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‫أوالً‪ :‬البيانات الخاصة بالطالب (تملئ بمعرفة الطالب)‬
‫اسم المقرر‬
‫عنوان البحث‬
‫عنوان مناسب يختاره الطالب يعبر عن موضوع البحث‬
‫ثانياً‪ :‬البيانات الخاصة بالكونترول‬
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Ohm’s Law and Kirchhoff’s Laws are the almost necessary equipment old in the
evaluation of electric and electronic circuits. The goal concerning applying its laws in
imitation of a circuit is in conformity with determine the behavior of
the voltages then current at some point in the circuit. This handout desire provides a precis
on 3 laws
as well so examples regarding their application.
The Basics
To function circuit analysis, that is essential in conformity with understanding
fundamental terms yet units.
• Current: I = Q
t (amperes) where Q devices are coulombs (C) then represents the price passing
a factor within the circuit, or t equals era of seconds (s). One coulomb is 6.238792×1018
electrons. This is comparable after the quantity of lotos flow past a point in a garden hose.
• Voltage: (V) =
Q (volts) is defined so the total over assignment (W) of joules required by motion a
certain amount concerning virtue from a certain location in conformity with another.
Another term for voltage is electric
potential. Electric modern desire float from a location about an excessive potential
(voltage) in imitation of an area of
low brawny (voltage). This is similar in imitation of lotus stream from a place concerning
excessive stress to a
region on ignoble pressure.
Ohm's law
Ohm’s law, an announcement regarding the relationship between current, voltage, and
resistance. The aggregation of consistent cutting-edge via a sizeable quantity on materials is
directly proportional in accordance with the brawny difference, and voltage, across the
materials. Thus, salvo the voltage V (in devices concerning volts) of pair ends over a wire
performed out of some about these materials is tripled, the present-day I (amperes) also
triples; then the quotient V/I remains constant. The quotient V/I because a devoted portion
of material is known as its resistance, R, reasonable into gadgets named ohms. The
hindrance concerning substances because of which Ohm’s regulation is valid does no
longer alternate on full-size degrees concerning voltage yet current. Ohm’s provision may
also remain expressed mathematically namely V/I = R. That the resistance, yet the ratio on
voltage in imitation of current, for whole and share about an electric anus at a fixed anger
is typically constant had been hooked up by way of 1827 as an end result on the
investigations on the German physicist Georg Simon Ohm.
Current Divider Rule (CDR)
Current Divider Circuits are parallelism circuits of as the source yet provide modern
divides in a range regarding analogy paths. In a compare related circuit, whole the factors
hold their terminals connected dividing the same pair cease nodes. These consequences into
extraordinary paths and branches for the modern to waft or pass by along. However, the
currents do hold exclusive values via each component.
The important characteristic concerning parallel circuits is up to expectation while they
can also occurrence distinctive currents gush through different branches, the voltage is
common by entire the connected paths. That is VR1 = VR2 = VR3 … etc. Therefore, the
need according to locate the single resistor voltages is eradicated allowing branch currents
according to lie without problems located including Kirchhoff’s Current Law, (KCL) and
on course Ohm’s Law.
Resistive Voltage Divider
The easiest after understand, then just simple structure concerning a dead current divider
network is as over twins’ resistors linked together between parallel. The Current Divider
Rule permits us according to reckon the cutting-edge drift through every balance resistive
department as a percentage concerning the amount current. Consider the circuit below.
Voltage Dividers Role
Voltage Divider Circuits are useful within imparting one-of-a-kind voltage tiers beyond a
common supply voltage. This frequent grant execute to be an individual provide either
positive than negative, for example, +5V, +12V, -5V then -12V, etc. along with respect in
conformity with a frequent factor or ground, usually 0V, and it ought to stay throughout a
dual supply, for example, ±5V, or ±12V, etc.
Voltage dividers are additionally regarded so strong dividers, because the unit on voltage,
the “Volt” represents the aggregate over the potential distinction between twain points. A
voltage or potent divider is an easy numb anus to that amount takes abilities on the impact
about voltages life dropped throughout factors as are related between series.
The potentiometer, who is an unstable resistor with a sliding contact, is the most
fundamental example on a voltage divider namely we may pray a voltage across its
terminals then outturn an output voltage among proportion in conformity with the
mechanical function about its sliding contact. But we perform also make voltage dividers
the usage of alone resistors, capacitors and inductors namely those are two-terminal factors
as perform remain related collectively of series.
Resistive Voltage Divider
The simplest, best after understand, and most primary structure concerning a passive
voltage divider network is so regarding twain resistors connected collectively between
series. This simple combination allows us in conformity which utilizes the Voltage Divider
Rule in conformity with tell the voltage drops across each sequence resistor.
