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Resources
Chapter Presentation
Bellringer
Transparencies
Sample Problems
Visual Concepts
Standardized Test Prep
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Chapter 19
Carbon and Organic Compounds
Table of Contents
Section 1 Compounds of Carbon
Section 2 Names and Structures of Organic
Compounds
Section 3 Organic Reactions
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Chapter 19
Section 1 Compounds of Carbon
Bellringer
• Write a list of facts that you already know about
carbon.
• Draw the Lewis diagram for carbon.
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Chapter 19
Section 1 Compounds of Carbon
Objectives
• Explain the unique properties of carbon that make
the formation of organic molecules possible.
• Relate the structures of diamond, graphite, and other
allotropes of carbon to their properties.
• Describe the nature of the bonds formed by carbon
in alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic compounds,
and cyclic compounds.
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Chapter 19
Section 1 Compounds of Carbon
Objectives, continued
• Classify organic compounds such as alcohols,
esters, and ketones by their functional groups.
• Explain how the structural difference between
isomers is related to the difference in their properties.
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Chapter 19
Section 1 Compounds of Carbon
Properties of Carbon
• Carbon atoms nearly always form covalent bonds.
• Three factors make carbon-carbon bonds unique:
• First, carbon-carbon bonds are quite strong
• Second, carbon compounds are not very reactive.
• Third, carbon can form up to four single covalent
bonds, so a wide variety of compounds is
possible.
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Chapter 19
Section 1 Compounds of Carbon
Properties of Carbon, continued
Carbon Exists in Different Allotropes
• As an element, carbon atoms can form different
bonding arrangements, or allotropes.
• The different allotropes have properties that differ due
to the different arrangements of the carbon bonds.
Other Carbon Allotropes Include Fullerenes and
Nanotubes
• Besides diamond and graphite, carbon allotropes
include buckminsterfullerene, and nanotubes.
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Chapter 19
Section 1 Compounds of Carbon
Allotropes of Carbon
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Chapter 19
Visual Concepts
Comparing Allotropes of Carbon
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Chapter 19
Section 1 Compounds of Carbon
Organic Compounds
• Organic compounds contain carbon, and most also
contain atoms of hydrogen.
• They can contain other elements, such as oxygen,
nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and the halogens.
• Chemists group organic compounds with similar
characteristics into classes.
• The simplest class of organic compounds,
hydrocarbons, contain only carbon and hydrogen.
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Chapter 19
Visual Concepts
Organic Compound
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Chapter 19
Visual Concepts
Hydrocarbon
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Chapter 19
Section 1 Compounds of Carbon
Organic Compounds, continued
Alkanes Are the Simplest Hydrocarbons
• Alkanes are hydrocarbons with carbon atoms that
are connected only by single bonds.
• Three alkanes are methane, ethane, and propane.
• The formulas of the alkanes fit the general formula
CnH2n+2, where n is the number of carbon atoms.
• For example, if an alkane has 30 carbon atoms,
then its formula is C30H62.
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Chapter 19
Visual Concepts
Alkane
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Chapter 19
Section 1 Compounds of Carbon
Organic Compounds, continued
Many Hydrocarbons Have Multiple Bonds
• Alkenes are hydrocarbons that contain at least one
double bond between two carbon atoms.
• Alkenes with one double bond have a general formula
that is written CnH2n.
• Alkynes are hydrocarbons that contain at least one
triple bond between two carbon atoms.
• An alkyne with one triple bond is written as CnH2n−2.
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Chapter 19
Visual Concepts
Alkene
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Chapter 19
Visual Concepts
Alkyne
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Chapter 19
Section 1 Compounds of Carbon
Organic Compounds, continued
Carbon Atoms Can Form Rings
• Carbon atoms that form covalent bonds with one
another can be arranged in a straight line or in a
branched arrangement.
• Carbon bonds can also be arranged in a ring
structure.
• The prefix cyclo- is added to the name of an alkane to
indicate that it has a ring structure.
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Chapter 19
Visual Concepts
Cycloalkane
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Chapter 19
Section 1 Compounds of Carbon
Organic Compounds, continued
Benzene Is an Important Ring Compound
• An important organic ring compound is the
hydrocarbon benzene, C6H6.
• Benzene is the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon.
• It can be drawn as a ring with three double bonds.
