Performance Management Activity Based Costing Background: In traditional costing the method to compute Overhead is Absorption costing where method to compute overheads is Total Overheads _______________ Level of activity Where level of activity is either labor hours or machine hours. But in modern world there are so many overheads such as distribution, marketing, setup cost etc. due to which it lead towards unfair allocation of cost therefore New method of calculating overhead is introduced which is known as Activity Based costing Activity based costing: Activity based costing is the method of costing which involves identifying the cost of main support activities and the factors that drive the cost of each activity. Support overhead are charged to products by absorbing cost on the basis of product’s usage of factor deriving the overheads. Activity based costing needed because: 1. Manufacturing products creates demand for supporting activities 2. Costs are assigned to products on the basis of the product’s consumption of these activities 3. Activitiees cause cost such as material handling, ordering, machining, assembly production and dispatching. Steps of activity based costing: 1. Identify organisation’s major activities 2. Use cost allocation and apportionment methods to charge overhead costs to each of these activities. The cost that accumlate for each cost activity cost centre is called cost pool. 3. Identify the factors which determine the size of the cost of activity 4. For each cost pool, calculate an absorption rate per unit of cost driver. 5. Charge overhead cost to product for each activity, on the basis of their usage of the activity example Cost pool Cost driver Ordering cost: handling customer order Number of orders Material handling cost Number of production runs Machine set up cost Number of machine setups Machine operating cost Number of machine hours Dispatching cost Number of orders dispatched Production schduling cost Number of production runs Example: XoXo company manufacture four products A,B,C,D. output and cost data for the period ended are as follows: OutPut Units A B C D 10 10 100 10 No of production runs 2 2 5 5 Material cost per unit 20 80 20 80 Direct labour cost Per hour: $5 OverHead Costs: Short run variable cost 3080 Setup cost 10920 Expediting and Scheduling cost 9100 Material Handling cost 7700 Total: 30800 Required: Prepare Unit cost for each product using: Absorption costing ABC Assume, absorption costing absorb overheads on the basis of labour Hours Direct labour hours per unit 1 3 1 3 Machine Hrs Per unit 1 3 1 3 A Absorption costing A Direct Material direct labor Overhead unit produced cost per unit B 200 50 700 950 10 95 800 150 2100 3050 10 305 C 2000 500 7000 9500 100 95 D 8000 1500 21000 30500 100 305 b) Activity Based Costing A Direct material Direct labour overhead B C D 200 50 800 150 2000 500 8000 1500 short run variable oh(w1) set up cost (w2) 70 1560 210 1560 700 3900 2100 3900 expediting scheduling cost (w3) 1300 1300 3250 3250 1100 4280 10 $428 1100 5120 10 $512 2750 13100 100 $131 2750 21500 100 $215 material handling cost unit produced cost per unit working: 1. 3080/440=7 per machine hour 2.10920/14 prod run= 780 per prod run 3. 9100/14 prod run = 650 per prod run 4. 7700/14 prod run = 550 per prod run Advantages of ABC: 1. It provides reliable cost estimate 2. It establishes long run product cost 3. It is helpful in developing new products or new ways to do busines because ABC focus on support activities that would be required for new product or business 4. ABC is suitable for deriving sale price where sale price is derive by adding mark up to cost Disadvantages of ABC: 1.It is costly to implement ABC 2. It is difficult to understand 3. A single cost driver may not explain the cost behaviour of all items in the pool. An activity may have two or more cost drivers. 4.Implementing ABC is often problematic due to problems with understanding activities and their costs Target Costing Target costing: In a competitive market, selling price must be competitive in order to sell at a competitive competitive market and earn a profit. The production and sales must be kept at a level that will provide the the required profit at the chosen selling price. In many markets new product innovation and improving existing product is continuous process. Target costing is the most effective at the product design stage and it is less effective for established products. That are made in established processes. Target costing involves setting a target cost by subtracting desired profit margin from target selling price Target is the cost at which product must be produced and sold in order to get desired profit at the target selling price Implementing target costing: Following are the steps to implement target costing: 1. Determine a product specification of which an adequate sales volume is estimated. 2. Decide a target selling price at which the organisation will be able to sell the product sucessfully and achieved a desired market share. 3. Estimate the required profit, based on required profit margin or return on investment 4. Target cost= target selling price-target profit 5. Prepare the estimated cost for the product, based on the initial design specification and current cost levels 6. Cost gap= estimated cost – target cost 7. Make efforts to close a gap in such a way that quality of product is not compromised. Big B Manufacturer of computer games is in the process of introducing new computer games Big B establish the cost estimate of the computer game for comparison with competitor games and to get the customer reviews: Manufacturing Cost Direct Material Direct labour Direct Machinery cost Ordering and receiving Quality assurance $ 3.2 24 1.1 0.2 4.6 Non manufacturing cost Marketing Distribution After sales service Calculate the target cost and cost gap of new product 8.2 3.3 1.3 Solutio n $ Target selling price 60 target profir margin 30% of selling price 18 target cost ( 60-18) 42 estimated cost 46 $3.89 is the cost gap which company need to close but it should be close in such a way that quality of product is not compromise. Target costing in service Industries: Target costing in service Industries: Target costing is difficult to use in service industries because of the information required and characteristics, Following are the characteristics of service industries: Intangibility: There are no physical substance of services, as they cant be touch, they cant be seen or feel. Inseparability: Many services are bought and consumed at the same time for Example Haircut. Variability/hetrogenity: Many services face the problem of maintaining consistency in the quality of The product but customer expects it for example quality of fast food. Perishability: services are innately perishable for example the services of the beautician can be bought for period of time. No transfer of ownership: The customer will get the access to use the facility, there is no transfer of ownership. Life Cycle costing The product life cycle costing can be divided into five phases: Development Introduction Growth Maturity Decline Development: The product has research or design and development stage. Costs are incurred but project is not yet in the product and there is no sales revenue. Introduction: The product is introduced in to the market but customer is unaware about the potential product or service. Heavy need to invest in Marketing of the product or service to make awareness about the product to the potential customers or buyers. Growth: The product builds up a market and gains market share. Sales revenue increase and product gains to make a profit Maturity: The growth in demand for the product is at its peak and fairly stable at this stage, it is the most profitable stage of the product, sales will be slow down now. To sustaining the demand improvements need to be made in the product Decline: It is the staturation point, now product will be loss making here company need to decide to sell particular product and service and decide to introduce new product. Sales and profits Sales revenue Profit Time Life cycle costs: Life cycle costing estimates the costs and revenues attributable to the product over its entire expected life cycle The life cycle costs of product are all the costs attributable to the product over its entire life product life from product design and concept to eventual withdrawl from the market. Following can be the costs of the product during its life cycle: Design cost Cost of making prototype Testing costs Production process and equipment Training cost Production cost Distribution cost Marketing and advertising cost Why to calculate life cycle cost? In traditional costing it only calculates only periodic profit and loss from which it was difficult to assess what is the actual profits or loss has made from particular product. While by calculating product life cycle costing, now it can be find what costs has been incurred through out the product life cycle and how much profit earned through out the life cycle of the product Moon soft company is the company establishes in the tablets. It is planning to introduce new line of tablets. Development of new line of tablets is about to begin shortly and moonsoft is is in the process of determining the cost of product. It expects new product will have the following cost. Units produce and sold Year 1 2000 $ 100000 Marketing cost Research and development Cost 1900000 Production cost per unit 500 Disposal of specialist equipment Customer service cost per unit 50 Year 2 15000 $ 75000 100000 450 40 Year 3 20000 $ 50000 year4 5000 $ 10000 400 450 300000 40 40 Marketing director belives customer is ready to pay $500. while finance director this this is not enough to cover costs through out life cycle. Require: Compute the cost per unit and comment on sugested selling price Solution Life cycle cost marketing ( 100 +75+50+10) 235 research and development (1900+100) 2000 production ( 1000 +6750+8000+2250) 18000 disposal 300 customer service( 100+600+800+200) 1700 total life cycle cost 22235 total production units 42 cost per unit 529.40476 Since the cost per unit is higher then selling price company should reduce the cost of produce or increase the selling price. 235 Throughput Accounting What is throughput? Throughput is the rate of converting raw material into products sold to customers, In monetory terms it is extra money which organisation made from sellinbg its products. Throughput = Revenue – Raw material cost What is throughput accounting? Throughput accounting is an approach to accounting which is big supporter of Just in time concept. Throughput accounting assumes that manager has given set of resources available which include builldings, capital, labour force using these resources purchased material must be used to generate sales. Given this scenario a financial objective to set for doing this is the maximisation of throughput which is Sales - Direct material cost Throughput accounting main concepts: 1. In short term most costs in the factory are fixed cost including labour cost and excluding material cost. These fixed costs are called total factory costs ( operating cost) 2. In JIT environment ideal inventory level is zero, products must not be produced until or less customers has ordered them. 3. Work in progress should be valued at material cost only so that no value will be added and no profit is earned until the sales take place. 4. Profitability is determined by the rate at which sales has been made and JIT environment it all depends on how how quickly customer orders has been satisfied. As the goal for the profit oriented organisation to make profits and for that inventory need to be sell in order to achieve the objective. Traditional accounting versus throughput accounting ratio Traditional accounting Throughput accounting 1. Inventory is an asset Iventory is not asset, it is unsyncronised manufacturing and its barrier to making profit. 2. Cost can be classified as Such classification are no either as direct or indirect cost longer useful. 3. Product costs can be determined by the selling price less product cost Profitibility is determined at the rate which money is earned. 4. Profit can be increased by reducing cost element Profit is function of material cost, factory cost and and throughput. Marginal costing and throughput accounting both determine a contribuution by calculating difference between sales – variable cost. In throughput accounting contribution is much higher because in throughput accounting contribution is Sales – Material cost where is in marginal costing it is calculated as Sales – material cost – labour cost – other variable cost. Throughput costing costs like labour and other variable cost regard as fixed cost because such costs are not controllable on immediate terms Illustration 1 A Sales 30 Material cost 5 Labour cost @ $3/hr 6 Variable OH 2 Fixed Oh 1 Maximum demand 15000 Total labour hours availale are 30000 hours B 35 7 9 2 4 10000 How do we calculate contribution ? A $ Sales Material cost Labour cost Variable cost 5 6 2 ____ $ 30 13 ____ 17 ______ B $ $ 35 7 9 2 ____ 18 ____ 17 _____ How do we calculate throughput? Sales Less: Material cost Throughput /Unit A 30 (5) ____ 25 B 35 (7) _____ 28 Theory of constraints: Theory of constraints applied within an organisation by focusing on following Five Steps: Step 1: Identify the bottleneck process in system Step 2: Decide how to get benefits from systems bottleneck process: The production capacity of the bottleneck resource is actively being used as much as possible and is producing as manay units as possible Step 3: lower the rank of everything else to the decision made in step 2: The production capacity of the bottleneck resource should determine the production schedule for the organisation as whole. Idle time is unavoidable and therefore need to be accepted if the theory of constraint is to be successfully applied. Step 4: Evaluate the system’s Bottleneck: This will normally require capital expenditure. Step 5: If new constraint found in Step 4, go back to step 1: The most likely new constraint into the system is market demand. Example 1: Following example is extracted from the student accountant of March 2010 A not for profit organisation hospital performs a medical screening service in three sequential stages: 1. Take an X- ray 2. Interpret the result 3. Recall patients who need further investigation/tell others all is fine Process Time/Patient(hours) Take an X-ray Interpret the result Recall patients who need Further investigations/tell Other all is fine 0.25 0.10 0.20 Total hours Available per week 40 20 30 Required: A. Find the Bottleneck process B. How can we increase the throughput of the process identified in part (a) as the bottleneck ? Where there is a bottleneck resource limiting factor performance can be measured in terms of throughput for each unit of bottleneck resource consumed. Three Ratios: Throughput accounting Ratio: Return per factory hour _______________________ Cost per factory hour Cost per factory hour: Total factory hour ________________ total time available on bottleneck resource The cost per factory hour is for whole factory and therefore need to calculate once, Not for each product. Throughput return per factory hour: Throughput per unit ____________________ Product’s time on the bottleneck resource TPAR>1 = It suggests the rate at which organisation is making sales is greater then rate at which they incurring the cost. So the product will make the profit Priority should be given to those products which will provide highest ratios. TPAR<1= it suggests that cost is higher then revenue therefore it is loss making, Hence changes need to make quickly Illustration 2: From the information given in Illustration 1 A throughput/Unit 25 Labour Hour Per unit 2 Throughput per factory hour 25 Which product should be produced first? B 28 1 15 Cost/Factory Hour: Factory cost are assumed to be fixed in short term. Take all costs excluding material cost: Product A ( 6+2+1)= 9 X15000 Product B ( 9+2+4)=15X10000 Cost/Factory Hour 285000 ________ 30000 = $9.5/ hr = = 135000 150000 __________ 285000 ___________ TPAR = A 25 ______ 9.5 2.631 B 15 _______ 9.5 1.57 Both products have TPAR more then 1, therefore both are worth producing Criticism On TPAR: 1.In long term, ABC might be more appropriate for measuring and controlling performance 2. It is more difficult to apply throughput accounting concepts to the long term when all costs are variable 3. It focuses on short term Suggesgt How TPAR could be improved Management should focus on improving TPAR accounting ratio. If they are succesfull to do so organisation can achieve higher level of profits. Following are the ways to improve TPAR: 1. 2. 3. 4. Increase selling price, this will increase throughput per unit Reduce material cost, this will also increase the throughput per unit Reduce total operating cost, this will reduce total factory cost Immorve the productivity of workforce, this will reduce the production time and therefore throughput will increase. Apply throughput to multiproduct decision making: 1. Calculate throughput per unit for each product ( selling pricematerial cost) 2. Identify bottlleneck constraint 3. Calculate throughput per hour of bottleneck resource 4. Rank the products in order of priority which product should be produced first, starting with the product which producing highest return per hour first 5. Calculate the optimum production plan, allocating the bottleneck resource to each one in order, being sure not to exceed the maximum demand for any of the products. Example 2 Sona Plc manufactures two types of Cosmetics. Their cost cards are as follows: Selling Price Material cost Labour cost Other variable cost Fix cost Profit Machine hours per unit Maximum demand Cosmetic 1 $ 20 8 3 3 2 _____ (16) _______ 4 ________ 2 hrs 20000 units Cosmetic 2 $ 38 20 4 6 3 ____ ( 3) _____ 5 _____ 1 hr 10000 units Total hours available are 40000 hours a. Calculate the optimum production plan and the maximum profit using key factor analysis b. Calculate the optimum production plan using throughput accounting approach c. Calculate throughput accounting ratio for both products. Example 3 BMX LTD is engaged in manufacturing and marketing of bicycles. BMX produce two types of Bicycles. One is “ ROADY” which is designed to use on roads and other Is “Mounty” which is designed for use in mountainous areas. The following information is related to the year ending 31st December 2005: Unit selling price and cost data is as follows: Selling price Material cost Variable production costs ROADY $ 250 100 40 MOUNTY $ 350 120 60 Fixed production overhead attributable to the production of bicycles will amount to $ 4000000 Expected demand is as follows: ROADY 150000 units MOUNTY 70000 units Each Bicycle is completed in the finishing department. The number of each bicycle that can be completed in one hour in finishing department is as follows: ROADY 6.25 MOUNTY 5.00 There are total of 30000 hours available within the finishing department BMX ltd operates in JIT manufacturing environment with regard to manufacture of Bicycles and they do hold very little Work in progress inventory and nill finish goods whatsoever. A. Using marginal costing principles,Calculate the mix units of each bicycle which will maximise the net profit and state the value of that profit. B. Calculate the throughput accounting ratio for each type of bicycle and briefly discuss when it is worth producing a product where throughput accounting priniciples are in operation. Your answer should assume that the variable overhead cost are amounting to 4000000 incurred as a result of the chosen product mix in part (a) is fixed in the short term. C. Using throughput accounting principles, advice management of the quantities of each type of the bicycle that should be manufactured which will maximise profit and prepare projection of the profit that would be earned by the BMX ltd in the year ending 31st December 2005. ( ACCA paper December 2004 Amended) Answer Example 1: Process Time/Patient (Hours) Take an X-ray Interpret the result Recall patients who Need further investigation/ Tell others that all is fine Total Hours available/week 0.25 0.10 40 20 0.20 30 X rays 40/0.25= 160 Interpret Results 20/.20= 200 Recall etc 30/.20 = 150 Recall procedure is the bottleneck resource, the organisation performance Can not be improved untill or less this part of organisation involve with More people. Cost Volume profit ( CVP analysis) Cost volume profit (cvp) breakeven analysis is the study of the interrelationships between cost, volume and profit at various levels of activity. Basic formulas: Contribution per unit = selling price per unit – variable cost per unit Profit = ( sales volume X contribution per unit) – fixed cost Breakeven point = activity level at which there is neither profit nor loss total fix cost __________________ contribution per unit contribution required to breakeven ___________________________________ contribution per unit Contribution/sales (C/S) ratio = profit/volume (P/V) ratio = contribution/sales X 100 Sales revenue at breakeven point = Fixed cost / C/S Ratio Margin of safety in units = budgeted sales units – breakeven sales unit Margin of safety as % = budgeted sales – breakeven sales _______________________________ X 100 budgeted sales Sales volume to achieve target profit = fixed cost + target profit ______________________ contribution per unit Assumptions: 1. Production volume = Sales volume 2. Sales price are constant at all levels of activity 3. CVP analysis can apply to one product only, or to more than one product only if they are sold in a fixed sales mix ( fixed proportions) 4. Fixed costs per period are same in total and unit variable costs are a constant amount at all levels of output and sales. Example: Simba Co makes and sell single product. The selling price is $12 per unit. The variable cost of making and selling a product is $9 per unit and fixed costs per month are $240000. The company budgets to sell 90000 units of the product a month. Required: a. What is the budgeted profit per month and what is the breakeven point in sales b. What is the margin of safety c. What must be sales to achieve a monthly profit of $120000? Answer: a. Contribution per unit = $(12-9) = $3 The C/S ratio is 3/12 = 0.25 Budgeted profit = (90000 X$3) - $240000 = $30000 Breakeven point unit in sale = $240000/$3 = 80000 units per month Breakeven point in sales revenue = Fixed cost/ C/S ratio= $240000/0.25 = $960000 b. Margin of safety = (90000-80000)/90000 = 11.1% c. To achieve a profit of $120000, total contribution must be ($240000+120000) =$360000. sales must be $360000/$3 per unit = 120000units or $360000/0.25 = $1440000 in sales revenue) Breakeven Chart Sales revenue $ --------------------------------------| ----------------------------------| Breakeven point ----------------------------| | | | | | Fixed Co|st | | | | | | | | | | | unit Margin of safety Profit Variable cost Contribution breakeven chart $ fix cost ---------------------------------------Breakeven point | --------------------------------| | | | | | | | | | | | Margin of safety Profit Fix cost Contribution Units Profit Profit B’even Loss | | | Sales volume | or revenue Fix | cost | | | Contribution | ----------------------------------------------------- Basic breakeven chart Example 2: A new product has the following sales and cost data: Salling price $70 Variable cost $30 Fixed cost $25000 per annum Sales forecast 2000 units Required: Prepare a breakeven chart using the above data. Answer: Step 1: Draw the axes and label them. Your graph should fill as much space as possible as it will make it clearer and understandable Step 2: Draw the fixed cost line and label it. This will be straight line parallel to the horizontal axis at the $25000 level. The $25000 fixed cost are incurred even at zero activity level. Step 3: Draw the total cost line and label it. The best way to do this is to calculate the total costs for the maximum sales level that is 2000 units. Mark this point on the graph and join it to the cost incurred at zero activity that is $25000. Step 4: Draw the revenue line and label it. Once again start by plotting the revenue at maximum activity level. 