Kirchhoff’s Current Law
To determine the volume yet magnitude concerning the electric modern-day gush round an
electrical and electronic circuit, we want after using absolute legal guidelines and
regulations so much allows to us in imitation of draw beneath it currents in the form over
an equation. The network equations back are those by Kirchhoff’s laws, yet so we are
behavior including anus currents, we desire to stand searching at Kirchhoff’s current law,
Gustav Kirchhoff’s Current Law is certain regarding the quintessential legal guidelines
ancient because of tour analysis. His contemporary rule states that for a compare direction
the quantity cutting-edge getting into a circuits league is exactly equal after the quantity
modern-day leaving the same junction. This is due to the fact it has no lousy vicinity by
pace so no cost is lost.
In mean words, the algebraic extent about ALL the currents getting into and leaving a
suture must remain amount after nil as Σ IIN = Σ IOUT.
This thought using Kirchhoff is frequently recognized so the Conservation concerning
Charge, as the modern-day is conserved around the junction along with no loss over
current. Let's appear at an easy instance concerning Kirchhoff’s present-day regulation
(KCL) now applied after an alone junction. (KCL)
Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)
Gustav Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law is the 2d over his quintessential laws we execute makes
use of because of circuit analysis. His voltage rule states so much for a closed-loop sequence
course the algebraic sum regarding all the voltages around any confined loop of an anus is
equal in imitation of zero. This is due to the fact a circuit loop is a close conducting path
then no energy is lost.
In mean phrases, the algebraic sum concerning ALL the dynamic differences around the
loop need to remain even in conformity with duck as ΣV = zero Note right here to that
amount the term “algebraic sum” skill in imitation of smoke between tab the polarities or
symptoms regarding the sources yet voltage drops around the loop.
This thinking by Kirchhoff is oftentimes recognized as like the Conservation over Energy,
namely shifting around a closed-loop, then circuit, ye will stop up lower back after the
place ye started of the anus yet therefore back in imitation of the identical initial main with
no deprivation regarding voltage around the loop. Hence anybody voltage drops around
the loop ought to keep equalize after somebody voltage sources met along the way.
So then applying Kirchhoff’s voltage system in conformity with a particular circuit
element, such is necessary so we grant-specific interest in imitation of the algebraic signs,
(+ yet -) over the voltage drops throughout elements and the emf’s over sources in any
other case our calculations might also lie wrong.
But earlier than we seem greater carefully at Kirchhoff’s voltage provision (KVL) lets first
recognize the voltage decline across an odd issue certain as a resistor.
The current in an
electrical circuit is
proportional to the
applied voltage
and inversely
proportional to the
We use the Ohm's
law to measure the
A parallel circuit
acts as a current
divider as the
current divides in
all the branches in
a parallel circuit,
and the voltage
remains the same
across them.
current divider
rule can also be
used to find
individual branch
currents when the
resistance and the
circuit current are
The voltage across
a resistor (V) in a
series circuit is
equal to the value
of that resistor (R)
times the total
applied voltage
divided (E) by the
total resistance
(RI) of the series
Voltage divider
circuits are used in
electronics to
supply a range of
voltages needed by
a system from a
single source.
Suppose, the values
of three resistors are
respectively R1, R2
and R3. One end of
each resistor is
connected at point A
and the other ends of
the resistors are
connected at B so
that same potential
difference (VA —
VB) exists between
two ends of each
resistor; here the
potential of points A
and B are
respectively VA and
The Voltage Divider
Rule (VDR) states
that the voltage
across an element or
across a
series combination
of elements in a
series circuit is equal
to the resistance of
the element or series
combination of
elements divided by
the total resistance
of the
series circuit
Ohm's law:
Ohm's law states that
the current I in a
resistor is proportional
to the potential
difference V across it,
provided that the
temperature of the
object is constant.
The sum of all the
currents entering
and leaving a node
is always equal to
It is used to solve
complex electrical
The sum of the
voltage drops
around any closed
loop is zero
It is used to solve
complex electrical
Kirchhoff’s current
law states that: At
any node (junction)
in an electrical
circuit, the sum of
currents flowing into
that node is equal to
the sum of currents
flowing out of that
node, or: The
algebraic sum of
currents in a
network of
conductors meeting
at a point is zero.
Kirchhoff’s voltage
law states that:
The directed sum of
the electrical
potential differences
(voltage) around any
closed network is
The solution 1: Node analysis
The Solution 2: Mesh Analysis
The Solution 3: Superposition Theorem
Since we noticed so much the current-voltage kin appears in conformity withstand the
identical as much some will increase the sordid increases also which proves to that amount
the modern-day voltage is at once proportional to every other subsequently ascertainment
to that amount Ohm's Law was once verified. The results near through it scan are
From the lab experiment, it is for this reason measured up to expectation between
collection anus the modern-day remains the equal but not of parallel. In parallelism
current divides of branches. Also, such is validated so much of sequence anus Kirchhoff's
Voltage Law is utilized since among analogy Kirchhoff's Current Law.