• Experiments show that all the carbon-carbon bonds in
benzene are the same, so it is a molecule with
resonance structures.
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Chapter 19
Visual Concepts
Benzene
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Chapter 19
Section 1 Compounds of Carbon
Other Organic Compounds
• Other classes of organic compounds contain other
atoms such as oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus,
and the halogens along with carbon and hydrogen.
• The word organic originally described only
compounds made by living things. Now chemists can
make organic compounds from inorganic substances.
Many Compounds Contain Functional Groups
• A typical organic compound has a group of atoms that
is responsible for its chemical properties.
• This a group of atoms is known as a functional
group.
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Chapter 19
Section 1 Compounds of Carbon
Other Organic Compounds, continued
Many Compounds Contain Functional Groups,
continued
• Organic compounds are commonly classified by the
functional groups they contain.
• Because single bonds between carbon atoms rarely
react, functional groups are often responsible for how
an organic compound reacts.
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Chapter 19
Visual Concepts
Functional Group
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Chapter 19
Section 1 Compounds of Carbon
Other Organic Compounds, continued
Comparing Classes of Organic Compounds
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Chapter 19
Section 1 Compounds of Carbon
Other Organic Compounds, continued
Functional Groups Determine Properties
• The presence of a functional group causes an organic
compound to have properties that differ greatly from
those of the corresponding hydrocarbon.
• The structural formulas of butane and 1-butanol both have 4
carbon atoms joined by single bonds in a line.
• Butane is a gas at room temperature, but 1-butanol is a
liquid and has a greater density and higher melting and
boiling points than butane.
• The only difference between butane and 1-butanol is the
presence of the functional group —OH on one of the
carbon atoms in 1-butanol.
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Chapter 19
Visual Concepts
Classes of Organic Compounds
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Chapter 19
Section 1 Compounds of Carbon
Other Organic Compounds, continued
Different Isomers Have Different Properties
• Both molecules below are alcohols and have the
same molecular formula: C4H10O.
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Chapter 19
Section 1 Compounds of Carbon
Other Organic Compounds, continued
Different Isomers Have Different Properties, continued
• The molecules of 1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol
differ in the way in which their atoms are arranged.
• Isomers are compounds that have the same formula
but differ in their chemical and physical properties
because of the difference in the arrangement of their
atoms.
• The greater the structural difference between two
isomers, the more they will differ in their properties.
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Section 19.1 Review, pg. 686
1. List the three factors that make the bonding of
carbon atoms unique.
Strong bonds exist between carbon atoms, carbon
compounds have low reactivity, carbon can form a
wide variety of compounds.
2. What are allotropes?
Form of an element that differ in either structure or in
bonding.
3. How are alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes similar? How
are they different from each other?
Alkanes –single bonds, alkenes-at least one double
bond, alkynes- one or more triple bonds.
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4. Draw the simplified representation of the
resonance structure for benzene.
5. List four elements other than carbon and hydrogen
that can bond to carbon in organic compounds.
Oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and the
halogens
6. What is an aromatic compound?
A ring of carbon atoms that display resonance
because of delocalized electrons that provide great
stability.
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7. What is a functional group?
Is an atom or a group of atoms that gives characteristic
properties to organic compounds.
8. What is an isomer? What do two molecules that are
isomers of each other have in common?
One of two or more compounds that have the same
chemical composition but different structures.
Their chemical compositions
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9. Draw a structural formula for the straight chain
hydrocarbon with the molecular formula C3H6. Is this
an alkane, alkene, or alkyne?
10. Can molecules with molecular formulasC4H10 and
C4H10O be isomers of one another? Why or why not?
No, they have different types of elements.
11. Draw a structural formula for an alkyne that
contains seven carbon atoms.
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12. Draw the structural formulas for two isomers of
C4H10.
13. Why is benzene not considered a cycloalkene even
though double bonds exist between the carbon atoms
that are arranged in a ring structure?
It is an aromatic ring, and therefore has a completely
different character from that of an alkene
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14. Write the molecular formulas for an alkane,alkene,
and alkyne with 5 carbon atoms each.Why are these
three hydrocarbons not considered isomers?
they have different chemical formulas
15. Draw C4H6 as a cycloalkene.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Bellringer
• Examine the table on the next slide.