2000 units X 70 = 140000. this point can be joined to the origin, since at zero activity there will be no sales revenue Step 5: mark any required information on the chart and read off solutions as required. Check that your chart is accurate by reading the measures. Step6: If you have time check your arithmetic calculations. Breakeven 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 -----------------------------------------------| | | | | | | | | | Variable cost Fix cost Breakeven analysis for Multi product: The breakeven point for standard sales mix of products is calculated by dividing the the total fixed costs by the weighted average contribution per unit , or by weighted average C/S ratio. Example 3: Picasso Plc produces and sell two products, product A and B. Product A sells for $7 per unit and has variable cost of $2.94 while B sells for $15 per unit and has total variable cost of $4.40 per unit. The marketing department has estimated that on every five units of A sold one unit of B sells. The organization's fixed cost per period is $123600. Required: Calculate the Picasso breakeven for the year. Step 1: Calculate the contribution per unit and the weighted average contribution per unit: Sales price variable cost Contribution A $ per unit 7 (2.94) ______ 4.06 _______ Contribution from sale of Five units of A = 4.06 contribution from sale of one unit of B Contribution from sale of 6 units of standard sales mix B $ per unit 15 (4.40) _______ 10.60 _______ $20.30 $10.60 ________ 30.90 ________ Weighted average contribution per unit = 30.90/6 = 5.15 per unit Step 2: Calculate the breakeven points in units: Fixed costs/weighted average cost per unit = 123600/5.15 = 24000 units These are in the ratio 5:1 , therefore breakeven is the point where 20,000 units of A are sold (24000 X 5/6) and 4000 units of B are sold (24000 X 1/6) Step 3: Calculate the breakeven point in sales revenue: 20000 units of A at $7 and 4000 units of B at $15 = 140000 + 60000 = $200000 Contribution to Sales ( C/S) ratio for multiple products: The breakeven points in terms of sales revenue can be calculated by dividing the fixed cost is equal to required contribution by the weighted average C/S ratio. The breakeven point In terms of sales revenue= Fixed cost/average C/S ratio C/S ratio also known as Profit/volume ratio or P/V ratio. Example 4: The date and information is same as example 3 Step 1: Calculate revenue and contribution per mix of 5 units of A and 1 unit of B. Product A ( 5units) Product B ( 1 unit ) per unit 4.06 10.60 Contribution Revenue Total per unit Total 20.30 7 35 10.60 15 15 ________ _____ _____ 30.90 50 _________ _____ Weighted average C/S ratio= 30.90/5= 61.8% Step 2: Fixed Cost/ weighted average C/S ratio Fixed cost/ weighted average contribution per unit = $123600/.618 = $200000 in sales revenue Calculate breakeven sales for each product: A = $200000 x (35/50) = $140000 Sale price per unit = $7 Therefore breakeven point in units = $140000 /7 = 20000 units. B = 200000 x (15/50) = $60000 Sales price per unit= $15 Therefore breakeven point in units = $60000/15 = 4000 units Margin of safety for multi products: The margin of safety for multi product organisation is equal to the budgeted sales in the standard mix less the breakeven sales in the standard mix. It should be expressed as percentage of budgeted sales. Example: Picachoo produces and sells two products. The G sells for $8 per unit and total variable cost of 3.80 per unit, while the H sells for $14 per unit and has total variable cost of 4.30 for every five units of G are sold, Six units of H are sold. Pichachoo expected fixed costs are 83160 for the per period. Budgeted sales revenue for the next period is $150040 in the standard sales mix. Required: Calculate the margin of safety we must first determine the breakeven point. Answer: Step 1: Calculate the weighted average contribution per unit: Selling Price variable cost Contribution G $ per unit H $ per unit 8 (3.80) _______ 4.20 ________ 14 (4.30) ________ 9.70 _________ Contribution from Sale of Five units of G Contribution from sale of Six units of H Contribution from sale of 11 units Weighted average contribution per unit 79.20/11 = 7.2 $21 $58.20 __________ 79.20 ____________ Step 2: Calculate the breakeven point in terms of number of shares ( total) Fixed cost/ weighted average contribution per unit = 83160/7.2 = 11550 units Step 3: Calculate the breakeven point in terms of number of units of products Product G =11550 x (5/11) = 5250 units Product H = 115550 s (6/11) = 6300 units Step 4: Calculate the breakeven points in terms of revenue = (5250 x 8) + (6300 x 14) = $42000 G revenue + $88200 H revenue = $130200 total revenue Step 5: Calculate the margin of safety: Budgeted Sales – Breakeven sales As a percentage: 19840/150040 = 13.2% of budgeted sales Targeted profits for multiple Products: The sales mix required to achieve target profit is the sales mix that will earn a contribution equal to the fixed costs plus the target profit. Suppose an organisation wishes to achieve a certain level of profit during a period. To achieve this profit, contribution must cover fixed cost and leave the required profit. Total contribution required = fixed cost + required profit Once we find out the contribution required we can calculate the sales revenue of each product needed to achieve target profit. The method is same as used to calculate breakeven Formula: Target profit = (Fixed cost + required profit)/weighted average contribution per unit Example: An organisation makes and sells three products A, B and C. The products are sold in the proportion A B C= 2:1:3. organisation fixed cost is $80000 per month and details of the product are as follows: Product A B C Selling Price 22 15 19 Variable cost 16 12 13 The organisation wishes to earn $52000 next month. Calculate the required sales value of each product in order to achieve this target profit. Answer: Step 1: Calculate the weighted average contribution per unit A $ per unit selling price 22 variable cost (16) ______ Contribution 6 _______ Contribution from 2 units of A Contribution from 1 unit of B Contribution from 3 unit of C B $ per unit 15 (12) _______ 3 _______ C $ per unit 19 (13) _______ 6 ________ $12 $3 $18 _____ 33 ______ Weighted average contribution per unit $33/6 =5.50 = 24000 units Step 2: Calculate the required number of sales unit: = (fixed cost + required profit)/weighted average contribution per unit = ($80000 + $52000)/$5.50 = 24000 units Step 3: Calculate the required in terms of the number of units of the products and sales revenue of each product. Product A B C Units 24000x2/6 24000x1/6 24000x3/6 8000 4000 12000 Selling Price $ per unit 22 15 19 Sales revenue required 176000 60000 228000 ___________ 464000 ___________ The sales revenue of $464000 will generate the profit of $52000 products are Are sold in the mix of 2:1:3 Example: Using C/S ratio to determine required sales In this example we will use the Information of above example Step 1: Calculate revenue per mix i.e. 2 units of A, 1 unit of B and 3 units of C =(2x$22) + (1x$15) + (3x$19) =$44 + $15 + $57 = $116 Step 2: Calculate contribution per mix: $33 same as above example Step 3: Calculate weighted average C/S ratio: =($33/116) x 100% = 28.45% Step 4: Calculate required total revenue: = required contribution / C/S ratio = ($80000+52000)/.2845 =463972 Step 5: Calculate required sales for each product: Required sales of A= 44/116 x 463972 = $175989 Required sales of B= 15/116 x 463972 = $59996 Required Sales of C =57/116 x 463972 = $227986 Limitations of CVP Analysis: 1. Uncertainty in the estimates of fixed costs and unit variable cost is often ignored 2. Production and sales are assumed to be same. The consequences of increase in inventory level are ignored. 3. It is assumed that fixed cost are same in total and variable costs are same per unit at all level of output. 4. It is assumed that sale price is constant at all levels of activity level. This may not be true, especially at higher volume of output, where the price may have to be reduce to get the higher sales. Advantages: 1. Highlighting the breakeven point and margin of safety give managers indication of the level of risk 2. Graphical representation of cost and revenue data can be more easily understood by non- financial managers 3. A breakeven model enables profit or loss at any level of activity within the range for which the model is valid to be determined, and the C/S ratio can indicate the relative profitability of different products. Limiting factor analysis A limiting factor is any factor that is in scarce supply and that stops organisation from expanding its activities further, so that there is maximum level of activity at which organisation can operate. An organisation might be just faced with one limiting factor other than maximum sales demand but there might be several other scarce resources and those might be two or more of them putting an effective limit on the level of activity that can be achieved. Example of limiting factor: Labour: A limit might be in total quantity of labour or skills labour might be limited. Machine capacity: there may bot be sufficient machine capacity to meet sales demand Material: there may be insufficient material available to meet the sales sales demand One Limiting Factor: If there is one Limiting factor, limiting factor analysis can be used to solve the problem. Option must be ranked using contribution earned per unit of the scarce resource. Limiting factor analysis steps: Step 1: Determine the Limiting factor (Bottleneck resource) Step 2: rank the option using the contribution earned per unit of the scarce resource Step 3: Allocate the resources Example: Mika make two products the Maza and Frooto. Variable costs are as follows: Direct material Direct labour ( $3 per hour) Variable OH Maza $ 1 6 1 ____ 8 _____ frooto $ 3 3 1 ____ 7 _____ The sales price unit of Maza is $14 and $11 per frooto. During the month of july direct labour hours available is limited to $8000 hours. Sales demand in july is Expected to be as follows: Maza 3000 units Frooto 5000 units Required: Determine the production budget that will maximise the profit, assuming that fixed costs per month are $20000 and there is no opening inventory or work in progress. Answer: Step 1: Confirm that sales demand is something other than sales demand Maza Labour hours per unit Sales demand Labour hours needed Labour hours available Shortfall 2 hrs 3000 units 6000 hrs Frooto 1 hr 5000 units 5000 hrs Total 11000 8000 ________ 3000 _________ Step 2: Identify the contribution earned by each product per unit of scarce resource; that is per labour hour worked: Maza $ Sale price Variable cost Contribution/Unit Labour hour per unit Contribution per labour hour ( per unit of limiting factor 14 8 ____ 6 _____ frooto $ 11 7 _____ 4 ____ 2 hrs 1 hr per unit $3 $4 Step 3: Determine the budgeted production and sales. Sufficient frooto will be made to meet the full sales demand, and the remaining labour hours will then be used to make Maza a. Product Frooto Mazaa Demand 5000 3000 b. Product units hours needed 5000 1500 5000 3000 Frooto Mazaa(bal) Less: fix costs Profit Hours Required 5000 6000 _______ 11000 _________ Hours available 5000 3000 (Bal) _______ 8000 ________ Contribution per unit 4 6 priorty 1st 2nd Total 20000 9000 _____ 29000 (20000) ______ 9000 Conclusion: 1. Contribution per unit is not the correct way to decide priorties for production and sales 2. Labour hours are scarce resource in this example, therefore contribution per labour hour is the correct way to decide priorities for production and sales 3. The frooto earns $4 contribution per labour hour and mazaa earns $3 contribution per labour hour. Therefore mazaa should be manufacture first as its more profitable 4. Frooto should be manufactured up to sales demand and after that if there is any resources available then 2nd highest product with contribution per labour hour should be manufacture Two or more resources in short supply: When there are two or more resources are in short supply, Linear programing is required to find the solution: Linnear programing is used to: - Maximise profit or - Minimise cost Steps involved in linear programming: 1. 2. 3. 4. Define the variables Define and formulate the objective Formulate the constraints Draw a graph to identify the feasible region. The constraints are represented as straight lines on the graph. The feasible region shows those combination of variables which are possible given the resource constraint 5. Compute the optimal production plan. An iso contribution line ( an objective function for particular value ) must be drawn. All points on this line represent An equal contribution. This line must move to and from the origin in parallel The objective is to get the highest contribution or minimum cost within the the binding constraint. A Linnear programing assumption can be solved using simaltinous equations, however this technique can be used after one has determined graphically the constraints and the physical region. Linear Programming Assumptions: 1. Its single quantifiable objective 2. Each product uses the same quantity of the scarce resource per unit 3. The contribution or cost per unit is constant for each product, regardless the level of activity, therefore the objective function is the straightline 4. Products are independent 5. The focus is short term 6. All costs either vary with a single volume related cost driver or they are fixed for the production under consideration. Example 2: Mama bakery produce two types of cakes. Cake A and Cake B. Contribution / Cake A = $20 Contribution / Cake B = $45 Cream X and Cream y are used in baking each cake. Each material is in short supply. Cream X = 3000 kg available Cream Y = 2700 kg available Each Cake A uses 20kg of cream X and 15kg of cream Y. Each Cake B uses 30kg of cream X and 50kg of cream Y. The objective of this company is to maximise profits. Variables: Let A be the number of cakes of A produced and sold Let B be the number of cakes of B produced and sold Objective function: Maximise = 20A + 45B Constraints: Cream X = 20A + 30B < 3000 __ Cream Y = 15A + 50B < 2700 __ Non negativity = A,B > 0 __ Cream X: 20A + 30B = 3000 When A = 0, B= 100 When B=0, A = 150 Cream Y: 15A = 50B = 2700 When A = 0, B= 54 When B = 0, A= 180 200 180 150 p OPQR = feasible region B Q 100 A 45 Material x Iso Cont Line 0 O 25 Material Y 50 75 100 Product B How can we draw the iso- contribution line ? 20A + 45B = 900 take a number which is multiple of both 20 and 45 both When A = 0, B = 20 When B = 0, A = 45 Which is the optimal point ? 1. Shift out the objective function 2. We need to maximise profits. Hence the optimal point is the last point to reach in the feasible region. OPQR Therefor the optimal point in the above example is B. How can we find the optimal point using simultaneous equations? Find the contribution at each point on the feasible region. At point O, contribution is 0. At point P, Contribution is 20A + 45B 20(150) + 45(0) = 3000 At point R, contribution is 20A + 45B 20(0) + 45(54) =2430 At point Q, Point of intersaction of cream X and cream Y, Cream X = 20 A + 30B = 3000 ……………………. X 5 Cream Y = 15 A + 50 B = 2700 ……………………. X 3 100(125.45) + 150 B = 15000 B = 16.36 Contribution = 20A + 45B = 20(125.45) + 45(16.36) = 2509 + 736.2 = 3245.2 Slack: Slack occurs when maximum availability of resource is not used. Slack is the amount of the unused resource or other constraint. Where the constraint is less then or equal to constraint Surplus: Surplus occurs when more then minimmum requirement is used: surplus is the excess over the minimum amount of constraint, where the constraint is more then or equal to constraint. Shadow Price: The shadow price or dual price of constraint factor is the amount of change in the value of objective function for example, the increase in contribution created by the availability of one extra unit of the limited resource at its original cost. For example availability of the material is binding constraint. Suppose that one extra kilogram becomes available then an alternative production mix becomes optimal. As a result the contribution increases over the original production mix contribution by $2. The shadow price of material is therefore $2 Points to remember: 1. The shadow price there represent the maximum premium above the basic rate that an organisation should be willing to pay for one extra unit of resource. 2. Since shadow price indicate the effect of a one unit change in a constraint, they provide measure of the sensitivity of the result. 3. The shadow price of a constraint that is not binding at the optimal solution is zero. 4. Shadow prices are only valid for small range before the constraint becomes nonbinding or different resources become critical. Example 3: This example is from example 2, Find the shadow price of Cream X. 20A + 30B = 3001 ( Add 1 kg to cream X) 15A + 50B = 2700 20A + 30B = 3001 ….. X5 15A + 50B = 2700 ….. X3 100A + 150B = 15005 45A + 150B = 8100 _______________________ 55A / = 6905 A = 125.55 100A 100(125.55) + 150B = 15005 + 150B = 15005 B = 16.33 Therefore new contribution is: 20(125.55) + 45(16.33) = 2511 + 734.85 = 3245.85 Old Contribution = 3245.20 _______________ Shadow price 0.65 _______________ Extra contribution / kg of Cream X Relevant Costing, Make or Buy and other short term decisions Organisations are increasingly tended to focus on their core competencies and turn other functions to other specialist customers. This is known as outsourcing and sub contracting. Any short term decisions should be made using relevant costing principles Relevant costs and revenues are future cash flows and inflows arise due to the decision which has been made. 1. Relevant cost and revenues are future costs and revenues 2. Relevant costs and revenues are future costs and income 3. Relevant cost and revenues are incremental cost and revenues Decision making should be based on relevant costs and revenues 1. Relevant costs are future costs. A decision is about future, it can not change what has been done already in past. The cost which has occurred in past are known as sunk costs and are tottaly irrelevant for decision making 2. Relevant costs are cash flows that means only such costs are relevant which are cash flows non cash expenses such as depreciation and ammortisation are also known as notional costs and such costs are tottaly irrelevant 3. Relevant costs are incremental costs. These are the costs which increase the costs and revenues which incurred due to the decision which has been made. Common costs can be ignored for the purpose of decision making. 4. Avoidable costs which can be ignored if decision would have not been taken. 5. Commited costs are the costs which can not be avoided because of because of the decisions which has already been made. Opportunity Cost: The choice of one course of action requires that alternative course of action is given up, the financial benefits that sacrificed for the sake of another one is opportunity cost. Relevant cost for material: The relevant cost of the material is generally their current replacement cost, unless the materials has already been purchased and would not be purchased once used In this case relevant cost for using them is the higher of: - Current resale value - The value they would obtain if they were put to an alternative use. If the materials have no alternative use and they also have no opportunity cost then the relavant cost will zero. In Stock Not In stock Used regularly No other use Need to be replace Wont be replace Scarce Buy it Current replacement cost Current replacement cost Current resale value Cant replace opportunity cost Example: Material A B Qty need for Contract 200 kg 400 kg original cost of qty in inventory $20/ kg $10/kg Current Purchase Price $22/kg Current resale Price $15/ kg $15/kg Material A is regularly used in business Material B has no longer use and has no resale value The relevant cost of material is: Material A: regular used – Replaced 400kg x $22 = $8800 Material B: 100 kg could have been sold if not used in the contract 100 x 12 = $1200 Other 100 kg would have to be purchase at 100 x $15 = 1500 Therefore 1200 + 1500 = 2700 / original cost is sunk cost therefore irrelevant. $12/Kg Relevant Cost For Labour: Here the question is is there any spare capacity? If there is any spare capacity with in the department, additional work can be undertaken at no extra cost, therefore relevant cost of labour is nil. If department is working in full capacity and additional work can be taken in only two circumstances. 1. Hire more labour: In this case the relevant cost will be current labour pay which company has to pay to these labour/employees. 