Traditional technology, e.g. traditional medicines and healers Medical biotechnology, e.g. immunity, antibiotics, blood transfusion Cloning of plant and animal tissues and stem cell research Ethics and legislation: cloning & stem cell research Current trends being made in terms of stem cell research Careers in biotechnology Knowledge that cultures acquire over generations through environmental interaction. Biotechnology: Use of living things in industrial processes e.g making antibiotics Indigenous knowledge is held by traditional healers. There are two groups of traditional healers: Diviners Herbalists Ointments, tonics, teas and extracts that have been used with other forms of treatment. Around 3000 plant species. Overuse of plants because of unsustainable use. Found in Kalahari Desert Underground stems have anti-inflammatory properties Used to treat Arthritis and Rheumatism Found in grasslands, KZN. Swollen stems used contain sterols which strengthens immune against diseases such as HIV/ AINDS; TB; Athritis, ect. Immune response: ways in which the body protects itself from pathogens. Fevertemperature increases Where pathogens now are actively destroyed by body. Lymphocytes: leucocytes that produce antibodies to destroy pathogens. Phagocytes: leucocytes that engulf and destroy pathogens 10 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008 11 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008 There are several methods that can help reduce the spread of disease: disinfecting surfaces disinfecting skin using antiseptics sterilizing equipment using food preservatives in food personal hygiene. The spread of disease can also be reduced by vaccinating the population and using antibiotics. 13 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008 Antibiotics are chemicals used to treat bacterial infections. These chemicals kill or stop the growth of bacteria. However, some types of bacteria are no longer affected by certain antibiotics – this is called antibiotic resistance. This can be a problem as without effective antibiotics some people might not be able to fight the infection themselves. 14 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008 Vaccines can protect people from diseases, such as measles. Vaccines contain dead or weakened strains of the harmful microbe that causes the disease. This stimulates the immune system. If the person comes into contact with the microbe again the immune system can destroy it quickly and effectively. Why is it important that everyone is vaccinated? 15 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008 16 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008 17 of 35 © Boardworks Ltd 2008 What is cloning? Cloning is the production of identical copies of organisms, cells or DNA. A clone is a genetically identical organism or a group of genetically identical cells derived from a single parent. Cloning occurs in nature as part of growth and reproduction. This natural process can be manipulated to produce clones of organisms artificially. 19 of 42 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 Why clone organisms? Scientists can use genetic technologies to clone whole organisms; this is known as reproductive cloning. Farm animals or crop plants with desirable features can be cloned, ensuring a constant food supply and high productivity. It is thought that reproductive cloning could also help to increase numbers of rare or endangered species. 20 of 42 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 Producing animal clones 21 of 42 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 Somatic cell nuclear transfer 22 of 42 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 Natural clones in plants Some plants are able to naturally produce genetically identical offspring. Adult plant cells are totipotent, meaning that each cell has the capacity to regenerate the entire plant. The English elm can reproduce by vegetative propagation – asexual reproduction that involves producing new plants from existing vegetative structures. Root suckers or basal sprouts can form from the roots of elm trees, when they are under stress. If the tree cannot withstand its current environmental conditions it still has a chance of survival, because the basal sprouts can allow the organism to regrow metres from the original tree. 23 of 42 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 Large scale cloning of plants A plant with highly desirable characteristics, e.g. a high yield crop plant, can be used to produce many more plants with exactly the same genetic composition. A large number of cloned crop plants can be propagated easily, as clones require the same conditions, grow at the same rate and will therefore be ready for harvest at the same time, reducing costs. The production of plant clones can occur at any time of the year. 24 of 42 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 Tissue culture 25 of 42 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 Producing plant clones 26 of 42 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 Disadvantages of reproductive cloning A population of cloned individuals will have a very low genetic diversity. This reduces the ability of the population to adapt. Clones will be equally vulnerable to a disease or pests, causing diseases to spread fast, affecting the whole population. A good example of this is Dutch elm disease. Accidently spread throughout Europe the disease devastated native elm populations. It is thought that these were natural clones from only a few individuals. 27 of 42 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 Disadvantages of reproductive cloning The first cloned mammal, Dolly the sheep, died prematurely due to lung disease. This raised concerns about the health and life expectancy of cloned animals. It is thought that some cloned mammals will have shorter telomeres than other animals of the same again. Telomeres are pieces of non-coding DNA that prevent the chromosome from degrading. They shorten as cells divide and are therefore considered a measure of ageing in cells. 28 of 42 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 Therapeutic cloning 29 of 42 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 Biomedical Engineer. Biochemist. Medical Scientist. Biological/Clinical Technician. Microbiologist. Process Development Scientist. Biomanufacturing Specialists. Business Development Manager.