• Determine what organizing principles you see that
will help you quickly process all the information
contained in the table.
• Answer: Each formula beyond ethane contains one
more —CH2— group. Beyond butane, the formulas
are designated by their prefixes.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Bellringer, continued
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Objectives
• Name simple hydrocarbons from their structural
formulas.
• Name branched hydrocarbons from their structural
formulas.
• Identify functional groups from a structural formula,
and assign names to compounds containing
functional groups.
• Draw and interpret structural formulas and skeletal
structures for common organic compounds.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Naming Straight-Chain Hydrocarbons
• Inorganic carbon compounds are named by using a
system of prefixes and suffixes.
• Organic compounds have their own system of
prefixes and suffixes that denote classes.
• For example, the names of all alkanes end with
the suffix -ane.
• For alkanes that consist of five or more carbon atoms,
the prefix comes from a Latin word that indicates
the number of carbon atoms in the chain.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Naming Straight-Chain Hydrocarbons,
continued
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Naming Straight-Chain Hydrocarbons,
continued
Naming Short-Chain Alkenes and Alkynes
• A saturated hydrocarbon is one in which each
carbon atom forms four single covalent bonds.
• The alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons.
• An unsaturated hydrocarbon is one in which not all
carbon atoms have four single covalent bonds.
• Alkenes and alkynes are unsaturated
hydrocarbons.
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Chapter 19
Visual Concepts
Saturated Hydrocarbons
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Chapter 19
Visual Concepts
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Naming Straight-Chain Hydrocarbons,
continued
Naming Short-Chain Alkenes and Alkynes, continued
• The rules for naming an unsaturated hydrocarbon
with fewer than four carbon atoms are similar to those
for naming alkanes.
• A two-carbon alkene is named ethene, with the
suffix -ene indicating that the molecule is an
alkene.
• A three-carbon alkyne is named propyne, with the
suffix –yne indicating that the molecule is an
alkyne.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Naming Straight-Chain Hydrocarbons,
continued
Naming Long-Chain Alkenes and Alkynes
• The name for an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing
four or more carbon atoms must indicate the position
of the double or triple bond within the molecule.
• First number the C atoms in the chain so that the first
C atom in the double bond has the lowest number.
• If there is more than one multiple bond in a molecule,
number the position of each multiple bond, and use
a prefix to indicate the number of multiple bonds.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Naming Straight-Chain Hydrocarbons,
continued
Naming Long-Chain Alkenes and Alkynes, continued
• The molecules on the left is correctly numbered from
left to right because the first carbon atom with the
double bond must have the lowest number.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Naming Straight-Chain Hydrocarbons,
continued
Naming Long-Chain Alkenes and Alkynes, continued
• For example, the following molecule is called
1,3-pentadiene.
• (Note the placement of the prefix di-.)
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Naming Branched Hydrocarbons
• When a hydrocarbon is not a simple straight chain,
first count the carbon atoms in the longest chain.
• The named is based on the corresponding alkane.
The compound below has a “parent” chain that
contains 7 carbon atoms, so it is heptane.
• Next, number the C atoms so that any branches on
the chain have the lowest numbers possible.
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Chapter 19
Visual Concepts
Using Prefixes to Name Organic Compounds
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Naming Branched Hydrocarbons, continued
Name the Attached Groups and Indicate Their
Positions
• The third carbon atom has a —CH3 group attached.
This group is known as a methyl group.
• Because the methyl group is attached to the third C,
the complete name is 3-methylheptane.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Naming Branched Hydrocarbons, continued
Name the Attached Groups and Indicate Their
Positions, continued
• You can omit the numbers if there is no possibility of
ambiguity.
• For example, a propane chain can have a methyl
group only on its second carbon.
• If the methyl group were on the first or third carbon
of propane, the molecule would be butane.
• So, 2-methylpropane is called methylpropane.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Naming Branched Hydrocarbons, continued
Name the Attached Groups and Indicate Their
Positions, continued
• With unsaturated hydrocarbons that have attached
groups, the longest chain containing the double bond
is considered the parent compound.
• In addition, if more than one group is attached to the
longest chain, the position of attachment of each
group is given.
• Prefixes are used if the same group is attached
more than once.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Naming Branched Hydrocarbons, continued
Name the Attached Groups and Indicate Their
Positions, continued
• The chain with the double bond has 5 C atoms, so the
compound is a pentene.
