Layer
VBR
Variable Bit Rate
VLR
Visitor Location Register
VMSC
Visited Mobile Switching Center , Visited MSC
VPLMN
Visited PLMN
VPN
Virtual Private Network
W
WCDMA
Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
WRED
Weighted Random Early Detection
Commercial in Confidence
Page 57 of 57
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