2. Shift work from the other department in this case relevant cost of the labour will be the lost contribution from not producing the alternative product and this can be calculated by sales value of the units of the product which will now be forgone/sacrificed and deduct the cost of the producing them but exclude the labour cost. As labour still has to be paid even if they are working on another product. Spare capacity Full Capacity Additional work can be taken at no extra cost Additional work can not be undertaken Hire more labour Shift work from another department Nil Current rate of pay given Lost contribution + variable cost Example 2: A contract requires 500 hours of labour. There are 400 hours of spare labour capacity. The remaining hours can be worked as overtime at time and a half. The labour rate is $12/hr. 500 hours 400 hrs Relevant cost = 0 100 hrs Relevant cost = 100 x 12 x 1.5 = $1800 Make or Buy Decision Making: When organisation assessing the difference in costs between making product in house or to outsource, one of the key consideration is whether space capacity does or would exist. If there is spare production capacity is available following issues will arise 1. Production resources maybe idle if the component is purchased from outside. 2. The fixed costs of those resources are irrelevant to the decision in the short term as they will be incurred whether the component is made or purchased. 3. Purchase would be recommended only if the buying price was less then the variable costs of internal manufacture. 4. In the long term however the business may dispense with or transfer some of its resources and may purchase from outside if it thereby saves more then the extra cost of purchasing. If there is no spare capacity available following issues may arise. 1. A decision to make components in house might displace the manufacture of other existing products. This could give rise to opportunity costs of lost contribution or additional costs of buying those products. 2. In long term management may look to other alternatives such as capital expenditure of machinery. Outsourcing: Matters to consider before deciding to outsource: 1. The quality of the outsider producer must be acceptable 2. Supply continuity must be guranteed 3. If a component is no longer produced by the company the management should investigate whether the capacity feed up can be used to generate additional profits from different product. 4. Management should consider that labour should not get de motivated 5. Stability in pricing is also another important factor. Shutdown decisions: To decide whether to close part of the business, a cost accountant must consider: 1. 2. 3. 4. Loss of the contribution from segment Savings in specific fixed costs from closure Alternative use of resources released Extra costs due to closure such as redundancy pay, compensation to customers etc. One of Contract: A business should identify the incremental cash flows associated with a new one Off contract/project. Joint product further processing decisions: Joint products are two or more products which are output from the same processing operation, but which are indistinguishable from each other up to their point of separation. Joint products have substantial sales value. Often they require further processing before they are ready for sale joint products arise for example, In the oil refining industry. Where diesel, petrol, lubricants etc are all produced from same process. Joint products Input Direct mat Product A Process Direct lab Product B Variable & Product C Fixed OH By product Scrap Waste What is split of point ? A specific point at which individual products become identifiable is known as split of point Product A JOINT COST Product B Product C Split of point Those costs which are incurred before the point of separation must be shared between joint products i.e. for example for joint products. After separation products must be sold immediately or may be processed further. Any costs which incurred after the separation are allocated directly to the product on which they are incurred. Should we process product further? To decide whether to process product we need to consider: 1. Is there any incremental in the revenue ? 2. Is there any extra costs ? Both further processing cost and any differences in selling costs? At this stage pre separation cost is sunk cost and therefore it is irrelevant. Pricing Decisions The prices which businesses do charge for its products and services determined by the products of services in which they are operating perfectly Competitive market: In competitive market the organizations are price taker. No other market participant can influence the prices of the product or services it buys or sells. Perfect competitive market has the following characteristics: 1. there are no barriers to entry to entry into or exit out of the market. 2. Organisations produce homogeneous, identical units of output that are not branded. 3. Each unit of input, such as units of labour, are homogenous 4. No single organisation can influence the market price or market conditions. the single organisation is said to be price taker, taking its price from the whole industry. 106 5. There are large number of organisations in the market. 6.In long term organisations can make normal profits and in short term they can make abnormal profits. 7.There is no need for government regulations, except to make markets more competitive. Imperfect competition: It refers to the market structure that does not meet the conditions of a perfect competition. It has following kinds: Monopoly: There is only one provider of good or service. The monopolist sells a product for which there are no close substitutes. It has control over the market. It can set the price of the products which sold in the market. 107 Oligopoly: A few large companies dominate the market and are inter dependent. They offer the same product and compete for the market dominence for example dairy/milk products. Monopolistic competition: Products are similar but not identical, each firms sells a branded product. Hence it is a monopolist. For its brand. There is freedom of entry or exit into the industry. Factors influence the price of products and service Cost: the most straightforward approach to arrive at the selling price is to calculate cost and add on profit margin/markup. Using this cost plus pricing approach. Cost is calculated on basis of either marginal or this may be termed as variable cost or total cost. 108 Price perception: Customer based pricing means setting a price based upon the pricing of competing products that is taking into consideration both substitutes is an important aspect of complimentary products. Innovation: A company may set a high price for an innovative product which is also known as price skimming. Competition: Competition based pricing means prices are based on the prices of competing products which includes complimentary and substitutes products. 109 Price elasticity of demand: Generally, it is expected that there will be an inverse relationship between selling price and sales demand. If the sales price is increased, sales demand would be expected to fall. If selling price is reduced sales demand would rise. Here the question is to what extent is demand likely to respond change in price. The price elasticity of demand ( degree of sensitivity of demand for a product to changes in the price of that product. Which can be measured as: %change in sales demand ___________________________ % Change in selling price If the % change in demand > the % change in price then price elasticity > 1: It means Demands is elastic that means very responsive. Total revenue increase when price is reduce and decreases when price is increased. 110 IF the % change in demand < the change in price, then price elasticity < 1: Demand is inelastic that means it is not very responsive. Total revenue decreases when price is reduced and increases when price is increased. Price elasticity of 1 will mean that the % change in demand offsets the % change in price, leaving total sales revenue unchanged. An increase in selling price will be offset by decrease in sales demand , a decrease in selling price will be offset by an increase in sales demand. Example: At price of $1.50 annual demand is 100000 If price increased to to $1.75 annual demand is 80000 Price elasticity of demand is ?? % Change in demand = 20000/100000 x 100 = -20% % change in price = 0.25/1.50 x 100 = 16.67% 111 Price elasticity of demand is 20/16.67 = 1.2 (ignore minus sign) Straight Line equation: Straight line equation represented by following equation Graph of linear function y = a + bx Y Y = a + bx ‘a’ Gredient of Line = b o X 112 P The gradient of Line = ________ Q =-b Total cost function: Y = a + bx graph of cost equation y = 5000 + bx Y axis Total cost Y(total cost)= 5000 + 10x Fixed cost a = $5000 Variable cost = b = $10 Level of activity X axis 113 A = is the fixed cost per unit B = is the variable cost per unit X= is the activity level Y = is the total cost = fixed cost + variable cost Cost equations including volume based discounts: Suppliers often offer discounts to encourage the purchase of increased volumes. Where Example: Variable cost is $5 up to $10000 units. 10% discount applies on all units purchased over 10000 units. Total fixed cost $100000 X < 10000 , TC = 100000 + 5x _ X > 10001 , TC = 100000 + 4.5x - 114 Demand based approaches (The economist View point): Most organisations recognise that there exist a relationship between the selling price of the product or service and the demand. The law of demand explains the inverse relation between quantity and price in general. It can be stated as follows: The quantity of a good demand will rise with fall in its price and the quantity of good demand will fall with increase in its price. 115 200 180 Price per unit 160 140 120 P D1 100 80 60 40 20 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 116 The price demand equation is in the form: P = a – bq Where P is the selling price Q is the quantity demanded at that price a = theoritical maximum price ( if price is set at a or above demand will be zero) , that is from the graph above at a price of $200, demand is zero B= the change in price required to change demand by 1 unit ( the gradient of line) = P __________ Q 117 Profit maximisation – Algebric Approach: Economic theorist states that in a perfectly competitive market, the monopolist maximises profit when: marginal revenue = marginal cost Marginal revenue: (MR) is the extra revenue that an additional unit of product will bring. It is the additional income from selling one more unit of a good. It can also be described as the change in total revenue divided by the change in the number of units sold. Note: The gradient of MR function is twice the gradient of the demand function MR = a – 2bq 118 Marginal cost is the change in total cost that arises when the quantity produced changes by one unit means it is the cost of producing one more unit of good produced. Example price Marginal revenue profit 35 35 35 5 25 65 32.5 30 10 25.7 22 93 31 28 16 97 24.2 20 116 29 23 19 5 116 23.2 19 138 27.6 22 22 6 134 22.3 18 156 26 18 22 7 151 21.6 17 170 24.3 14 19 unit Total cost Cost/ unit Marginal Total cost revenue 1 30 30.0 30 2 55 27.5 3 77 4 119 8 168 21 17 182 22.8 12 14 9 184 20.4 16 193 21.4 11 9 10 200 20 16 203 20.3 10 3 Profits are maximised when MC = MR this scenario when 6 units are produced mc = mr at $18 and total profit is $22 120 $ MC B P A Q Quantity At this point A, MC = MR i.e. profits are maximised at this point. At output less then Q, the extra cost of making a unit is less then the extra revenue from selling it. At output greater then Q, the extra cost of making a unit exceed the revenue from selling it. 121 Example: ABC company is considering the price of new product. It has determined the variable cost of making the item will be $24 per unit. Market research has indicated that if the selling price were to be $60 per unit then the demand would be 1000 units per week. For every $10 per unit increase in selling price, there would be reduction in demand by 50 units and for every $10 reduction in selling price, there would be increase in demand of 50 units. Calculate optimal selling price. P = a – bq B= P ---------Q = 10/50 = 0.2 60 = a – 0.2 (1000) A =260 P = 260 - 0.2Q 122 MR = 260 – 0.4Q If MC = MR 24 = 260 – 0.4Q 0.4Q = 236 Q = 590 P = 260 – 0.2(590) = $142 Pricing strategies: Cost Plus pricing: Cost plus pricing includes the unit cost and adding a mark up or sales margin Full cost plus pricing: Is method of determing the sales price by by calculating the full cost of the product and adding a percentage mark up for profit. 123 Advantages of Full cost plus pricing: 1. It is simple annd cheap method of pricing which can be delegated to junior methods. 2. Since the size of the profit margin can be varied a decision based on a price in excess of full cost should ensure that a company working at normal capacity will cover all of its fixed costs and make a profit. Disadvantages: 1. There is no attempt to establish optimum price. 2. There may be a need to adjust prices to market and demand conditions. 3. Budgeted output volume needs to be established. Out put volume is a key factor in the overhead absorption rate. 124 Marginal cost plus pricing/ mark up pricing: involves adding a profit margin to the marginal cost of production/sales. Advantages: 1. It is a simple and easy method to use. 2. It draw management attention to contribution, and the effects of higher or lower sales volume on profit. 3. In practice, mark up pricing is used in businesses where there is a readilyidentifiable basic variable cost. Disadvantages: 1. It ignores fixed overheads in the pricing decision, but the sales price must be sufficiently high to ensure that profit is made after covering fixed costs. 2. Size of the mark up conditions can be varried in accordance with demand conditions, competitors , prices and profit maximisation. 125 Price skimming: This technique use to achieve high profits in the early life cycle of the product. This is done by charging a high price on entry to the market and increase the demand throygh advertising and promotion. Customers are preapare to pay high prices in order to gain the perceived status of owning the product early. This would enable the company to take advantage of the unique nature of product. Thus maximizing the sales through those customers who like to have the latest technology as early as possible. The most suitable condition for this strategy are: The product is new and different The product has short life cycle and high development cost which need to recover quickly The strength and sensitivity of demand is unknown. At the later stage of the product life cycle the prices of the product reduce to get the maximum profit from it. The examples are mobile phone. 126 Price penetration: It is the term use to describe a policy in which the initial price is set at a lower level to build a strong market share, and is more likely to be successful when demand is elastic. The price will make the product accessiable to a large number of buyers and therefore the high volumes will compensate the lower prices being charged. Product line Pricing: Product line is a range of products that are intended to meet similar needs of different target audiences. The products within the product line are related but May vary in style, colour and quality. Product line pricing works by: 1. Making the price entry point for the basic product relatively cheap. 2. Pricing other items in the range more highly. 127 An example of this will be a dinner set where serving plates are priced relatively cheap but other, less essential matching items in the same range example fish bowls are priced higher. Customers will be prepared to pay a relatively high price for the less essential items in order to build up a matching set. Volume discounting: Customers are offered a lower price per unit if they purchase a particular quantity of products. There may be be two types of products: Quality discounts: For customers that order large quantities Cumulative quantity discounts: The discount increases as the cumulative total ordered increases. This may appeal to those who do not wish to place large individual orders but who purchase large quantities over time. 128 Volume Discounting: Volume discounting applied to products with limited life such as fashion products and also to clear unpopular products. Price discrimination: This is occurs when company sells same product at different prices at different locations. This is possible when: 1. When seller can determine the price 2. Customer can be segregated to different markets. 3. Customers can not buy at the lower price in one market and sell at higher price in other market Relevant costing: In short term decision making, the incremental cost of accepting an order should be presented. Bids should then be made at prices that exceed incremental cost In short term decision making many costs are fixed and irrelevant. 129 In short term decision making company should meet the following conditions: 1. Spare capacity should be available for all of the resources that are required to fulfill an order. 2. The bid price should represent a one off price that will not be repeatedfor future orders 3. The order will utilize unused capacity for only short period and capacity will be released for use on more profitable opportunities. 130 Risk and Uncertainty Risk: Risk refers to a situation where probabilities can be assigned to a range of expected outcomes arising from an investment project and the likelihood of each outcome occurring can therefore be quantified. For example based on past experience management estimate it has 70% chances to win contract Uncertainty: Uncertainty refers to a situation where probabilities can not assigned to expected outcomes. Investment project risk therefore increases with increasing project life for example it is difficult to assign probabilities to a new product entering into new market. Research techniques to reduce uncertainty: Market research: Market research assess and reduce uncertainty about the likely responses of customers about new product which includes advertising campaigns, pricing of product There are two types of research: - Desk based research - Field based research Desk based research: It is less costly but it can be lack of focus. It is obtained from secondary sources of information such as magzines, websites, other published sources and other available sources of information. Field based research: It is a approach by direct contact and with a targeted group of potential customers. It targets your potential customers and product area. However it is much expensive. But internet bringing down costs as companies use to gather information through emails by offering free gifts etc. Field based research can be either: - Motivational - Measurement Motivational research: The objective is to undo the factors why customers do or do not buy particular products. Depth and group interviewing techniques are involved in motivational research. Measurement research: The objective is to build on motivation research by trying to quantify the issues involved. Sample surveys are used to find out how may people buy the product, in what quantity and from where ? Focus groups: Focus group are form of market research. They are small groups( typically eight to ten personal) selected from a broader population who are interview through informal gathering (environment) they are questioned to gather opinion on particular subjects or marketing opinion which is also known as test concepts This focus group can provide researchers much more helpful information, however it is difficult to measure the results objectively and also its cost is to high for small companies Simulations: Simulations is a modeling technique use in capital inesment appraisal decisions. Computer models can be build to to simulate real life scenarios. This models will predict what range of returns an investor could expect from given decision. The models use random number tables to generate possible values for the uncertainty the business is subject to. Since the time and costs involved can be more then benefits gained, Computer technology helping to reduce the costs of such risk anaylsis, however models can become more complex and probability distributions may be difficult to formulate. Expected Values: The expected value rule calculates the average return that will be made if a decision is repeated again and again. It does this weighting each of these possible outcomes with their relative probability of outcomes The likelihood that an event will occur is known as its probability. This is normally expressed in decimal form with value between O and 1. A value of 0 denotes a nil likelihood of occurrence where as a value of 1 signifies absolute certainty. A probability of 0.5 means the event is expected to occur 5 times out of 10. The total of the probabilities for the events that can possibly occur must sum up to 1.0. An expected value is computed by multiplying the value of each possible outcome by the probability of that outcome and summing the results. EV = px P = probability of outcome X = the possible outcome Example: Economic state Good Average Poor Probability 0.35 0.50 0.40 Expected Value = Px Good Average Poor Project A $175000 $70000 $(15000) Project B $85000 $80000 $(5000) Project A Project B (175000 x .35) (85000 x .35) 61250 29750 (70000 x .50) ( 80000 x .50) 35000 40000 ( (15000) x .40) ( (5000) x .40) (6000) (2000) _____________ ______________ 90250 67750 ______________ _______________ Project C should be chosen as its maximize the EV returns Project C $75000 $90000 $60000 Project C (75000 x .35) 26250 ( 90000 x .50) 45000 60000 x .40 24000 __________ 95250 ___________ Advantages and Disadvantages of Expected Values Advantages: 1. Calculations are simple 2. Its take risk into account by considering the probability of each possible outcome and using this information to calculate an expected value Disadvantages: 1. The probabilities used are usually are very subjective 2. The expected value may not correspond to any of the actual outcome. 3. The expected value is weighted average therefore has little meaning for one off project. Limitations: 1. 2. 3. 