• The 1st C atom has a double bond, so it is 1-pentene.
Two methyl groups are attached to the third carbon
atom, so the name is 3,3-dimethyl-1-pentene.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Naming a Branched Hydrocarbon
Sample Problem A
Name the following hydrocarbon.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Naming a Branched Hydrocarbon, continued
Sample Problem A Solution
The triple bond makes the branched hydrocarbon an
alkyne.
Identify the longest continuous chain and name it.
Number the parent chain so that the triple bond is
attached to the C atom with the lowest number.
Name the groups that make up the branches.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Naming a Branched Hydrocarbon, continued
Sample Problem A Solution, continued
Identify the positions that
the branches occupy on the
longest chain.
The longest continuous
chain has four carbon
atoms.
The parent chain is butyne.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Naming a Branched Hydrocarbon, continued
Sample Problem A Solution, continued
The numbering begins with
the triple bond.
Two methyl, —CH3, groups
are present.
Both methyl groups are
attached to the third carbon
atom.
The name is:
3, 3-dimethyl-1-butyne.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Naming Branched Hydrocarbons, continued
Names of Compounds Reflect Functional Groups
• Names for organic compounds with functional groups
are based on the same system for branched chains.
• First, the longest chain is named.
• Then a prefix or suffix indicating the functional group
is added to the hydrocarbon name.
• When necessary, the position of the functional group
is noted just as with hydrocarbon branches.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Naming Branched Hydrocarbons, continued
Naming Compounds with Functional Groups
• A prefix or suffix can indicate a functional group.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Naming Branched Hydrocarbons, continued
Names of Compounds Reflect Functional Groups,
continued
• Because the longest chain in the structure below has
three C atoms, the name is based on propane.
• The —OH functional group classifies it as an alcohol.
• Because the —OH is attached to the second C atom,
the correct name for this compound is 2-propanol.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Naming a Compound with a Functional
Group
Sample Problem B
Name the following organic compound.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Naming a Compound with a Functional
Group, continued
Sample Problem B Solution
The functional group indicates that this compound is a
ketone.
Identify the longest continuous chain and name it.
Number the parent chain so that the functional group is
attached to the C atom with the lowest number.
Identify the position the functional group occupies on
the longest chain, and name the organic compound.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Naming a Compound with a Functional
Group, continued
Sample Problem B Solution, continued
The longest continuous chain has six carbon atoms:
the parent chain is hexane.
The carbon atoms are numbered from right to left to
give the ketone functional group the lowest number.
The name of this organic compound is 3-hexanone.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Representing Organic Molecules
• There are many ways of depicting organic molecules.
• Each type of model used to represent an organic
compound has both advantages and disadvantages.
• They can highlight different features such as the
number and kinds of atoms or the three-dimensional
shape of the space-filling model.
• A model cannot fully show the true three-dimensional
shape of a molecule or show the motion within a
molecule caused by the atoms’ constant vibration.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Types of Molecular Models
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Chapter 19
Visual Concepts
Structural Formula
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Representing Organic Molecules, continued
Structural Formulas Can Be Simplified
• Structural formulas are sometimes represented by
skeletal structures, which show bonds, but leave out
some or even all of the carbon and hydrogen atoms.
• Skeletal structures usually show the carbon
framework only as lines representing bonds.
• These lines form a zigzag pattern to indicate the
tetrahedral arrangement of bonds.
• Atoms other than C and H are always shown.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Representing Organic Molecules, continued
Structural Formulas Can Be Simplified, continued
• In structural formulas, C and H atoms are not shown
unless they are part of functional groups.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Drawing Structural and Skeletal Formulas
Sample Problem C
Draw both the structural formula and the skeletal
structure for 1,2,3-propanetriol.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Drawing Structural and Skeletal Formulas,
continued
Sample Problem C Solution
The name propanetriol indicates that the molecule is
an alcohol that has three C atoms in the parent chain.
The suffix -triol means that there are 2 alcohol groups.
The 1,2,3- prefix indicates that an alcohol group is
attached to the first, second, and third carbon atoms.
Draw the carbon framework, and add the alcohol
groups to the appropriate carbon atoms.
