CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM Background of the Study Social media, especially social networking sites like Facebook, have become increasingly popular and pervasive in recent years. Facebook has over a billion users around the world. Social networking sites allow users to create electronic profiles for themselves, provide details about their life and experiences, post pictures, maintain relationships, plan social events, meet new people, comment on others’ lives, express beliefs, preferences and emotions as well as fulfill belongingness needs (Ivcevic & Ambady, 2012). Social networking sites can also serve as a basis for social comparisons, self-evaluation or self-enhancement (Haferkamp & Kramer, 2011). The increased use of Social Networking sites has become an international phenomenon in the past several years. What started out as a hobby for some computer literate people has become a social norm and way of life for people from all over the world (Boyd, 2007). Further, Boyd points out that teenagers and young adults have especially embraced these sites as a way to connect with The Problem 9 their peers, share information, reinvent their personalities, and showcase their social lives. Boyd as a (2007) web-based defines service Social that Networking allows Site (SNS) individuals to construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system. Such SNSs are websites such as MySpace, Facebook, whatsApp, Skype, and Twitter among others. The nature and nomenclature of these connections may vary from site to site (Dothan & Boyd, 2009). Emerging studies have found that teenagers spend a considerable portion of their daily life interacting through social media. Subsequently, questions and controversies have emerged about the influence these SNSs have on adolescents’ social development. According Reports are in using 2007, the 87% Internet of American (Lenhart & teens aged Madden, to Pew 12-17 2007). An average U.S. teenager, aged 12-17, use the Internet and applications about 24 hours and 54 minutes per month (Nielsen Company, 2009). More specifically, online social networks and blogs represent the sites most frequented by The Problem 10 adolescents. The Nielson Company further reported that in May 2009 nearly half of U.S. adolescents visited MySpace and Facebook (45% and 44%, respectively). According to the same study, 67% of teen social networkers reported updating their online profiles at least once a week and 57% of adolescents use their online communities as a means of acquiring advice on important issues as a a forum practice for expression of in their thoughts and lives and feelings, that distinguishes them from other social networkers. The Philippines is the fastest growing internet market in Southeast Asia with media penetration rate of 58 percent, higher than the average of 47 percent in Southeast Asia (Camus, 2017). Much attributed connections, to increases of this in growth mobile can be internet and intensified promotions on social media applications by mobile operators. The number of internet users in the Philippines increased by 13 million or 27 percent from January 2016 to January 2017, according to a report by social media agency We Are Social and social media management platform Hootsuite. That's four times the seven percent growth rate in the previous 12-month period. In the report, Digital in The Problem 11 2017, We Are Social and Hootsuite also said that social media users in the Philippines grew by 12 million or 25 percent while the number of mobile social users increased by 13 million or 32 percent. Those growth figures are still higher compared to the previous year (Subido, 2017). Because of the emergence of mobile and computer technologies, social networking numbers continue to grow with user participation influencing future trends in communications (Boyd & Ellison, 2011). Therefore, if each subsequent generation of adolescents were to devote and more time to online activities networking sites, more on these social it would appear to weaken the ability of adolescents to engage in meaningful, face-to-face interaction. The primary purpose of this research is to have a definite understanding on how social networking sites affect the self-esteem of a person who is active in the social net. Since the trend today is that almost everyone is active in the social networking sites, most people are driven by the fact that using these sites provides them satisfaction and entertainment to the point where their self-worth is greatly affected (Herrera, 2014). These social networking sites are the Facebook, used for making The Problem 12 friends, interaction, etc., Twitter, used for voicing out one’s emotions, sharing facts, and Instagram, used for sharing moments through videos and pictures. Furthermore, this research will serve as a guide and a theoretical model for future studies involving self-esteem and social networking sites. Future researchers would benefit from this study, and it will provide them the facts needed to compare their study during their researches. Theoretical Framework There are different reasons why people frequently use Social Networking Sites (SNS). First, Social Networking Sites can help them communicate with other people. Especially those with long distance relationships or who are separated from their families. One example of this are the Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs). It is expensive to communicate with people from different countries using phones or letters. But with the use of SNS, it made their communication faster, easier and less expensive. They are able to post pictures, share comments, email and video chat in able to view, monitor each other and maintain their connections (Beukeboom & Utz, 2011). Second, it gives additional information regarding a specific topic. Just like on Facebook or Twitter where The Problem 13 people are able to share links and news for them to become updated (Beukeboom & Utz, 2011). Third, it gives an individual the opportunity to produce more friends and connection. It gives them the opportunity to feel accepted from the society which may boost or enhance their self-esteem as an individual. Especially when they are receiving positive feedbacks, comments and likes from other people. However, those people who do not usually use SNS may feel the opposite way. Because as they receive less information and updates, they tend to feel outdated and not part of the society which may sometimes result to a negative behavior or feeling (Beukeboom & Utz, 2011). Fourth, it gives an opportunity for disabled people to strive and to become part of the society. One example is a person who cannot walk but can talk and write properly. With the use of SNS they can still communicate to other people without getting discriminated on how they look (Beukeboom & Utz, 2011). Lastly, it helps people study online such as language tutorial and more, by means of communicating and consulting online. Learning and gaining more knowledge is another kind of achievement which leads to success. According to Maslow, The Problem 14 respect and achievement plays an important role to develop one’s confidence and self-esteem (Feist & Feist, 2010). Paradigm of the Study In this research, the different social networking sites, the amount of time spent by students in these SNS, gender, and the level of self-esteem of the students were taken into consideration. The researchers used the questionnaire instrument to gather the necessary data. In order to analyze the gathered data, the researchers used descriptive correlational method and statistical analysis. It was expected that after this study, the paper would give sufficient information on the relationship between Social Networking Site use and self-esteem. The Problem INPUT Time spent in SNS PROCESS esteem OUTPUT Descriptive Relationship Correlational between Social Method Networking Site Questionnaire use and level of Statistical self-esteem Gender Level of self- 15 Analysis Figure 1. Paradigm of the Study The Problem 16 Statement of the Problem The researchers aimed to determine the relationship between Social Networking Site use & self-esteem and to answer the following questions: 1. Which of the following social networking sites do the Grade 12 STEM students use the most? a. Facebook f. Pinterest b. Youtube g. Tumblr c. Instagram h. Flickr d. Twitter i. Google+ e. Reddit 2. What is the level of self-esteem of the students? 2.1. Is there a significant difference on the level of self-esteem of the Grade 12 STEM students according to gender? HO: There is no significant difference on the level of self-esteem of the Grade 12 STEM students according to gender. 3. Is there a correlation between Social Networking Site use and level of self-esteem? HO: There is no correlation between Social Networking Site use and the level of self-esteem.