4. The expected value is the weighted average of the probability distribution. Its never actually occur It ignores the risk and investors attitude towards the risk Forecasts may be inaccurate and probabilities used are also subjective Expected values are more valuable as guide to decision making where they refer to outcomes which will occur many times over. For example how many customers will buy particular product per day. Sensitivity Analysis: Sensitivity analysis can be used to assess the range of values that would still give the investor a positive return it is a technique like what if ? Scenario. The uncertainty may still be there but the effect it has on the investors return will be well understood. Sensitivity analysis calculates the % change required in individual values before a change of decision results. If only a say 2% change is required in selling price before losses result, an investor may think twice before proceedings. Sensitivity Analysis assess how the how the net present value of an project is affected by changes in project variables. Considering each project variable in turn, the change in the variable required to make the net present value determined is zero, or alternatively the change in present value arising from a fixed change in the given project variable in this way the key or critical project variables are determined. However sensitivity analysis does not assess the probability of changes in project variables and so is often dismissed as a way of incorporating risk into the investment appraisal process. Example: Following are the two possible outcomes for a process: Probability 0.3 0.7 Outcome Loss of $10000 Profit of $50000 Answer: EV = Px Outcome (10000) 50000 Probability 0.3 0.7 Should the process be undertaken? Yes it has positive expected value Px (3000) 35000 _______ 33000 ________ Risk attitude by Individuals: Different Individuals have different attitudes towards risk. And they respond to Risky situations according to their attitudes. There are three types of risk attitudes which individuals have. Which are as follows: 1. Risk seeker 2. Risk neutral 3. Risk averse Risk Seeker: A risk seeker is one who will choose more risky option between riskier option and less riskier option. Risk Averse: Risk averse is one who will choose less risky option between Riskier option and less risky option. Risk Neutral: Risk neutral is indifferent to risk seeker and risk averse, as he will be settle for average that is not too much risky option or not too less risky option. Maximax: The maximax rules applies to risk seeker who seeks to maximize the maximum possible gain of possible outcomes. Maximin: The maximin looks at the worst possible outcome at each activity level and then select the highest one of those. The decision maker therefore chooses the outcome which is guaranteed to minimize his her losses. Minimax regret rule: The minimax regret strategy minimizes the maximum regret. Therefore regret means the opportunity loss from having made a wrong decision. Value of perfect and Imperfect Competition: When a decision maker is faced with series of uncertain events that might occur, he or she should consider possibility of getting additional information about which event is likely to occur. Perfect information: Perfect information is available when 100% accurate prediction can be made about the future. Imperfect Information: The concept of perfect competition is near to un achievable in real world. For example future is almost 80 to 90% is achievable, therefore the value of imperfect competition is less then perfect competition is less then perfect competition unless both are zero. The approach to calculate the perfect and imperfect information is to compute expected values for the both and then compare the information. The difference represents the extra amount which is worth paying for the extra information. Decision tree: It is a useful analytical tool for clarifying the range of alternative course of action and there possible outcome is decision tree. A decision tree is a diagram showing several possible courses of action and possible events and the potential outcomes for each course of action. For example whether to expand business or not. There are two stages to make decisions using decision tree: 1. The decision tree is drawn and all probabilities also outcome values are included. 2. All expected values are calculated at all outcome points and these are used to make decisions. A course of action is then recommended. Constructing a decision tree: Draw the tree from left to right, showing appropriate decisions and events or outcomes. A square is used to represent a decision point that is where a choice between different courses of action must be taken. A circle is used to represent chance/ outcome point. Outcomes are not within your control. They depend on external environment for examples economy, suppliers and customers. Each alternative course of action is represent by branch. The branches have probabilities attached to them All decision tress must start with a square representing a decision. There are two branches of decision point. The outcome for one of these choices is known as top branch is certain. However the lower branch shows that there are two possible outcomes. There are two more sets of outcomes for these essential outcomes. Once the tree has been drawn label the tree and relevant cash inflows and outflows and probabilities associated with outcomes. Probabilities will add up to 1% to 100 %. Evaluation of decision: Evaluate the decision from right to left. It means the opposite direction when the tree was made. - Calculate an EV at each outcome point by applying probabilities to the cashflows - Choose the best point at each point Finally a recommendation should be made to management based on the option that gives the highest expected value. Remember that expected values give us a long run average of the outcome which is expected only if a decision is to be repeated many times. Since this is one of decision this technique is not very accurate. Also expected values assume that the investor is risk neural, there this may not be accurate if the attitude to risk is unknown. Budgeting and Standard costing Standard cost: A standard cost is predetermined estimated unit cost of product or service. The standard cost has number of uses which are as follows 1. It is used to value inventories and production cost for cost accounting 2. It is useful for planning, control and motivation 3. It acts as control activity by establishing standards management can highlight those activities which are not working to the plan and then can take corrective action to improve those activities. Types and methods of standard costs: A standard cost is based on technical specifications for material, labour and other resources required and the rates for material and labour A standard cost shows the full details of each product Standard cost card $ Direct material X kgs/ltrs Direct labour x hrs x $ xx Direct expenses Standard direct cost ( prime cost) Variable production overhead Standard variable cost of production Fixed production overhead Standard full production cost Administration & marketing overhead Standard cost of sale Standard profit Standard sale price $ X X X _____ XX xx ______ X X ________ X X _________ X x _________ X __________ There are four types of cost standards: Basic Standards: These are long term standards which remain unchanged for number of years. They are used to show trends over time. With the passage of time basic standards increasingly becomes easy to achieve and these standards may have negative impact on employees motivation. Ideal standards: These standards are based on perfect operating conditions, therefore these standards does not include any wastage , scrap , machine breakdowns etc. they are based on perfect conditions. Such standards are not achievable in any situation therefore they are not acceptable by the employees as these standards are unlikely to achievable Attainable standards: These standards are not based on perfect conditions but they are efficient. These standards includes allownces for wastage, scrape, machine breakdown etc. As these standards are achievable though these are acceptable for employees Current standards: These standards are based on current level of efficiency and incorporate current levels of wastageinefficiency, machine breakdown etc. here they will not get any incentive to current level of performance. Current standards are usefull during period of high inflation. Flexible budget: Flexible budget is a budget which by recognising different cost behaviour patterns is designed to change as volume of activity changes. Flexed budget: A flexed budget is a budget prepared to show the revenues, costs and profits that should have been expected from the actual level of production and sales Budgetary control: Budgetary control involves drawing up budgets for the areas of responsibility for individual managers and of regularly comparing actual results against expected results. The difference between actual results and expected results are called variances and these are used to provide a guideline for control action by individual managers. Principle of controllability: A principle of controllability is that managers are held responsible for costs over which they have some influence. Where budgetary control is based around a system of budget centres. Each budget centre will have its own budget and manager will be responsible for managing the budget centre and ensuring that the budget is met. Responsibility accounting: It is a system of accounting that segregates revenue and income of into areas of personal responsibility in order to monitor and assess the performance of each part of an organisation. Responsibility accounting attempts to associate revenue, costs, assets and liabilities with tha managers most capable of them as a system of accounting it differentiate between controlling and non controllable cost Some costs are uncontrollable for example expenditures due to inflation while other costs are controllable one but in long term and not in short term for example production cost might be reduce by bringing new machinery or IT system into the system. Managers are responsible for those cost on which they have some influence they cant be held responsible for those costs which are uncontrollable Example: Prepare a budget for 2010 for the direct labour cost and overhead expenses of a production department flexed at the activity levels of 80% 90% and 100% using the information listed below 1. 100% activity represents 60000 direct labour hours. 2. The direct labour hourly rate is expected to be $3.75 3. Variable costs indirect labour $0.75 per indirect labour hour consumable supplies $0.375 per direct labour hour canteen and other welfare services 6% of direct and indirect labour cost 4. Semi variable cost are expected to relate to direct labour hours in the same way as for the last five years year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 5. Fixed costs Depreciation Maintenance Insurance Rates Management salaries direct labour hour semi variable cost 64000 59000 53000 49000 40000 (estimate) 20800 19800 18600 17800 16000 (estimate) $ 18000 10000 4000 15000 25000 6. Inflation to be ignored. Calculate the budgeted allowance (expected expenditure) for 2010 assuming 57000 labour hours are worked. Answer a. Direct labour Other variable cost Indirect labour consumable supplies Canteen etc Total variable cost Semi variable costs (w) Fixed costs Depreciation Maintenance Insurance Rates Management salaries Budgeted costs 80% level 48000 hrs ‘000 180 36 18 12.96 ________ 246.96 17.60 90% level 54000 hrs ‘000 202.5 100%level 60000 hrs ‘000 225 40.5 20.25 14.58 ________ 277.83 18.80 18 10 4 15 25 _______ 18 10 4 15 25 ________ 336.56 _________ 368.63 ____________ 45 22.5 16.2 _______ 308.7 20.0 18 10 4 15 25 _____ 400.7 ________ Sing the high low method Total cost of 64000 hours Total cost of 40000 hours 20800$ 16000 _______ 4800 ________ Variable cost per hour $4800/24000 = $0.20 Total cost of 64000 hours Variable cost of 64000 hours Fixed cost $ 20800 12800 _______ 8000 _______ Semi variable cost calculated as follows: 60000 hrs 54000 hrs 48000 hrs (60000 x $0.20) + 8000 = $20000 (54000 x $0.20) + 8000 = $18800 (48000 x $0.20) + 8000 = $17600 b. The budgeted allowance for 57000 hours would be as follows: variable cost (57000 x $5.145) Semi variable cost (8000 + (57000 x $0.20) Fixed cost 293265 19400 72000 ________ 384665 __________ Budgeting Budget is a quantitate detailed plan prepared for a specific time period it is normally prepared in financial terms and prepare for one year. Forecast: Forecasting is the technique to used to arrive at estimate based on judgment and experience Objectives of budgeting: Following are the objectives of the budgeting: Planning: One of the key purpose of the budgeting is to require planning to occur so that organization achieve its objective Communication: The budgeting system help to communicate between the organization both vertically for example between senior and junior managers and horizontally for example different organization functions Co ordination: Budgeting is the method of bringing together the method of activities of all the different departments into one plan. If an Advertisement is due to take place in a company in few months time, here it is important that production department knows about the expected increase in sales so that they can increase the production accordingly. Control: One of the most important purpose of budgeting system is to control the performance through the budgeted cost and actual cost. Variances between budgeted and actual cost can be investigated in order to determine the reason why actual performance has differed from the plan Motivation: The budgeting system can influence the behavior of managers and employees, and may motivate them to improve the performance if the target represented by the budget is reality based. Appraisal: Managerial performance is evaluated by the budgetary targets for which individual managers are responsible have been achieved. Managerial rewards such as bonuses or performance related pay can also be linked to achievement of budgetary targets. Below you can see the planning and control cycle diagram: Set mission Identify objectives Identify alternative course of action Long term planning process Gather data about alternative Select course of action Budget process Implement long term plan in form of budget Monitor actual results Respond to divergence from plan Stage 1 Set Mission: it includes the overall objectives and goals of the organization. The mission of the organization can be both economic and social. Mostly organization prepares and publish mission in mission statement. Mission statement include the following information: Purpose and aims of the organization The information about organisation’s primary stakeholders, clients, customers, shareholders etc How organisation provide value to their stakeholders for example by providing various types of products and services Stage 2 Identify objectives: It requires company to specify objectives towards which it is working. The objectives chosen must be quantified and have a time scale attached to them. Objectives should be smart: o o o o o Specific Measureable Achievable Relevant Timely Stage 3 Possible courses of action: A series of specific strategies should be developed. Strategy is the course of the action, including the specification of resources required, that the company will adopt to achieve its specific objective. To formulate its strategies, the firm will consider the products it makes and the market it serves. Following are the example of strategies: o Developimh new markets for existing products o Developing new products for existing markets o Developing new products for new markets. Stage 4 is gathering data about alternatives and measuring pay offs Stage 5: Select course of action Having made decisions, long term plans based on those decisions are created. Stage 6 implementation of short term plans: It shows the move from long term plan to short term plan that is annual budget. The budget provides the link between the strategic plans and their implementation in management decisions. Stage 7 monitor actual outcome: Budgets are compared with actual performance which is also known as variance analysis. Stage 8: Divergences from Plan: It is control process in the budgeting, responding to divergence from plan either through budget modifications or through identifying new courses of action. Budgetary systems within the performance hierarchy: Budgets provide benchmarks against which to compare actual results. Therefore company needs the variance analysis to develop correct measures. However budgets need to be flexible to meet the changing needs of the organisation. The performance hierarchy: Strategic planning Tactical planning Operational planning Strategic planning: Senior management formulate the plan for long term for example 5 to 10 years plans, what products to introduce in the long term, which markets to target, business capitals etc. Tactical planning: Senior management make mid level more detail plans for the upcoming year for example they has to decide how they has to utilize the resources and to monitor how those resources will be utilized. For example how much units to produce and how much raw material will be required. How much men source will be required and what skills set will be required etc. Operational Planning: All managers are involved in making day to day decisions front line managers such as clerks has to make sure that certain tasks has been carried out properly within a factory or office. Operational information mostly gathered from internal sources. It is prepare frequently and it is highly detailed. If managers meets operational plans it is likely that they will meet tactical plan and strategic plans as well. How are planning and control inter related? Control involves measuring actual results and comparing them with the original plan any deviation from the plan require control action to make the results conform with the plan. Behavioral aspects in budgeting: The purpose of the budgetary control system is to assist the management in planning and controlling the resources of their organization by providing appropriate control information. The information will be valuable if the information is correct and it is used by the user purposefully. That means the usage of information is equally important as correct information. Goal congruence: It means managers are working in their best interest as well as in the best interest of the organization. Following are the behavioral problems which can arise: 1. The personal who set the budgets are often different then those who are responsible to achieve those budgets 2. The goals of the organization as a whole as expressed in a budget may not concede with the personal aspirations of the managers. This is known as dysfunctional behavior. 3. At the time of setting the budget there may be budgetary slack or bias. Budget slack is a deliberate over estimation of expenditure and or under estimation of revenues in the budgeting process. This results in meaning less variances and a budget which has no use for control purposes. It may also lead to the misallocation of resources. Participation in settings of budget: Participation in the process of budget setting will motivate the personal of the organisation and therefore will improve the quality of the budget as well. However this may be time consuming and may result in a wide range of targets which may seen as unfair. There are two ways in which budget can be set: - top down budget (imposed budget) - Bottom up budget ( participatory budget) Top down budget: This budget is also known as authoritive budget as top management imposed the budget on the management without allowing them to participate in the process of budget setting. Advantages: 1.Budgets will be in line with corporate objectives 2. Budgetary slack reduced 3. Decisions taken by experiences managers 4. Top down budgets can set a tone for the organization. They signal expected sale and production activity that the organisation supposed to reach. Disadvantages: 1. Such budgets are sometimes ethical challenges, as lower level may find themselves in a position where it seems to achieve those targets unrealistic. 2. Lower level may find the budgets dictatorial. Bottom up budget: This budgets are also known as participative budget as here budget holders have the opportunity to participate in the setting of their own budgets. All levels of organisations asked to submit their level of expenditure for the upcoming year. Where as senior level makes the forecast for the income of upcoming year. There may be a negative variance between the forecast of income and departments budget which will be resolve by them through discussions. Advantages: 1. 2. 3. 4. It will increase the employees motivation. Budgets prepared by those who has better knowledge of their areas There will be better communication and co ordination between the departments It increases manager commitment and understanding Disadvantages: 1. It is more time consuming and expensive to develop and administrate. 2. Budgets may not be in line with corporate objectives 3. Disagreement may occur between the staff involved which may cause dissatisfaction and delays 4. Some managers may try to manipulate their budgets to giving them more roam to for mistakes and inefficiency 5. Decisions made by inexperienced managers. Budgeting in Public sector vs private organisation: In public sector organizations the objectives are difficult to define in quantifiable way then the objectives of private sector organisation for example in private sector the objectives are to maximize profit which can be set out in budgets by increase in the % of sales and cutting various types of costs. On the other hand if the public sector organization is school then the objectives may be largely qualitative for example ensuring mostly students perform well in their academics and other activities or in hospitals patients get appointments with in few weeks and get cure from deceases. This is difficult to define in quantifiable way. Just as objectives are define in quantifiable way in same way organizations output. In private sector the out put can be measured in terms of increase or decrease in sales revenue but in school or difficult it is difficult to define output in a quantifiable way. What is easier to compare is how much cash is available and how much more cash is needed therefore budgeting focuses on inputs alone rather then the relationship between input and output. Also public sector organizations are always under pressure to show that they are offering goods value for money that is economical, efficient and effective. Therefore, they need to achieve output with the minimum use of resources which makes budgeting process more difficult. Types of budgets: There are various types of budgets which are as follows: Rolling Budget: A rolling budget also known as continuous budget, Here portion of budget is replaced on regular basis so that the overall budget period remains unchanged for example with a budget period of one year at the end of each quarter a new quarter could be added to the end of the budget period and the elapsed quarter could be deleted, so that the budget will always be looking at one year ahead. A cash budget is often a rolling budget because of the need to keep tight control of this area of financial management. A rolling budget is often supported by affordable and and powerful processing via personal computers and computer networks. Advantages: 1. Realistic budgets are likely to have better motivational influence on managers 2. Planning and control are based on recent plans which is likely to be far more realistic than a fixed annual budget made many months ago. 3. There is always a budget which extends for several months ahead. For example if rolling budgets are prepared quarterly there will budget extending for next 9 to 12 months. This is not the case when fixed annual budgets are used. 4. They force managers to assess budgets regularly and to produce budgets which are upto date in the light of current events and expectations. 