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Chapter 19
Section 2 Names and Structures of
Organic Compounds
Drawing Structural and Skeletal Formulas,
continued
Sample Problem C Solution, continued
Add H atoms so that each C atom has 4 bonds.
Show the carbon framework as a zigzag line.
Include the functional groups as part of the structure.
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Chapter 19
Section 3 Organic Reactions
Bellringer
• Read the definitions of the key terms in this section
and find a reaction that would illustrate each term.
• Keep your definitions and check for correctness as
you study this section.
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Chapter 19
Section 3 Organic Reactions
Objectives
• Describe and distinguish between substitution and
addition reactions.
• Describe and distinguish between condensation and
elimination reactions.
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Chapter 19
Section 3 Organic Reactions
Substitution and Addition Reactions
• Organic compounds participate in a variety of
chemical reactions.
• A substitution reaction is a reaction in which one or
more atoms replace another atom or group of atoms
in a molecule.
• An addition reaction is a reaction in which an atom
or molecule is added to an unsaturated molecule and
increases the saturation of the molecule.
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Chapter 19
Section 3 Organic Reactions
Substitution and Addition Reactions,
continued
Halogens Often Replace Hydrogen Atoms
• One substitution reaction occurs when a halogen,
such as a chlorine atom, replaces a hydrogen atom
on an alkane molecule, such as methane.
• The substitution reactions can continue, replacing the
remaining H atoms in methane one at a time.
• The products are dichloromethane, trichloromethane,
and tetrachloromethane (commonly known as
chloroform).
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Chapter 19
Visual Concepts
Substitution Reaction
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Chapter 19
Section 3 Organic Reactions
Substitution and Addition Reactions,
continued
Hydrogenation Is a Common Addition Reaction
• One addition reaction is hydrogenation, in which H
atoms are added to an unsaturated molecule.
• The product of the reaction contains fewer double or
triple bonds than the reactant.
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Chapter 19
Visual Concepts
Addition Reaction
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Chapter 19
Section 3 Organic Reactions
Substitution and Addition Reactions,
continued
Making Consumer Products by Hydrogenation
• Another kind of hydrogenation is the manufacture of
cyclohexane from benzene as shown below.
• Over 90% of the cyclohexane that is made is used
in the manufacture of nylon.
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Chapter 19
Section 3 Organic Reactions
Substitution and Addition Reactions,
continued
Some Addition Reactions Form Polymers
• Some addition reactions involve joining smaller
molecules together to make larger ones.
• The smaller molecules are known as monomers.
• The larger molecule that is made by the addition
reaction is called a polymer.
• Polyethylene is a strong but flexible plastic that is
made from ethane monomers, C2H4.
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Chapter 19
Section 3 Organic Reactions
Substitution and Addition Reactions,
continued
Some Addition Reactions Form Polymers, continued
• Because ethene is commonly known as ethylene, the
polymer it forms is often called polyethylene.
• The following equation shows how a portion of the
polymer forms.
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Chapter 19
Section 3 Organic Reactions
Substitution and Addition Reactions,
continued
Monomers Can Be Added in Different Ways
• Polyethylene is a very long alkane polymer chain.
• The chains form a product that is strong yet flexible.
• Monomers can be added so that a chain branches.
• For example, an ethene monomer is sometimes
added to form a side chain.
• A polymer with many side chains remain
flexible.
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• Polyethylene is found in many ordinary household
items, such as food wrap, shampoo bottles, milk
containers, toys, and the common plastic bag used to
tote groceries home from the store.
•It is used to manufacture artificial knee and hip
replacement parts, bulletproof vests, and even glassy
flooring for ice skating rinks.
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•LDPE is an example of branched polyethylene since its
carbon molecules are attached to long chains of
polyethylene instead of hydrogen.
• A linear structure of carbon to hydrogen occurs, which
is known as high-density polyethylene (HDPE).
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Quick check
Substitution and Addition
Reactions
1. Explain why an addition reaction increases
the saturation of a molecule.
2. What kind of organic reaction can form
fluoromethane, CH3F, from methane?
3. Explain why alkanes do not undergo addition
reactions.
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4. Draw the skeletal structure of part of a
polyethylene molecule consisting of eight monomers.
5. Can two different monomers be involved in
an addition reaction? Why or why not?
6. Why does a substitution reaction involving an alkane
and a halogen not increase the saturation of the organic
compound?
