USING CARBON SEQUESTATION TO MITIGATE CLIMATE CHANGE Introduction: Climate change is defined by IPCC (2014) as “any change over time, whether due to natural variability or human activity”. Since the mid 20th century, there has been an increasing rate of climate change as a result of increase in CO2 due to human activity; as compared to millennia before the 20th century (NASA, 2017). NASA, 2017 Human activities that has caused the rapid increase in CO2 include deforestation, land use change and the burning of fossil fuels (NASA, 2017). Since the industrial revolution began, atmospheric CO2 has increased by more than a third (NASA, 2017). The result of this increase in CO2 has resulted in global warming, warming of the oceans, shrinking of ice sheets, glacial retreat, decrease snow cover, declining arctic sea ice and acidification of ocean (NASA, 2017). According to IPCC report (2014), the effect of climate change for various regions vary; e.g. some regions have experienced severe droughts while other have experienced floods. This same report declared that if the rate of CO2 increase does not reduce significantly, the atmospheric temperature will continue to increase and in a few decades, there would be a catastrophic effect compared to the extinction of the dinosaurs. In order to attempt to mitigate the effects of climate change, the hierarchy of control of hazards will be adopted to look at how CO2 can be reduced. Elimination: This looks at avoiding the emission of CO2. This can be achieved by using renewable sources of energy such as windmill, tidal energy, hydroelectric as opposed to the use of coal and other fossil fuels. This will also involve a complete switch to renewable energy and change of land use and a halt to industrialization. Clearly, this will be impossible to achieve hence, this first stage of the hierarchy of control will not be feasible. Reducing: This focuses on taking steps to reduce CO2 emission. This can be achieved by reducing the rapid land use change, reducing waste, recycling as well as practicing sustainable farming practices. Administration control: Using administration controls involve making policies, legislation and acts that will police the emission of CO2. This will involve governments and industries setting acceptable industry standards and ensuring that the standards are adhered to. Engineering controls: This involves using engineering interventions to mitigate the effect of CO2 emissions including Carbon Sequestration. Carbon sequestration Carbon sequestration is the process of capturing and storing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere into storage mediums such as in the ground or forest biomass (USGS, 2008). (hubpages, 2016) limitation of forest carbon storage. Not an effective process. Although it stores up a lot co2, the difficulty in growing forest is that when they die and rot they release co2 back into the atmosphere. Trees take a long time to grow hence the process of co2 removal small. Prone to infestation and diseases. Land area Carbon capture and storage CCS involves the use of technology to intercept, move and store carbon dioxide emissions from huge sources point such as power stations and manufacturing industries permanently below ground. It also used in high energy manufacturing industries such as steel and cement to ensure they operate without the associated co2 emissions. The International Energy Agency (IEA) states that CCS has the potential to reduce global CO2 by 19% and without CCS, climate change could cost 70% more. 3 processes involved capture Pre-combustion capture Post-combustion capture Oxy-fuel combustion systems Transport Transportation involve the transfer of the captured co2 to the appropriate site. This is usually done by pipes or ships. Storage Co2 is injected at high temperature and pressure in liquid into porous geological Formation. The process is called structural storage. It is the same process that natural gas and oil has been trapped in earth formation for millions of years. Conclusion Forest do hold a lot of carbon in its biomass. However, with current rate of anthropogenic emission of co2, afforestation alone would not be an effective way to deal with the climate. The use of fossils for energy production accounts for a significant part of global energy demand. It is therefore important to revolutionised energy production by eliminating the co2 from source by promoting the geoengineering technology of carbon capture and storage.