5. It reduce the element of uncertainty in budgeting because they concentrate detailed planning and control on short term prospects where the degree of uncertainty is much smaller. Disadvantages: 1. They involve more time, effort and money in budget preparation 2. Revisions in budgets might include revision in standard cost too which in turn would involve revisions to stock valuations. This could replace a large administrative effort from the accounts department every time a rolling budget is prepared. 3. Frequent budget preparation might have an off putting effect on managers who doubt the value of preparing one budget after another at regular intervals. Incremental Budgeting: Incremental budgeting is a process where current year budget is set by the reference of last year’s actual results after an adjustment for inflation and other incremental factors. Advantages: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The impact of change can be seen quickly Prevents conflict between departmental managers since a consistent approach is adapted throughout the operation It is easy and quicker to make. Since it is easy to make it can be allocated to junior staff Less preparation leads to lower preparation cost It is easy to understand. Disadvantages: 1. It is not appropriate in rapidly changing environment 2. Assessing the amount of increment can be difficult to assess 3. It builds on wasteful spending. If the actual figures for this year include overspends caused by some form of error then the budget for next year would potentially include this overspend again. 4. It encourages organizations to spend up to the maximum allowed/encourage slack in the knowledge if they don’t do this then they will not have as much to spend in the following year’s budget. 5. It can ignore the true activity based drivers of a cost leading to poor budgeting. Activity based Budget: Activity based budgeting would need a detailed analysis of costs and cost drivers so as to determine which cost driver and cost pools were to be used in the activity based costing system. However, where as activity based costing uses activity based recovery rates to assign costs to cost objects, ABB begins with budgeted cost objects, ABB begins with budgeted cost objects and works back to the resources needed to achieve the budget. The budgeted activity levels are determined in the same way as for conventional budgeting that a sales budget and a production budget are drawn up. ABB then determines the quantity of activity based drivers for example number of purchase orders , number of set ups, needed to support the planned sales and production. Standard cost data would be compiled that include the details of activity cost drivers required to produce a product or number of products. The resources needed to support the budgeted quantity of cost drivers would then be determined for example number of labor hours to process purchase orders, number of maintenance hours need to complete the set ups. This resource would then be matched with the available capacity. That is number of purchase clerks to see whether any adjustment were needed Advantages: 1. It provides useful basis for monitoring and controlling overhead costs by drawing management attention to actual cost of the activities and comparing actual costs with what the activities were expected to cost 2. It avoid slack that is often linked to incremental budgeting due to its details assessment of the activities and resources needed to support planed sales and production. 3. In ABB cost of support activities are not seen as fixed to be increased by annual increments but as depending to a large extent on the planned level of activity. 4. Organizational resources are allocated more efficiently due to the detailed cost and the activity information obtained by implementing an ABB system. Disadvantages: 1. ABB might not be appropriate for the organization and its activities and cost structures 2. A budget should be prepared on the basis of responsibility centers, with identifiable budget holders made responsible for the performance of their budget center. A problem with ABB could be to identify clear individual responsibilities for activities. 3. A considerable amount of time and effort might be needed to establish an ABB system, for example to identify the key activities and their cost drivers. 4. It could be argued that in the short term many overhead costs are not controllable and do not vary directly with changes in the volume of activity for the cost driver. The only cost variance to report would be fixed overhead expenditure Zero based budgeting: Zero budgeting requires to make budget for every activity from the scratch as part of budget process so that each activity and each level of activity can justify its consumption of the economic resource available. Zero based budgeting prevents the carrying forward of past efficiencies that can be a feature of incremental budgeting and focus on activities rather than departments or programs. Each activity is though treated as though it was being undertaken for the first time and is required to justify its inclusion in the budget in terms of the benefit expected to be derived from its adoption. Zero based budgeting steps: Zero based budgeting includes three steps which are as follows: 1. o o o Activities are identified by managers. These activities are then described in decision package. Decision package includes: analyses the cost of activity States its purpose Identifies the alternative method of achieving the same purpose o Establishes performance measure for the activity o Assesses the consequences of not performing the activity at all or of performing it at all or of performing it at different activity level This decision package is prepared at the base level, representing the minimum level of service or support needed to achieve the organization objectives. Further incremental packages may then be prepared to reflect a higher level of service or support 2. Management will then rank all the packages in the order of decreasing benefits to the organization. This will help management decide what to spend and where to spend it. 3. The resources are then allocated based on priority up to the spending level. Advantages: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. It eliminates the inefficiencies that can arise with incremental budgeting It raise a questioning attitude towards current activities rather then just accepting the status quo It leads to more efficient allocation of resources It focusses attention on the need to obtain value for money from the consumption of organizational resources All of the organization activities and operations are reviewed in depth. Disadvantages: 1. In large organizations there are large number of activities, in these circumstances lot of paper work could be um manageable 2. Since decisions are made at the budget time, managers may feel unable to react to changes that occur during the year. This could have a detrimental effect on the business if it fails to react to emerging opportunities and threats. 3.The process of identifying decision packages determine their purpose costs and benefits is time consuming and costly Beyond Budgeting- principles for adaptive management: Process principles: Goals: Set aspirational goals aimed at continuous improvement not fixed annual targets Rewards: Reward share success based on relative performance, not on meeting fixed annual targets. Planning: Make planning a continuous and inclusive process. It should not be annual event Controls: Base controls on relative key performance indicators and performance trends not variance against a plan Resources: Make resources available as needed not as per annual budget allocation. Co ordination: Co ordinate cross company interactions dynamically not through annual planning cycles Leadership: Customer: Focus everyone on customer outcome not on meeting internal targets Accountability: Create a network of team accountable for results not centralized hierarchies Performance: Champion success as winning in the market place not on meeting annual targets Freedom to act: Give teams freedom and capability to act. Governance: Base governance on clear values and boundaries not detailed rules and budgets Information: Promote open and shared information don’t restrict it those who need to know. Advantages: 1. It empowers manager to act by removing resource constraints, key ratios are set, rather than detailed line by line budgets. 2. It motivates people by giving them challenges. Responsibilities and clear value as guidelines. Rewards are team based this uses the know-how of individual and teams interfering the customer, which in turn enables a far more adaption to changing market needs 3. It establishes customer oriented teams that are accountable for profitable customer outcomes. 4. Goals are agreed via reference to external benchmarks as opposed to internally negotiated fixed targets. Managerial focus shift from beating managers for a slice of resources beating the competition. Problems of adapting beyond budgeting: 1. Managers should be clear what the expectations are and what they have to do they will need to be challenged and motivated 2. There is no simple method of beyond budgeting it will depend on each company’s culture , structure, IT Infrastructure etc Master Budget: The master budget is the summary of all budgets which comprises of budgeted income statement , budgeted statement of financial position and budgeted cash flow statement In master budget it is assumed that the level of demand is principal budget factor. The various functional department and master budgets will be drawn up in following order. Functional budget: Functional budget are prepare and consolidate to produce the master budget. This would include raw materials budget, raw material usage, sales budget, production budget purchase budget. Fixed budget: A fixed budget is suitable for those organisations who operates in a stable environment. It is relatively stable and can be predicted with a reasonable degree of certainity. It is a budget which prepared in advance not changed or amended as the budget period processes. This budget represents a periodic approach to budgeting, since a new budget is prepared toward the end of the budget period for the subsequent budget period. In this way organisation can set a new budget on annual basis. Flexible Budget: A flexible budget is a budget which by recognizing different cost behavior patterns, is designed to change as volume of output change. Budget systems and sources of information needed: Past data can be used as a starting point to produce a budget. However, variety of other sources can be used to produce a budget. Each department of the organisation required to produce the budget Following are the sources for the information of budgeting are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Last year actual results Other internal sources Long term requirements of customers External information such as estimate in increase in inflation, changes in exchange rates, suppliers price list etc Estimate of cost of new product and services. Difficulties of changing budgetary system: Management accounting experts argued that traditional accounting budgets are to rigid and prevent fast changes However organisations intent to change their budgetary systems can face various difficulties while changing the budgetary system, therefore need to implement changes carefully. Training: In order to implement new systems. Training needed to provided to employees which can be time consuming and expensive Lack of accounting system: The organization may not have the system in place to obtain and analyze the system in place. Resistance by employees: Employees are familiar with old system and also may have built In slack in it therefore they may not accept new system easily. Cost of implantation: Any new system or process require careful implementation which will have cost implication Loss of control: Senior management may take take time to adapt new system and to understand implication of results. How budgets can deal with the uncertainty in environment? Uncertainty arises because of changes in external environment over which a company will will sometimes have little control. Following are the causes of uncertainty in budgeting process: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Customers may decides less or more than the forecast There can be natural disasters, transport strikes or terrorism activity which can disturb the productivity. Employees may not work then expected or they may work more harder then expected Machines break down un expectedly. Inflation and movement in interest and exchange rates in inflation Volatility in cost of materials. Feedback: It occurs when output of the a system are used to control it. By adjusting the input or behavior of the system. It is a information produced from the output from operations which is use to compare actual results with planned results for control purposes.. Negative feedback: It indicates that results or activities must be brought back on course as they are deviating from the plan. Positive feedback: Results in control action continuing the current course Feed forward control: It is control based on forecast results in other words , here if forecast is bad , actions will be taken in advance to control the results. There are two types of feedback which are as follows: Single loop feedback: It is a control which regulates the control of a system for example if sales budget is not reached control action will be taken to ensure target will be reached soon. Double Loop Feedback: It is a information to change for example if target not reach the company would change the plan it self. Quantitative Analysis in budgeting This chapter will look at the various quantitative techniques: - The high low method - The least square regression - Learning curves There are two methods which analyse semi variable cost in fixed and variable element High low method Least square regression ( Good news it is not examine directly in f5 from 2013 onwards) High low method: 1. Review records of costs in previous period - Select the period with highest activity level - Select the period with lowest activity level 2. Find the variable cost per unit Total cost at high activity level – total cost at low activity level __________________________________________________ Total unit at high activity level – total unit at low activity level 3. Find the fix cost Total cost at high activity level –( total units at high activity level x variable cost per unit) Advantages: 1. It is easy to understand 2. It is easy to use 3. It is a quick method Limitations 1. Bulk discounts may be available at large quantities 2. It assumes activity level is the only factor which influence the costs 3. It uses two values to predict costs. Values between highest and lowest are ignored 4.It relay on historical data. Predictions of future cost may not be reliable. Example: Qalandar company is a large organization wishes to develop a method of predicting its total cost in a period and following costs have been recorded: Month January February March April May June activity level 1600 2300 1900 1800 1500 1700 cost $ 28200 29600 28800 28600 28000 28400 Answer: Highest activity level in February and lowest activity level in may total cost at highest activity level Total cost at lowest activity level Total units at highest activity level Total units at lowest activity level 29600 28000 2300 1500 Variable cost per unit 29600 – 28000 _____________ 2300 – 1500 Fix cost = 29600 – (2300 x 2)= 25000 Total cost = 25000 +2x Where x is the volume of activity in units. = 1600 _____ 800 = $2 Learning Curve theory: Learning curved theory is concerned with the idea when new job process or activity processes for the first time the workforce involved will not do the work effectively and efficiently. However repetition of the task will boost the confident and knowledge of the people involve in the work and these will help them boost their confidence and knowledge and eventually it will bring effectiness and efficiency in the work. Though at one stage learning curve will stop at one stage and after that it will be at one pace known as stady pace. In a result the time to complete the task will decline first and then stablise one once efficient working is achieved. The cumulative average time per unit is assumed to decrease by a constant every time that output doubles. Cumlative average time refers to the average time per unit for all units produced so far and including the first one made, The following is an example of 80% learning curve the cumulative average time of per unit of output is decrease to 80% of the previous cumulative average time when output is doubled When output is low learning curve is really steep but the curve becomes flatter as cumulative output increases with the curve eventually becoming a straight line when the learning effects end. 40 Average time (hours) 30 20 80% learning curve 10 60 120 Cumulative quantity 180 240 The learning curve can be calculated by: 1. Reducing cumulative average time or average cost per unit or per batch to pproduce c units 2. Use the formula Y = axb Where: Y = cumulative average time or average cost per unit or per batch to produce x units A = time taken for first unit or first batch B = log r/ log 2 ( r = index of learning, expressed as decimal) X = cumulative output in units or in batches Application of learning curve theory: 1. 2. 3. 4. The activity is labour intensive There should be repetitive process of each unit There should be low turnover rate There should no long breaks in production The cessation of learning curve: The learning curve will apply to certain range and after that there will be no reduction in time of production. This is when production will reach to steady phase of production and this will become the basis on which budget is produced. The steady phase will reach when: 1. When labour has reached to their maximum efficiency 2. Some processes can not be speed up any more 3. Machines have reached to the limit of their maximum speed The importance of learning curve effect: Learning curve models enables users to predict how long it will take to complete future task. Therefore management accountant should take into account the learning rate when they are carrying out planning, control or decision making. If they fail to do so they may has to face serious consequences. For example company is making new product and they wants to make its price as attractive to customers as much possible and the same time they want to make profits from it. The first unit of that product will take one hour to complete and labour cost is $15 per hour and other costs total is $45 and product is introduce into the market for the price of $65. so here we can see that learning effect of the labour has been ignored and the correct labour time per unit for each product is 0.5 hours and obviously here the price is too high and it may be possible that product may failed at its launch. Now the question is why learning curve is important in planning and control? If we have to use standard costing then it is important that standard cost provide accurate basis for the computation of variances. If standard costs have been calculated without taking account of learning curve then all the labour usage variance will be favourable because the standard labour hours on which they are based will be too high. This will make their use for control purpses is pointless. Example: Where an 80% learning effect, the cumulative average time required per unit of output is reduced to 80% of the previous cumulative average time when output is doubled. The first unit of output of new product requires 100 hours. An 80% learning curve applies. The production time would be as follows: Cumulative number of units 1 2 4 8 cumulative avg time per unit 100 80 64 51.2 incremental number of units 1 2 4 incremental total time (hrs) 60 96 153.6 Out is double each time Note: The cost of the additional time can be calculated by applying the labout hour rate to the number of labour hours and variable overhead rate, where variable overhead vary with the number of labour hours The learning effect can not effect the material cost Zalmi sports has designed a new type of cricket bats., for which cost of the new bat to be produced has been calculated as follows: Material Labour( 800 hrs x 5 per hour) Overhead (150% of labour cost) Profit markup 20% Selling price $ 5000 4000 6000 _________ 15000 3000 _________ 18000 __________ It is plan to sell all the bats at full cost plus 20%. An 80% learning curve is expected to aply to the production work. The management accountant has been asked to provide cost information so that decision can be made so that decisions can be made what price to charge. A. What is the separate cost of second bat B. What would be the cost per unit of third and fourth bat. If they are ordered separately later on? C. If they were all order now , could Zalmi sports quote a single unit price for four bats and eight bats? Answer: Cumulative number of units cumulative avg time per unit 1 2 4 8 800 640 512 409.6 Output is being doubled each time 640 x 2 = 1280 512 x 4 = 2048 1. Separate cost of second bat: Material Labour (480 hrs X $5) Overhead (150% of labour cost) Total cost $ 5000 2400 $3600 _______ 11000 ________ cumulative total time 800 1280 2048 3276.8 incremental total incremental time avg time 480 768 1228.8 480 384 307.2 2. Cost of Third and fourth Bat Material cost for two bats Labour(768hrs x $5) Overhead( 150% of labour cost) total cost $ 10000 2400 3600 _______ 11000 _________ 3. A price for the first four bats and first eight bats together Material Labour (2048hrs) Overhead (150% of labour cost) Total cost Profit (20%) Total sale price Price per boat /4 first four bats $ 20000 10240 (3276.8hrs) 15360 _______ 45600 9120 ________ 54720 _________ 13680 /8 first eight bats $ 40000 16384 24576 ________ 80960 16192 _________ 16192 _________ 12144 Example using the formula: Suppose that an 8-% learning curve apply to the production of new product Meow. To date till the end of june 30 units of meow have been produced. Budgeted production in july is 5 units, the time to make first unit of meow is 120 hours. The labour cost is $120 per hour Required: a. Calculate the time required to make the 331st unit b. Calculate the budgeted total labour cost for july Answer: Time to produce first 30 units: Y = a + a xb B = log 0.8/log2 = - 0.09691/0.30103 = -0.32192181 Y = 120 x (1/31^0.32192181) = 120 x 0.3345594 = 40.147 Total time for 30 units = 30 x 40.147 = 1204.41 hours Time to produce 31st unit = (1231.51 – 1204.41) = 27.1 hours Time to produce the first 35 units Y = 120 x ( 1/35^0.32192181) = 38.203 hours Total time fot first 35 units = 35 x 38.203 hours = 1337.11 hours Budgeted labour cost in July = (1337.11 – 1204.41) hours x 10 per hour = 1327 Variance Analysis Sales variance Sale price variance Sales volume variance The sale price variance show the effect on profit of selling at different price from that expected one Sale price variance: Actual units should have sold for Actual units did sell Sale price variance $X $X ______ $X (F)/A Sales volume variance: Budgeted sales volume Actual sales volume Sales volume variance in units x standard profit per unit Sale volume variance in $ x units x units _________ x units (f)/A $X ____________ $x (F)/A _____________ Sales volume variance (marginal costing) budgeted sales volume Actual sales volume Sales volume variance in units X standard costing per unit Sales volume variance in $ x units x units __________ x units (f)/A $x _____________ $x (F)/A The sale price variance is the measure of the effect on expected profit of a different selling price to standard selling price. It is calculated as the difference between what the sales revenue should have been for the actual quantity sold and what it was The sales volume profit variance is the difference between the actual units sold and the budgeted planned quantity valued at the standard profit under absorption costing or at standard contribution under marginal costing per unit. It measures the increase or decrease in standard profit as a result of the sales volume being higher or lower than the budgeted. Possible reasons of sales variances 1. 