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Chapter 19
Section 3 Organic Reactions
Condensation and Elimination
• Polymers can also be formed by a condensation
reaction in which two molecules combine, usually
accompanied by the loss of a water molecule.
• The formation of water as a reaction product is the
reason for the name of this type of reaction.
• An elimination reaction is a reaction in which a
simple molecule is removed from adjacent carbon
atoms on the same organic molecule.
• An elimination reaction also produces water.
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Chapter 19
Section 3 Organic Reactions
Condensation and Elimination, continued
Condensation Reactions Produce Nylon
• Nylon is formed in a condensation reaction.
• The reaction takes place between an amine group on
hexanediamine and a carboxyl group on adipic acid.
• A water molecule is eliminated when an H atom from
the amine group and an —OH group from the
carboxyl group are removed.
• This reaction repeats, linking hundreds of reactants
to form the synthetic polymer called nylon 66.
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Chapter 19
Visual Concepts
Condensation Polymers
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Chapter 19
Section 3 Organic Reactions
Condensation and Elimination, continued
Many Polymers Form by Condensation Reactions
• The polymer polyethylene terephthalate, abbreviated
PET, is formed when two monomers are combined in
the following condensation reaction.
• The functional group present in the product shown
above classifies this molecule as an ester, so PET
is a polyester.
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Chapter 19
Section 3 Organic Reactions
Condensation and Elimination, continued
Elimination Reactions Often Form Water
• An elimination reaction involves the removal of a
small molecule from two adjacent carbon atoms.
• The acid catalyzes a reaction that eliminates water
from ethanol, which leaves a double bond.
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Chapter 19
Visual Concepts
Elimination Reaction
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Chapter 19
Standardized Test Preparation
Understanding Concepts
1. Which of these formulas represents a saturated
hydrocarbon?
A. C2H2
B. C4H10
C. C5H10
D. C6H6
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Chapter 19
Standardized Test Preparation
Understanding Concepts
1. Which of these formulas represents a saturated
hydrocarbon?
A. C2H2
B. C4H10
C. C5H10
D. C6H6
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Chapter 19
Standardized Test Preparation
Understanding Concepts
2. Which of these is the product of the hydrogenation of
benzene?
F. benzyl hydride
G. cyclohexane
H. hexane
I. 1-hexanol
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Chapter 19
Standardized Test Preparation
Understanding Concepts
2. Which of these is the product of the hydrogenation of
benzene?
F. benzyl hydride
G. cyclohexane
H. hexane
I. 1-hexanol
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Chapter 19
Standardized Test Preparation
Understanding Concepts
3. Which of the following occurs during an addition
reaction?
A. The saturation of a molecule is increased.
B. Single bonds are replaced by double bonds.
C. A number of monomers react to form a polymer.
D. One or more atoms replace another atom or group
of atoms.
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Chapter 19
Standardized Test Preparation
Understanding Concepts
3. Which of the following occurs during an addition
reaction?
A. The saturation of a molecule is increased.
B. Single bonds are replaced by double bonds.
C. A number of monomers react to form a polymer.
D. One or more atoms replace another atom or group
of atoms.
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Standardized Test Preparation
Understanding Concepts
4. Why is ethyne, also known as acetylene, used in
welding torches instead of ethane which also has two
carbon atoms?
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Chapter 19
Standardized Test Preparation
Understanding Concepts
4. Why is ethyne, also known as acetylene, used in
welding torches instead of ethane which also has two
carbon atoms?
Answer: Welding requires very high temperatures. The
triple bond of acetylene releases much more energy
than the single bond of ethane, creating a higher
temperature flame.
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Chapter 19
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Understanding Concepts
5. Why does a hydrogenation reaction never include an
alkane as a reactant?
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Understanding Concepts
5. Why does a hydrogenation reaction never include an
alkane as a reactant?
Answer: Because hydrogenation always includes a
multiple bond.
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Chapter 19
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Understanding Concepts
6. Sunflower oil contains polyunsaturated fat molecules.
What does polyunsaturated mean?
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Understanding Concepts
6. Sunflower oil contains polyunsaturated fat molecules.
What does polyunsaturated mean?
Answer: It has more than one double or triple carboncarbon bond.
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Chapter 19
Standardized Test Preparation
Reading Skills
Read the passage below. Then answer the questions.