2. 3. 4. Uneffected fall in demand due to recession Failure to satisfy demand due to production difficulties Increase demand due to reduced price Unplanned price reduction to attract additional business Material variance: Material variance can be divided into two sub categories material price variance and material usage variance Material variance Material usage variance Material price variance Direct material total variance Actual units should have cost Actual units did cost xxx (xxx) _______ Direct material total variance xx (f)/A Direct material price variance: Actual kgs should have cost Actual kgs did cost Direct material price variance $ xxx $ xxx __________ xxx (F)/A Direct material usage variance: Actual units should have used Actual units did used kgs xxx kgs xxkgs __________ Usage variance in kgs X standard cost per kg xx kgs(f)/A $x ____________ $x (f)/A Usage variance in $ The direct material total variance is the difference between what the output actually cost and what it should have cost in terms of material. The direct material price variance calculates the difference beteen the standard cost and the actual cost for the actual quantity of material used or purchased, it is difference between what material cost and what it should have cost The direct material usage variance is the difference between the standard quantity of materials that should have been used for the number of units actually produced and actual quantity of material used, valued at the standard cost per unit of material. It is the difference between how much material should have been used and how much material was used valued at standard cost. Variance Favourable Adverse Material price More care taken in purchasing Change in material standard Unforeseen discount received Material usage Errors in allocating material to jobs More effective use made of material Material used of higher quality then standard Change in material standard Price increases Careless purchasing Labour variances: The total labour variances can be sub divided into labour rate variance and labour efficiency variance Labour variance Labour efficiency variance Labour rate variance The direct labour total variance Actual units should have cost Actual units did cost Direct labour total variance $ xxx $ xxx __________ $xx(f)/A Direct labour rate variance: Actual hrs should have cost Actual hrs did cost Direct labour rate variance $xxx $ xxx ___________ xxx(f)/A ____________ Direct labour efficiency variance: Actual units should have taken Actual units did take Efficiency variance in hrs X standard rate per hr Efficiency variance in S$ XXX xxx ______ xxhrs (f)/A $x __________ xxxx(f)/A _____________ The direct labour total variance is what output should have cost and what it actually costs in terms of labour The direct labour rate variance is the difference between the standard cost and the actual number of hours paid for The direct labour efficiency variance is the difference between the hours that should have been worked for the number of units actually produced and the actual number of hours worked , valued at standard rate per hour. It is the difference between how many hours should have been worked and how many hours were worked, valued at the standard rate per hour. Variance Favourable Adverse Labour rate variance Paid lower than standard rate Use of less skilled labour Wage rate increase Use of more skilled labour Idle time It will never be favourable Stock out Machine breakdown Illness or injury to worker Labour efficiency Better quality of material Errors in allocating time to jobs Output produced more quicker then expected Lower quality material used Less skilled labour has been used Error in allocating time to Jobs Variable overhead variance: Variable production overhead total variance can be sub divided into the variable overhead expenditure variance and the variable overhead efficiency variance based on actual hours Total variable overhead variance Variable overhead expenditure variance Variable overhead efficiency variance Varaible overhead total variance: Actual unit should have cost Actual units did cost Variable OH total variance $XXX $xxx _________ xxx (f)/A Variable overhead expenditure variance: Actual hrs should cost Actual hrs did cost Var OH exp variance $XXX $xxx ________ xxx (f)/A _________ Variable OH efficiency variance: Actual units should have taken Actual units did take Effficiency variance in hrs x standard rate per hout Efficiency variance in $ xxx xxx ______ xx (f)/A $x _______ $(f)/A _________ Thee variable oh efficiency variance is the difference between the amount of variable production oh that should have been incurred in the actual hours actively worked and the actual amount of variable production oh incurred The variable production oh is exactly the same in hours as the direct labour efficiency variance but priced at the variable production overhead rate per hour. Variance Favourable Adverse Variable overhead expenditure More economical use of overheads Savings in cost incurred Increase in costs of overhead used Excessive use of overheads Change in type of overheads used Variable overhead efficiency Better supervision or staff training Labour force working more efficiently Lack of supervision or training Labour force working less efficiently Fixed overhead variances: Fixed overhead variance can be sub dividied into an expenditure variance and volume variance. The fixed overhead volume variance can be further divided into capacity and efficiency variance Fixed overhead variance Fixed overhead expenditure variance Fived overhead volume variance Fixed overhead capacity variance Fixed overhead variance: Overhead incurred Overhead Absorbed Fix overhead total Variance $ xxx $ xxx ________ $xxx(f)/A __________ Fixed overhead efficiency variance Fixed overhead expenditure variance: Budgeted overhead expenditure $xxx Actual overhead expenditure $xxx ______ fix overhead expenditure Variance xxx _______ Fixed overhead volume variance: Actual units produced $xxx Budgeted units produced $xxx ______ Volume variance in units xx units (F)/A x standard rate per unit $xx ____________ Volume variance in $ $xxx(F)/A _____________ The fixed overhead volume efficiency variance will be calculated same as volume efficiency variance Fixed overhead volume efficiency variance: Actual units should have taken xxx hrs Actual units did take xxx hrs __________ Volume effieciency variance in Hours xx hrs (f)/A x standard OAR per hour $x ____________ Voliume efficiency variance in $ $xxx _____________ The volume capacity variance is the difference between the budgeted hours of work and the actual active hours of work Excluding idle time Budgeted hrs of work Actual hrs of work xxx hrs xxx hrs _________ Volume capacity variance xx hrs (F)/A x standard OAR rate per hr $XX _________ Volume capacity variance $xx (f)/A Fixed overhead variance is the difference between the budgeted fixed overhead expenditure and fixed overhead absorbed Fixed overhead expenditure variance is the difference between the budgeted fixed overhead expenditure and actual fixed overhead expenditure Fixed overhead volume difference is the difference between actual and budgeted volume multiplied by the standard overhead absorption rate per unit Fixed overhead efficiency variance is the difference between budgeted hours work and actual hours worked multiplied by the standard absorption rate per hour Fixed overhead capacity variance is the difference between budgeted hours of work and actual hours of work multiplied by the standard absorption rate per hour. Variance Favourable Adverse Fixed overhead expenditure Savings in cost Changes in price related fixed overhead expenditure Change in type of service used Excessive use of service Change in type of service used Fixed overhead volume efficiency Labour force working more Labour working efficiently inefficiently Fixed overhead volume capacity Labour force working overtime Labour shortage, strike, machine breakdown A dany manufactures one product and the entire product is sold as soon as it is produced. There are no opening or closing inventories or or work in progress is negligible. The company operagtes a standard costing system and analysis of variances is made every month. The standard cost card for the product is as follows : $ Direct material 2.00 Direct wages 2 hrs at 2 per hour 4.00 Variable overhead 2 hrs at 0.30 per hour 0.60 Fixed overhead 2 hrs at 3.70 per hour 7.40 _______ Standard cost 14.00 Standard profit 6.00 __________ Standard selling price 20.00 ____________ Budgeted output for January was 5100 units. Actual results for January were as follow: Production of 4850 units was sold for $95000. materials consumed in production amounted to 2300 kilos at total cost of $9800. labour hours paid for 8500 hrs at a cost of $16800. actual operating hrs were 8000 hrs. variable overhead amounted to $2600 and fixed overhead amounted to 42300. Required: Calculate all variances and prepare an operating statement for January. Answer: Material price variance 2300kg of material should cost x $4 But did cost Material price variance $9200 $9800 _______ 600 adverse Material usage variance 4850 widgets should use x 0.5 kg But did use Material usage variance X standard cost per kg 2425 kg 2300 kg _________ 125 kg x $4 ___________ 500 kg favourable Labour rate variance 8500 hrs of labour should cost x$2 But did cost Labour rate variance 17000 16800 _______ 200 favourable Labour efficiency variance 4850 widgets should take x 2 hrs But did take Labour efficiency variance in hrs X standard cost per hour 9700 hrs 8000 hrs ___________ 1700 favourable x $2 ______________ 3400 favourable ________________ Idle time variance 500 hrs (A) x $2 1000 adverse Variable OH expenditure variance 8000 hours incurring variable OH expenditure should cost X$0.30 But did cost variable OH expenditure variance 2400 2600 ______ 200 Adverse Variable of efficiency variance is same as the labour effieciency variance 1700 (f) hrs x $0.30 510 favourable Budgeted fixed overhead Budgeted fixed overhead 5100 units x 2 hrs x 3.70 Actual fix overhead Fixed overhead expenditure variance 37740 42300 __________ 4560 adverse ______________ Fixed OH volume variance Actual production at standard rate 4850 units x $7.40 Budgeted production at standard rate 5100 units x $7.40 Fixed overhead volume variance 35890 37740 _______ 1850 adverse _____________ Sale price variance: 4850 widgets should have sold for (x$20) But did sell for Selling price variance 97000 95600 ________ 1400 adverse _____________ Sales volume variance Budgeted sales volume Actual sales volume Sales volume variance in units X standard profit per unit Sales volume variance in $ 5100 units 4850 unnits ______________ 250 units adverse x $6 1500 adverse $ Budgeted profit (5100 units x $6 profit) Sale price variance Sale volume variance Actual sales less standard cost of sales $ 30600 1400(A) 1500(A) (2900) (A) ____________ 27700 Cost variance (F) Material price Material usage Labour rate Labour efficiency Labour idle time Variable overhead expenditure Variable overhead efficiency Fixed overhead expenditure Fixed overhead volume 500 200 3400 1000 200 510 ________ 4610 Actual profit for January (A) 600 4560 1850 _________ 8210 33600(A) ____________ 24100 =============== Check $ Sales Material Labour Variable Oh Fixed Oh $ 95600 9800 16800 2600 42300 ________ Actual profit (71500) _________ 24100 ___________ Operating statement in marginal cost environment Example Using above example date re produce the operating statement in Marginal cost environment Answer There is no fixed overhead volume variance The standard contribution per unit is $20-6.60=$13.40, therefore the sale volume variance of 250 units(A) is valued at x $13.40 $3350 Adverse The other variances are unchanged, therefore an operating statement might appear as follows Operating statement for January $ Budgeted profit Budgeted fixed production cost Budgeted contribution Sales variance: volume variance price variance $ 30600 37740 ________ 68340 $ 3350 A 1400 A 4750A ________ 63590 (F) Material price Material usage Labour rate Labour efficiency Labour idle time Variable OH expenditure Variable OH efficiency (A) 600 500 200 3400 1000 200 510 Investigating Variances: To decide whether to investigate variances or not. Management should need to look at following factors to decide either to investigate variances or not 1. Only controllable variances should be investigated 2. The cost of investigation should be weighed against the benefits of correcting the cause of the variance 3. Variance might be interrelated with the other variance and much of it might have occurred only because other variance occurred too for example material price variance favourable is balanced by material usage variance adverse 4. Only significant variances should be investigated and not immaterial as it will be time consuming Material mix and yield variance: Material usage variance can be sub divided to material mix and material yield variance when more then one product is used in the product. However calculating mix and yield variance is only useful for control purposes when management is in a position to control the mix of material used in production. Manufacturing processes often require that number of different material are combined to make a unit of finished product. It is often possible to sub analyse the material usage variance into material mix and yield variance Adding higher proportion of one material and lower proportion of another material may make the material mix cheaper or expensive for example standard mix of the material variance is as follows: (1/3) 1.2 kg of material A at $1 per kg (2/3) 2.4 kg of material B at $0.50 per kg $1.20 $1.20 _________ 2.40 __________ A mix variance occurs when the materials are not mixed or blended in standard proportions and it is a measure of whether the actual mix is cheaper or expensive then then the standard mix A yield variance arises because there is a difference between what the input should have been for the output achieved and the actual input. When to calculate mix and yield variance 1. Calculating mix and yield variance is alternate of usage variance when you calculate mix and yield variance then there is no need to calculate usage variance 2. A mix variance is useless unless management may be able to use cheaper mix of variance 3. A yield variance is the total usage variance for all the materials combined. If a mix variance is calculated then yield variance is must to calculate. How to calculate mix and yield variance: 1. Take the total actual quantity of material used 2. Divide total quantity of materials in the standard mix or standard proportions of the different material used in the mix. 3. For each item of materials, the difference between the actual quantity used and the quantity in the standard mix is a mix variance 4. Convert mix variance for each item of material into a money value by applying the standard price per unit for the material 5. The total of the mix variance for each of the materials in the mix is the total materials mix variance. The yield variance is calculated as follows: 1. For the actual number of units of product manufactured, calculate the total quantity of materials that should have been used. 2. compare this standard quantity of materials that should have been used with the actual total quantity of materials that was used. 3. The difference is the yield variance in material quantities 4. Convert this into a monetory value by applying the weighted average cost per unit of material Example: A company manufacture a juice Slash using two components Pina colada and margarita. The standard material usage and cost of one unit of slash are as follows: pina colada 5kg at $2 per kg $10 margarita 10kg at $3 per kg $30 ______ $40 In a particular period 80 units of slash were produced from 600 kg of pina colada and 750 kg of margarita. Calculate the material usage,mix and yield variance. Usage variance: If we do not calculate mix and yield variance we need to calculate usage variance of both materials separately std usage for for actual output of 80 units kg Pina colada margarita 400 800 ________ 1200 actual usage variance kg kg 600 750 _____ 1350 200 A 50 F _________ standard cost per kg $ 2 3 _____ Usage variance of both materials can be analyse in this way and can be reported instead of mix and yield variance Variance $ 400 A 150 F ______ 250A Calculate the standard mix of the actual quantity of material used. Actual usage actual total usage in standard mix (5:10 or 1:2) kg 450 900 _______ 1350 ________ kg 600 750 ______ 1350 _______ pina colada margarita mix variance kg kg 150 A 150 F ________ 0 _________ the mix variance in quantities are converted into monetory value at the standard price of the materials: Actual usage/mix kg Pina Colada magarita 600 750 ______ 1350 ________ standard mix kg 450 900 _______ 1350 ________ mix variance kg 150 A 150 F __________ 0 ___________ standard price $ per kg mix variance $ 2 300A 3 450 F ______ 150 F _______ Total mix variance is $150 favourable Yield variance 1350kg of material should produce /15 They did produce Yield variance in units of output Standard material cost per unit Yield variance in $ units 90 10 _____ 10 A _____ $40 $400 Sales mix and quantity variance Sales mix variance: The sales mix variance occurs when the proportion of the various products sold are different from those in the budget Sales quantity variance: The sales quantity variance shows the difference in contribution/profit because of the change in sales volume from budgeted volume of sales When to calculate mix and quantity variances A sales mix variance and quantity variance are only meaningful where management can control the proportions of the product sold Following are the situations where management may be able to control the sales mix are: 1. Where management can control the allocation of the advertising and sales promotion budget between different products 2. Where the same basic product is sold in different sizes or packaging such as small size or large size The method of calculation: Sales mix variance is calculated in a similar way to the material mix variance: 1. Take the total actual quantity of units sold, for all the products combined 2. Divide the toal quantity of sales units into the budgeted standard mix or budgeted proportions of the different products in the mix 3. For each product the difference between the actual quantity sold and the sales quantity in the budgeted standard mix is a mix variance 4. Convert the mix variance for each product into a monetory value by applying the standard profit per unit or standard contribution per unit where the standard marginal costing is used. 5. The total of the mix variance for each of the product in the sales mix is the total sales mix variance. The sales quantity variance is calculated in a similar way to the material yield variance as follows: 1. Calculate the weighted average standard profit per unit or weighted average contribution per unit. This is calculated from the budget as the budgeted total profit divided by the budgeted total units of sale 2. Calculate the difference between actual sales units and the budgeted sales units. This difference is the sales quantity in variance 3. Convert this variance into sales units into a monetory value by applying the weighted average standard profit or standard contribution per unit of sale. Example: Gladiators Company makes and sells two products, Captain America doll and Iron man doll the budgeted sales and profit are as follows: sales units Captain America Iron man 400 300 revenue $ 8000 1200 costs $ 6000 11100 profit $ 2000 900 _______ 2900 ________ profit per unit $ 5 3 Actual sales were 280 units of captain America doll and and 630 units of Iron man doll the company management is able to control the relative sales of each product through the allocation of sales effort, advertising and sales promotion expenses. Required: Calculate the sales volume variance, the sales mix variance and the sales quantity variance Solution: Sales volume variance Budgeted sales Actual sales Sales volume variance in units sale volume variance in $ total sale volume in $ 390 F Captain America 400 280 ________ 120 A x$5 _______ 600 A _________ Iron Man 300 630 ______ 330 units x$3 ___________ 990 F ____________ Sales Mix variance Actual Sales mix standard sales mix sales mix variance standard profit sales mix variance (4:3) Units CA 280 IM 630 _____ 910 ______ units units 520 390 _____ 910 _______ 240 A 240 F _______ 0 ______ $ per unit 5 3 Sales quantity variance The standard weighted average profit per unit of sale taken from the budget is $2900/700 = $29/7 units Budgeted sales in total 700 Actual sales in total 910 _____ 210 F Standard weighted average profit per unit 29/7 Sales quantity variance in $870 F $ 1200 A 720 F ______ 480A ______ Planning and operational variances Revising a budget or standard cost: Occasionaly organizations has to revise a budget or standard cost, when this happens varainces should be reported in a way that differentiate between varainces caused by the revision to the budget and varainces that are responsibility of operational management. Plannig variance A planning and operational variances analysis divide the total variances into those variances which have arisen due to inaccurate planning or faulty standards known as planning variances Operational variance: Variances which have been caused by the adverse or favourable operational performance, compared with a standard which has been revised in hindsight known as operational variance. Reasons for revising budget or standard cost: When variances are reported in budgetary control, it is usually assumed that original budget or standard cost is accurate and reliable and if there is any difference between actual results and the budget or standard it will be measured as variances which is attributable to the manager who is responsible for that aspect of performance. Then manager is expected to explain and take actions actions to correct those adverse variances if there is any. However certain circumstances may occur that make original budget or standard cost invalid or inappropriate. Following are the reasons to revise budget or standard cost: 1. The sales budget may have been prepared on total market size, however now demand is changed due to economic changes or due to technological change demand is change now. 2. The standard cost of material of a product decided on what it should be but due to change in market conditions now prices are much higher or lower. 3. The standard quality of a product is changed significantly due to change in specification. 4. The standard labour rate may become unrealistic because labour rates in market has changed significantly. 5. The standard time to produce a product has changed significantly due to certain reasons. Example Budget revision Lampoo company produces Cent and mint which are fairly standardised products. The following information relates to period 1. The standard selling price of cent is $50 each and mint $100 each. In period 1, there was a special promotion on Scent with a 5% discount being offered. All units produced are sold and no inventory is held. To produce a Widget they use 5 kg of X and in period 1, their plans were based on a cost of X of $3 per kg. Due to market movements the actual price changed; if they had purchased efficiently, the cost would have been $4.50 per kg. Production of Widgets was 2,000 units. A cent uses raw material Z but again the price of this can change rapidly. It was thought that Z would cost $30 per tonne but in fact they only paid $25 per tonne and if they had purchased correctly the cost would have been less, as it was freely available at only $23 per tonne. It usually takes 1.5 tonnes of Z to produce 1 mint and 500 mint are usually produced. Each Widget takes three hours to produce and each mint two hours. Labour is paid $5 per hour. At the start of period 1, management negotiated a job security package with the workforce in exchange for a promised 5% increase in efficiency – that is, that the workers would increase output per hour by 5%. Fixed overheads are usually $12,000 every period and variable overheads are $3 per labour hour. Required Produce the original budget and a revised budget allowing for controllable factors in a suitable format Answer Original budget for Period 1 Sales revenue ((2,000 × $50) + (500 × $100)) Material costs X (2,000 × 5kg × $3) Material costs Z (500 × $30 × 1.5) Labour costs ((2,000 × 3 × $5) + ( 500 × 2 × $5)) Variable overheads ((2,000 × 3 × $3) + ( 500 × 2 × $3)) Fixed overheads Profit $ 150,000 30,000 22,500 35,000 21,000 12,000 _________ 29000 __________ Revised budget for Period 1 Sales revenue ((2,000 × $50) + (500 × $100)) Material costs X (2,000 × 5kg × $4.5) Material costs Z (500 × $23 × 1.5) Labour costs ((2,000 × 3 × $5 ) + ( 500 × 2 × $5)) × 0.95 Variable overheads ((2,000 × 3 × $3) + ( 500 × 2 × $3)) × 0.95 Fixed overheads Profit $ 150,000 45,000 17,250 33,250 19,950 12,000 ________ 22550 _________ When budget revision should be allowed? A budget revision should be allowed if something happen which is beyond the control of the organisation which makes budget un suitable for use in performance management. Any adjustment in the budget should be approved by the senior management who should look at the issues involved objectively and independent. Operational issues are the issues that that budget is attempt to control which should not subject to be revision. The nature of planning and operational variances: When budget or standard cost is revised variances are still reported as comparison between actual results and the original budget or standard cost. However, when variances are reported clear distinction should be made between: 1. Revision that have been made due to revision in budget or standard cost, for which operational managers should not be made responsible these are called planning variances 2. Varainces that are caused by actual performance and revised budget or standard for which operational manager should be responsible these are called operational variances. Planning and operational variances for sales: When the sales budget is revised it may be assumed that: The revision to the sales budget was due to reassessment of the total market size for the organisation product. However, sales management should still be expected to win the same market share as a proportion to the total market size as in the total budget. On the basis of this assumption, the sales volume variance can be reported as: Sales volume planning variance: it is the difference between sales volume In the original budget and sales volume revised budget. Sales volume operational variance: it is the difference between actual sales volume and the sales volume in the revised budget. Example: Masha budgeted sales for 2010 were 5,000 units. The standard contribution is $9.60 per unit. A recession in 2010 meant that the market for Masha products declined by 5%. Masha’s market share also fell by 3%. Actual sales were 4,500 units. Required Calculate planning and operational variances for sales volume. Answer Planning variance Original budgeted sales Revised budget sales (–5%) At contribution per unit of $9.60 Units 5,000 4,750 ______ 250 A $2400 ======== Operational variance Revised budget sales Actual sales @ contribution per unit of $9.60 Units 4,750 4,500 -----------250 A $2400 Planning and Operation variance for Sales Price: There can be a situation where changes has been made to the budgeted or standard selling price when this happens sales price planning variance and sales price operational variance will be calculated. Example: Champa budgeted to sell 10,000 units of a new product during 2005. The budgeted sales price was $10 per unit, and the variable cost $3 per unit. Actual sales in 2005 were 12,000 units and variable costs of sales were $30,000, but sales revenue was only $5 per unit. With the benefit of hindsight, it is realised that the budgeted sales price of $10 was hopelessly optimistic, and a price of $4.50 per unit would have been much more realistic. Required Calculate planning and operational variances for sales price. Answer: Planning (selling price) variance Original budgeted sales price Revised budgeted sales price Sales price planning variance $ per unit 10.00 4.50 5.50 A The variance is adverse because planning variance is lower then the selling price in the original budget. Sales price planning variance = $5.50 per unit (A) × 12,000 units sold = $66,000 (A). Operational (selling price) variance The sales price operational variance is calculated in the same way as a 'normal' sales price variance, except that the sales price in the revised budget is used, not the original budget. $ 12,000 units sold for (12,000 x $5) 60,000 They should have sold for (x $4.5) 54,000 Operational (selling price) variance 6,000 F Planning and Operational variance for Material: Example: Product koko had a standard direct material cost in the budget of: 4 kg of Material M at $5 per kg = $20 per unit. Due to disruption of supply of materials to the market, the average market price for Material M during the period was $5.50 per kg, and it was decided to revise the material standard cost to allow for this. During the period, 6,000 units of Product X were manufactured. They required 26,300 kg of Material M, which cost $139,390. Required Calculate: (a) The material price planning variance (b) The material price operational variance (c) The material usage (operational) variance Answer: Solution The original standard cost was 4 kg × $5 = $20. The revised standard cost is 4 kg × $5.50 = $22. Material price planning variance This is the difference between the original standard price for Material M and the revised standard price. $ per kg Original standard price 5.00 Revised standard price 5.50 Material price planning variance 0.50 (A) The planning variance is adverse because the change in the standard price increases the material cost and this will result in lower profit. The material price planning variance is converted into a total monetary amount by multiplying the planning variance per kg of material by the actual quantity of materials used. Material price planning variance = 26,300 kg × $0.50 (A) = $13,150 (A). Material price operational variance This compares the actual price per kg of material with the revised standard price. It is calculated using the actual quantity of materials used. $ 26,300 kg of Material M should cost (revised standard $5.50) 144,650 They did cost 139,390 Material price operational variance 5,260 (F) Material usage operational variance This variance is calculated by comparing the actual material usage with the standard usage in the revised standard, but it is then converted into a monetary value by applying the original standard price for the materials, not the revised standard price. This is an important rule. 6,000 units of Product X should use (x 4kg) They did use Material usage (operational) variance in kg of M Original standard price per kg of Material M Material usage (operational) variance in $ kg of M 24,000 26,300 2,300 (A) $5 $11,500 (A) The variances may be summarised as follows. $ 6,000 units of Product X at original std cost ($20) Actual material cost Total material cost variance Material price planning variance Material price operational variance Material usage operational variance Total of variances $ 120,000 139,390 19,390 (A) 13,150 (A) 5,260 (F) 11,500 (A) 19,390 (A) Example: Xander company makes a single product. At the beginning of the budget year, the standard labour cost was established as $8 per unit, and each unit should take 0.5 hours to make. However, during the year, the standard labour cost was revised. A new quality control procedure was introduced to the production process, adding 20% to the expected time to complete a unit. In addition, due to severe financial difficulties facing the company, the workforce reluctantly agreed to reduce the rate of pay to $15 per hour. In the first month after revision of the standard cost, budgeted production was 15,000 units but only 14,000 units were actually produced. These took 8,700 hours of labour time, which cost $130,500. Required Calculate the labour planning and operational variances in as much detail as possible Answer: Original standard cost = 0.5 hours × $16 per hour = $8 per unit Revised standard = 0.6 hours × $15 per hour = $9 per unit Planning and operational variances for labour are calculated in a similar way to planning and operational variances for materials. We need to look at planning and operational variances for labour rate and labour efficiency. Labour rate planning variance This is the difference between the original standard rate per hour and the revised standard rate per hour. $ per hour Original standard rate 16 Revised standard rate 15 Labour rate planning variance 1F The planning variance for labour rate is favourable, because the revised hourly rate is lower than in the original standard. The variance is converted into a total monetary amount by multiplying the planning variance per hour by the actual number of hours worked. Hours 7,000 8,400 1,400 A $16 $22,400 A 14,000 units of product should take: original standard (× 0.5) 14,000 units of product should take: revised standard (× 0.6) Labour efficiency planning variance in hours Original standard rate per hour Labour efficiency planning variance in $ The planning variance is adverse because the revised standard is for a longer time per unit (so higher cost and lower profit). Labour rate operational variance This is calculated using the actual number of hours worked and paid for. 8,700 hours should cost (revised standard $15) They did cost Labour rate operational variance $ 130,500 130,500 0 the workforce was paid exactly the revised rate of pay per hour. Labour efficiency operational variance This variance is calculated by comparing the actual time to make the output units with the standard time in the revised standard. It is then converted into a monetary value by applying the original standard rate per hour. 14,000 units of product should take (× 0.6 hours) They did take Labour efficiency (operational variance in hours) Original standard rate per hour Labour efficiency (operational variance in $) Hours 8,400 8,700 300 A $16 $4,800 A The variances may be summarised as follows. $ 14,000 units of product at original standard cost ($8) Actual material cost Total material cost variance Labour rate planning variance Labour efficiency planning variance Labour rate operational variance Labour efficiency operational variance Total of variances $ 112,000 130,500 18,500 A 8,700 F 22,400 A 0 4,800 A 18,500 A Divisional Performance Measurement Divisionalisation: It is a situation where managers of a company given a degree of autonomy over decision making that means they are given the authority to make decisions without asking senior managers in short they are allowed to run there part of business as it is their own business. Advantages: 1. Managers will get more motivated 2. Decisions will be taken in short period of time 3. Managers are more aware about the problems about their area they can make better decisions. Disadvantages: 1. They may manipulate the results for bonuses 2. Managers may work for their own interest rather then company Interest. 3. Their may be conflicts of interests between different division managers The Use of Performance measures to control divisional managers: If managers are to be given authority in decision making it becomes imposibble for senior management to watch over them on day to day basis which can remove the benefit of divisionalization. The way to control the performance is to establish a measures in advance a set of measures that will be used to evaluate their performance normally at the end of each year. These measures provide a way to determine whether they are doing well or not in their part of the business and also to communicate to managers how they are expected to perform. It is equally important that performance measures are designed well. For example suppose a manager was given only one performance measure to increase profits, this may seems sensible that in normal situation the company will want division to be more profitable. However, if managers expects to be rewarded on the basis of how much division is profitable then all of managers actions will be focused on increasing profit. To the exclusion of everything else and this would not be beneficial for the organization if the manager were to achieve it by reducing the quality of the output from the division. It may not beneficial for the manager as well in the long term but manager may tend to focus on short term rather then long term. It is therefore necessary to have series of performance measures for the managers may be one relate to the profitability and at the same time other should be related to quality and manager should be assessed on the basis of how well he has achieved all of his measures. The company may wish performance measures to be goal congruent that is to encourage managers to make decisions that are not only good for the manager but end being good for the company as a whole as well. Controllable Profits: One of the most important financial performance measure is profitability. However, if the measure is to be used to assess the performance of the divisional manager. It is important that any cost which is out side the control of manager should be exclude. For example , it may be decided that pay increase in all divisions should be fixed centrally by Head office. In this scenario it would be unfair to penalise or reward the manager on the division profits in respect of this cost and for this purpose income statement need to be prepared ignoring wages and it would be on resulting controllable profit that manager would be assessed. Investment Centres and problem with measuring profitability: As stated earlier, divisionalisation implies that the divisional manager has some degree of autonomy in case of investment centre the manager is given decision making authority not only over costs and revenues but additionally over capital investment decision. In this situation, it is important that any measure of profitability is related to the level of capital expenditure simple to assess on the absolute level of profits would be dangerous. The manager might increase profits by 10000 and got reward for it but its hardly beneficial for the company if it had required capital investment of 1000000 to achieve. The most common way to relating profitability to capital investment is to use return on investment as a measure, however this can lead to loss of goal congruence and measure known as residual income is theoretically better. Return On Investment: Controllable division profit expressed as a percentage of divisional investment. It is equivalent to Return on capital employed and this is one of the reasons it is famous as an divisional performance measure. Example 1 Badri Co has divisions throughout the Carribean. The Koka Balls division is currently making a profit of $82,000 p.a. on investment of $500,000. Badri Co has a target return of 15% The manager Koka Balls is considering a new investment which will require additional investment of $100,000 and will generate additional profit of $17,000 p.a.. (a) Calculate whether or not the new investment is attractive to the company as a whole. (b) Calculate the ROI of the division, with and without the new investment and hence determine whether or not the manager would decide to accept the new investment. Answer: Return from new project 17000 _______ 100000 = 17% a. For company 17% is > 15% therefore company wants to accept it. b. For devision ROI without project 82000 _______ =16.4% 500000 ROI with project 82000 + 17000 ______________ 500000 + 100000 = 16.5% ROI for division increases therefore manager wants to accept it. In above example manager is motivated to accepted an investment which is better for the company as a whole. He has been motivated to make a goal congruent decision. in this illustration we have used the opening Statement of Financial Position value for capital invested. In practice it may be more likely that we would use closing Statement of Financial Position value (which would be lower because of depreciation). There is no rule about this. in practice we could do whichever we thought more suitable. However, in examinations always use opening Statement of Financial Position value unless, of course, you are told to do differently. However, there can be problems with a ROI approach as is illustrated by the following example Example: The circumstances are the same as in example 1, except that this time the manager of the KoKa balls division is considering an investment that has a cost of $100, 000 and will give additional profit of $16,000 p.a. (a) Calculate whether or not the new investment is attractive to the company as a whole. (b) Calculate the ROI of the division, with and without the new investment and hence determine whether or not the manager would decide to accept the new investment Answer: Return from new project 16000 ________ 100000 = 16% For company 16% is greater then 15% therefore company wants to accept it B. For division ROI with project ROI without project 16.4% 82000 + 16000 ______________ = 16.3% 500000 + 100000 Here manager is not motivated to make goal congruent decision for this purpose it is better to assess manager performance on the basis of residual income Residual Income: Instead of using a percentage measure as with ROI the residual income assess the manager on absoulute profi. However in order to take account of the capital investment, notional interest is deducted from the P&L profit figure. The balance remaining known as the residual income. Example 3 Repeat examples 1 and 2, but in each case assume that the manager is assessed on his Residual Income, and that therefore it is this that determines how he makes decisions. Answer: RI without project 82000 Profit Less interest (75000) 15% x 500000 7000 RI with project Less Interest 15% x 600000 99000 90000 9000 9000 > 7000 manager motivated to accept 2. RI without project 7000 __________ ROI with project profit Less Interest 98000 90000 15% x 8000 600000 8000 > 7000 manager motivated to accept in both cases decisions are goal congruent. Financial Performance Measurement Financial statements are prepared to assist users of the financial statements. Therefore they need to interpret to take the decisions. The calculation of different ratios make it easier to