In the early part of the nineteenth century, chemists were unable
to synthesize most carbon- containing compounds, unless they
started with a material that had been produced by a living organism.
The predominant theory was that there was a force inherent in living
organisms that had to be used to make these compounds. In 1828 a
German chemist, Friedrich Wöhler, succeeded in making an organic
compound, urea, starting with inorganic chemicals. Although many
chemists did not immediately accept that there was no living force
involved in making organic molecules, the results prompted other
scientists to perform experiments that led to synthesis of a variety of
carbon compounds from inorganic sources and eventually new
chemical theories.
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Chapter 19
Standardized Test Preparation
Reading Skills
7. Why did Wöhler's synthesis of urea from inorganic
compounds mean that the theory about organic
materials had to be reevaluated?
F. It showed that other chemists were wrong.
G. It proved that urea is not an organic compound.
H. New data was not consistent with the existing
theory.
I. There is no special force existant that organisms
use to make compounds.
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Chapter 19
Standardized Test Preparation
Reading Skills
7. Why did Wöhler's synthesis of urea from inorganic
compounds mean that the theory about organic
materials had to be reevaluated?
F. It showed that other chemists were wrong.
G. It proved that urea is not an organic compound.
H. New data was not consistent with the existing
theory.
I. There is no special force existant that organisms
use to make compounds.
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Reading Skills
8. Why wasn't the theory that living organisms
contributed special characteristics to organic
compounds immediately replaced in the scientific
community as soon as Wöhler announced his
results?
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Chapter 19
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Reading Skills
8. Why wasn't the theory that living organisms
contributed special characteristics to organic
compounds immediately replaced in the scientific
community as soon as Wöhler announced his
results?
Answer: A single experiment from one laboratory is not
always enough to convince everyone that the new
data is valid and that the accepted theory is now
disproven.
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Chapter 19
Standardized Test Preparation
Interpreting Graphics
Use the table below to answer questions 9 through 12.
Comparing Classes of Organic Compounds
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Chapter 19
Standardized Test Preparation
Interpreting Graphics
9. Which of the following statements is supported by the data in the
table?
A. The density of an organic molecule is primarily a function of
the number of carbons it contains.
B. A double bond between carbon and oxygen increases the
boiling point more than a single bond.
C. The increase in melting and boiling points of organic
compounds is related to the polarity of functional groups.
D. The increase in melting and boiling points of oxygencontaining organic molecules compared to hydrocarbons is
primarily due to the polarity of the oxygen-hydrogen bond.
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Chapter 19
Standardized Test Preparation
Interpreting Graphics
9. Which of the following statements is supported by the data in the
table?
A. The density of an organic molecule is primarily a function of
the number of carbons it contains.
B. A double bond between carbon and oxygen increases the
boiling point more than a single bond.
C. The increase in melting and boiling points of organic
compounds is related to the polarity of functional groups.
D. The increase in melting and boiling points of oxygencontaining organic molecules compared to hydrocarbons is
primarily due to the polarity of the oxygen-hydrogen bond.
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Chapter 19
Standardized Test Preparation
Interpreting Graphics
10. What is the main reason that the melting point of
2-butanone differs from that of butane?
F. the loss of a hydrogen atom
G. the increase in molecular size
H. the increase in intermolecular forces
I. the presence of oxygen in the molecule
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Standardized Test Preparation
Interpreting Graphics
10. What is the main reason that the melting point of
2-butanone differs from that of butane?
F. the loss of a hydrogen atom
G. the increase in molecular size
H. the increase in intermolecular forces
I. the presence of oxygen in the molecule
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Chapter 19
Standardized Test Preparation
Interpreting Graphics
11. Identify two pairs of isomeric compounds in the table.
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Interpreting Graphics
11. Identify two pairs of isomeric compounds in the table.
Answer: 1-butanol and diethyl ether;
butanoic acid/2-butanone
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Standardized Test Preparation
Interpreting Graphics
12. In °C, by how much does the introduction of a
hydroxyl group on the end carbon of the butane
molecule increase the melting point?
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Standardized Test Preparation
Interpreting Graphics
12. In °C, by how much does the introduction of a
hydroxyl group on the end carbon of the butane
molecule increase the melting point?
Answer: 48.9
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