compare information with the prior year information or with other companies To analyse the performance of the company there are various areas which we should look at which are as follows: o Profitability o Liquidity o Gearing The importance of area depends on whose behalf that we are analysing the statements. Ratios Profitability ratios Net profit margin Profit before interest and tax _________________________ Revenue Gross profit Margin: Return on Capital employed: Gross profit ___________ Revenue profit before interest and tax ___________________________ total long term capital (capital + reserves + long term liabilities) Asset turnover: Revenue _____________ total long term capital Liquidity ratios: Current Assets _______________ Current Liabilities Quick Ratio: Current Asset – Inventory ________________________ Current Liabilities Inventory Days Inventory __________________ x 365 days Cost of sales Recievable days Payable days Gearing: trade Recievable _________________ x 365 days revenue Trade payables ______________ x 365 days Purchases Long term liabilities _________________ shareholders funds % Limitations: 1. Mostly ratios are useful when they are compare with other information 2. At the time of Inflation the ratio comparison could be misleading 3. Ratios are easy to manipulate due to availability of different formula of same ratio. Example Statements of Financial Position as at 31 December 2010 $ ASSETS Non-current assets Tangible assets Current assets Inventory Trade receivables Cash 2009 $ $ 1,341 1,006 948 360 _____ 826 871 708 100 _____ 2314 ________ 3655 _________ LIABILITIES AND CAPITAL Capital and reserves $1 ordinary shares Retained earning $ 1,200 990 _______ 1679 _____2505 ______ 720 681 _______ 2190 1401 2010 $ Non-current liabilities 10% loan 2015 Current liabilities Trade payables Tax payable Dividends payable Total Liabilities and Capital 2009 $ $ 500 653 228 84 $ 400 516 140 48 965 _______ 3655 ________ 704 _____ 2505 _____ Income statement for the year ended 31 December Revenue Cost of sales Gross Profit Distribution costs Administrative expenses Profit from operations Finance costs Profit before taxation Tax expense Profit after taxation Dividends Retained profit for the period Required: Compute the profitability, Liquidity and Gearing Ratios 2009 $ 7,180 (5,385) ________ 1795 (335) (670) (790) (50) _______ 740 (262) ________ 478 169 ______ 309 _______ 2010 $ 5,435 (4,212) ________ 1223 (254) (507) (462) (52) ______ 410 (144) _______ 266 95 ______ 171 ______ Answer 2010 Net profit margin Gross Profit Margin Return on capital employed Asset Turnover Current Ratio 790 _____ 7180 1795 _____ 7180 790 _____ 2690 7180 ______ 2690 2134 _____ 965 2009 11% 8.5% 25% 29.4% 22.5% 25.7% 2.67 3.02 2.4 2.4 Quick Ratio Inventory Days Receiveable days Payable Days Gearing Ratio 2010 2009 1.36 1.15 1308 ______ 965 1006 _____ x365 5385 948 _____ x 365 7180 653 ____ x 365 5385 500 ____ 2190 68.2 days 48.2 days 75.5 days 47.5 days 44.3 days 44.7 days 22.8% 28.6% Non Financial Performance Measurement It is important have range of performance measures considering both Financial and non financial matters. In the case of service industries it is very important where things such as quality is important for the growth of the business. There are various areas where performance measurement are likely to be needed. However you need to be aware about Fitzgerald and Moon building Blocks and Kaplan and Norton and Balanced Score Card Fitzgerald and Moon Fitzgerald and Moon focused on performance measurement in service industry. According to them following areas needed the performance measurement: Quality Competitive performance Flexibility Financial performance Innovation Resource utilisation Kaplan and Norton’s Balanced Scorecard: The balanced and Score card developed by Kaplan and Norton views the business from four perspective and aims to establish goals for each with measures which can be used to evaluate whether these goals have been achieved. Measures Perspective Question Measures Customer Perspective What do existing and potential customer value from us % sales from new customers % orders from enquires %on time deliveries Customer survey analysis Internal Business perspective What process we must excel to achieve our customer and financial objective Value analysis Efficiency Unit cost analysis Process/Cycle time Learning and growth perspective How can we grow in future Time to market for new and create value product Number of new products introduced Financial perspective How do we create value for our shareholders Profitability, ROI, Sales growth, cash flow, liquidity Performance in the not for profit organization Not for profit organizations are those which primary goal is not profit making so there performance can not assessed by economic means example such as police , Charities, schools , hospitals. For such organisations it is not appropriate to use standard profit measures, Instead in case of the health service the objective is to ensure that the best service is provided against best cost. Problems with performance measurement of Not for profit organization: Multiple Objectives: If all objectives can be clearly identified, it may be impossible to identify an over riding objective or to choose between competing objectives. Financial constraints: Public sector organizations have limited control over the level of funding that they receive and the objectives that they can achieve. Political , legal and social considerations: The public have higher expectations from public sector organizations than from commercial organizations are subject to greater scrutiny and more onerous legal requirements. The difficulty of measuring outputs: For example in hospitals the objective is to make ill people better. However, how can we in practice measure how much better they are? Value for money: Non profit organizations such as the health service are expected to provide value for money, which can be defined as providing a service in a way which is economical, efficient and effective. Therefore performance should be assessed under each of these 3 E’s Economy: Attaining the appropriate quantity and quality of the inputs at lowest cost Efficiency: Maximising the output for a given input Effectiveness: Determine how well the organization has achieved its objectives. Performance Management Information System The purpose of the information system in the business is to provide management with the information which they need to make good decisions for the company and to monitor the progress of the company. Levels of management and information requirements: Strategic Planning: Strategic planning is to take decisions for the company usually for five to ten years which includes directions for the business and making decisions on how to follow this strategy. The type of decisions which may be considered are for example, which new products to produce, which new market to enter etc. The information is required mainly from external and internal sources as well for example information about competitors, information about government, company’s profitiablity forecasts and capital spending requirements Management control: Management control which is also known as tactical control is managing the implementation of strategic plan in short term mostly for 12 months short term budgets will be prepared and operations measured against the budgets. Information will be required from both external and internal sources and its include things such as variance analysis reports as well as productivity measurements. Operational control: Operational control is concerned with monitoring and controlling the day to day performance of the business. The information required is internal to the business. Information required example include, hours worked by the employees, raw material usage and wastage reports and quality control reports. Information systems used by management: In order to make decisions at various levels. Management need information system to supply information at various levels they require and to present information in a way that is useful for them. You should aware be aware of the following types of information processing systems, and the level of management that benefits from them. Transaction processing system: Transaction processing is the recording of the daily routine transactions of the business, this includes recording all the financial transactions, keeping records of inventory, the processing of orders etc. the information provided mainly used for operational control. Management information system: The purpose of the management information system is to convert data into information that is useful for managers at all levels but is particularly useful at the level of management control. For example transaction processing system will provide list of receivables but management information system will process the information can process the transaction and provide information as sales per customer Also it is management information system that can process the transaction information and produce reports of variances. Executive Information System: Tradition management information system can produce reports as described above, these reports tend to be standard reports and need planning in advance for example it may be programmed to produce variance report each month. An executive information system enable the user to access the data and produce flexible non standard reports, its designed to easy to use. The user can request a report without any programming knowledge, also there is an emphasis on presenting the information graphically and it has the ability to drill down(initially information is presented in summary, but clicking on the graph it is possible to get more and more detail as required). This systems are for top level management and for strategic level of decision making. Enterprise resource planning systems: Well buddies these systems nothing to do directly with the planning. What this systems to do actually is integrate all departments and functions of organizations into single computer system for example system used by the warehouse, there is a single system serving all the departments. The system runs off a single database so that the various departments can more easily share information. An example of its usefulness an order received from customer will be entered in to the system and its status will be update by the relevant department as it progresses the warehouse will update when it is dispatched the accounts department will update when its invoiced and so on. Open and closed systems: Open systems are systems that respond to changes external to the company, whereas closed systems follow a fixed set of rules and do not change. For example basic accounting system is a closed system in that it follows fixed rules. However, businesses do need to change in response to changes in external factors such as the actions of competitor and changes in the economic environment , As a result there may be a sub systems that are closed, the overall information system need to be an open system in that information requirements will change as the business it self changes. Closed systems are easier to control and maintain because do not change. Open systems provide more flexibility and can provide better information, but are harder to control and maintain because of the changes made. Performance management systems, Measurement And control In order to manage performance managers need information. In this topic we will consider the type of information is needed, the different program available to help manage the information and type of controls needed. Information requirements: Different information is required for different types of decisions. There are three levels of decision making and control. Strategic: These are long term decisions. Usually for five to ten years regarding long term direction of the company. For example which product to make or which new market to enter. Tactical: These are for short term decision making mainly for upcoming year planning to achieve the strategic objectives for examples how many units to sell in coming year Operational: These are day to day decisions implementing short term plans for example how many units to produce in month. At strategic level, the information needed will tend to be more external, be more long term forecasts and less detailed example include information about forecast of the economy, information about competitors At operational level, the information needed will be internal, be immediate and it will be detailed for example aged list of customer balances At tactical level information will be combination of internal and external and will be medium term for example information about productivity of customers so that decision can be made for pay rises in coming year. Sources of Information: External sources of information include: Government statistics Internet Competitors financial statements Industry publications Internal sources of information include: Receivable ledgers Payroll system Payables ledger Types of information software: Following are the type of software that are available to provide/assist with information. Transaction processing system: It is a software that produce day to day transaction of the business for example software which produce and record day to day sale invoices Management information system: It is a software that convert information from transaction processing system into information for the benefit of managers for examples monthly summaries of the product by sale. Executive Information system: It is software that enables the user to obtain information on ad hoc basis as opposed to the standard reports that will be produced by the MIS. For example MIS may be programmed to produce monthly report on sales by region. However, Manager may require instant information analysing the sales in one particular region. An executive information system enables the manager to access the data bases directly and access the information required immediately. The software is easy to use. Questions may be entered using normal language as opposed to programming languages. The information generated is produced in an easy to use format. Enterprise resource planning system: It is a system that integrates all the applications into a business and uses a common database. The same system is used for processing transactions and providing management information. Direct Data capture: Traditionally data was entered into systems using keyboards manually. However, in this scenario there was high chances of making errors Examples of direct data capture methods include: Barcode: It can be read directly using scanner. RFID ( Radio frequency identification) A chip embedded in a product that can be read electronically. Similar in use to a barcode, but can be read simply by being close to a reader as opposed to having to be closed to be correctly positioned under scanner OCR (optical character recognition) Scanning machine can read the characters as opposed to simply marks. It needs pre printed forms. OMR ( Optical mark reader) Bubbles that are filled in on a pre printed form that can be read automatically by a machine. Famous example it is used by ACCA on the front sheet of their exams ICR ( Intelligent character recognition) It is similar to OCR but it does not require pre printed forms for example it can be trained to find and input that VAT numbers on invoices received from suppliers. Direct User Input: Here input is made using the keyboard , but instead of operator copying in the data, the supplier of the data inputs it directly. For example if employees required to fill the timesheets instead of employees filling forms and than operator entering it into the systems, the employees enter the data directly into the systems themselves. Another example is customer entering the order into the systems directly instead of filling the forms Controls: It is important that controls exist on: Input: to prevent so far as possible input errors and to prevent wrong people entering data Processing and Storage: to prevent data being changed without authorization and comply with legislation Output: to ensure only authorized people are allowed to access information Types of control that should be considered include: Input Passwords: to only allow authorized users to input and also to keep a record of who has entered data Range tests: to help ensure input is accurate for example only allow hours per week within the range of to 0 to 50 Format checks: to help ensure input is correct for example employees name include only characters not numbers. Processing and storage: Passwords: only authorised users are able to change data Audit trial: a record is kept within the software of all changes made to data and by whom Data protection officer: an employee with the responsibility of making sure that data protection laws are complied with Output: Passwords: only authorised users are allowed to access data Transfer pricing What is Transfer pricing ? Transfer price is the price that one division of the same company charges for the goods and services provided to another division of the same company, Its internal company activity, the sale of the one devision is the purchase of the another division. There is no effect in the accounts of the company as a whole. Example: Division A produces goods and transfers them to devision B which packs and sell them to outside customers. Division A has cost of $10 per unit and additional cost of $4 per unit Devision B sells the goods to external customer for $20 per unit Required: Assume a transfer price between the devisions of $12 per unit, calcultate: a) The total profit per unit made by the company over all b) Profit per unit made by each devision Solution: a) Selling price Costs A B 20 10 4 Profit b) Total profit Cost Profit (14) ______ 6 ______ A 12 10 _______ $2 ________ Selling price Total profit 12 Costs 4 B 20 (16) ______ 4 _______ Why companies have transfer price? The reason for having transfer pricing in the organisation to make each division profit accountable, for example in the previous example there would be no transfer price than division A would only be reporting only costs and division B would be reporting only profits. Problem would be incurred when division A selling goods to outside customer as well as to division B. Cost plus transfer pricing: The very common in practice to determine the transfer price for the company is to have a policy that all goods are transferred at the cost to the supplying divisions plus fixed percentage. Example: Bezoo company devision A has cost of $15 per unit and transfer goods to division B which has additional cost of $ 5 per unit Devision B sells externally at $30 per unit The company has policy to set transfer price at cost + 20% Required: a) Transfer price b) Profit made by company overall c) Profit made by each devision separately Solution: a) Transfer price 15 X 1.2 = 18 b) Selling Price Costs: A 15 B 5 C) A Total profit Cost Profit 30 (20) ______ $10 _______ B 18 Selling price 30 (15) Total profit 18 ______ Costs 5 (23) $3 ________ _______ 7 _________ Goal Congruence: If company is properly devisionalised, than each division manager will have autonomy over decision making, It will be therefore decision of each division manager which product is worth developing in their division , For this purpose here we assume that each devision producing many products and stopping production of a product will not create the problem In this scenario Cost plus approach, can be problematic in goal congruence, As in some situations a manager may be motivateeed not to produce a product which is beneficial for the company as a whole. Example: Masha company Division A has cost of $20 per unit and transfer goods to division B which has additional cost of $8 per unit. Division B sells externally at $30 per unit The company has policy of setting transfer price at cost plus 20% Required: a) Transfer price b) Profit made by company overall c) Profit made by each division separately Determine decisions made by the managers and comment on whether or not goal congruent decisions will be made Solutiion: a) Transfer price: 20 X 1.2 = 24 b) Selling price 30 Costs A: 20 B: 8 (28) _____ Profit 2 ______ C A total profit 24 cost (20) _____ Profit $4 ______ Selling price total profit Costs Profit/loss B 30 24 8 (32) _____ ($2) ______ Transfer pricing to achieve goals: So folks in the examination you may asked to state the transfer price which is goal congruent and not loss making for the company, there is a rule to state the transfer price, But its not ok to straight way telling you the rules with out understanding the logic right. So let us do some examples and than in the I will tell you the rules related to it Example: Niba Company Division A has cost of $ 20 per unit and transfer goods to division B which has additional cost of $8 per unit. Devision B sells externally at $30 Per unit Required: Determine Sensible range of transfer price to achieve goal congruence. Solution: For Division A transfer price should be greater than $20 and for devision B it should be $30-$8 = $ 22 so transfer price should be between $20 and $22 Example Tom company division A has cost of $ 15 per unit and transfer goods to devision B which has additional cost of $10 per unit Division B externally sells at $35 per unit. Division A can sell partly finished goods externally at $20 per unit. There is limited demand externally from devision A and Devision A has unlimited production capacity. Required: Determine sensible range of transfer price in order to achieve goal congruence Solution: For devision A transfer price should be greater than $15 and for B it should be 35 – 10 = $25… sensible range of transfer price should be between 15 and 25 Example: Sara Co Division A has cost of $8 per unit and transfer goods to division B which has additional cost of $4 per unit. Division B sells externally at $20 per unit. Determine a sensible range for the transfer price in order to achieve goal congruence, If division B can buy partly finished goods from outside for: a) $14 per unit and b) $18 per unit. Solution a) For division A transfer price should be greater than 8 and for B transfer price should be less than 14 b) For Division A transfer price is greater than 8 For Division B transfer should be 20 – 4 = 16………. So transfer price should be between 8 and 16. So after dealing with the above examples… we determine that minimum transfer price should be that which is not loss making for the division which is selling the product and maximum transfer price should be less than the external seller.