أوالً :البيانات الخاصة بالطالب (تملئ بمعرفة الطالب) الشعبة الفرقة الدراسية اسم المقرر كود المقرر عنوان البحث عنوان مناسب يختاره الطالب يعبر عن موضوع البحث ثانياً :البيانات الخاصة بالكونترول ناجح النتيجة األسماء أعضاء لجنة تقييم البحث 1 2 راسب التوقيع Introduction Ohm’s Law and Kirchhoff’s Laws are the almost necessary equipment old in the evaluation of electric and electronic circuits. The goal concerning applying its laws in imitation of a circuit is in conformity with determine the behavior of the voltages then current at some point in the circuit. This handout desire provides a precis on 3 laws as well so examples regarding their application. The Basics To function circuit analysis, that is essential in conformity with understanding fundamental terms yet units. • Current: I = Q t (amperes) where Q devices are coulombs (C) then represents the price passing a factor within the circuit, or t equals era of seconds (s). One coulomb is 6.238792×1018 electrons. This is comparable after the quantity of lotos flow past a point in a garden hose. • Voltage: (V) = W Q (volts) is defined so the total over assignment (W) of joules required by motion a certain amount concerning virtue from a certain location in conformity with another. Another term for voltage is electric potential. Electric modern desire float from a location about an excessive potential (voltage) in imitation of an area of low brawny (voltage). This is similar in imitation of lotus stream from a place concerning excessive stress to a region on ignoble pressure. Ohm's law Ohm’s law, an announcement regarding the relationship between current, voltage, and resistance. The aggregation of consistent cutting-edge via a sizeable quantity on materials is directly proportional in accordance with the brawny difference, and voltage, across the materials. Thus, salvo the voltage V (in devices concerning volts) of pair ends over a wire performed out of some about these materials is tripled, the present-day I (amperes) also triples; then the quotient V/I remains constant. The quotient V/I because a devoted portion of material is known as its resistance, R, reasonable into gadgets named ohms. The hindrance concerning substances because of which Ohm’s regulation is valid does no longer alternate on full-size degrees concerning voltage yet current. Ohm’s provision may also remain expressed mathematically namely V/I = R. That the resistance, yet the ratio on voltage in imitation of current, for whole and share about an electric anus at a fixed anger is typically constant had been hooked up by way of 1827 as an end result on the investigations on the German physicist Georg Simon Ohm. Current Divider Rule (CDR) Current Divider Circuits are parallelism circuits of as the source yet provide modern divides in a range regarding analogy paths. In a compare related circuit, whole the factors hold their terminals connected dividing the same pair cease nodes. These consequences into extraordinary paths and branches for the modern to waft or pass by along. However, the currents do hold exclusive values via each component. The important characteristic concerning parallel circuits is up to expectation while they can also occurrence distinctive currents gush through different branches, the voltage is common by entire the connected paths. That is VR1 = VR2 = VR3 … etc. Therefore, the need according to locate the single resistor voltages is eradicated allowing branch currents according to lie without problems located including Kirchhoff’s Current Law, (KCL) and on course Ohm’s Law. Resistive Voltage Divider The easiest after understand, then just simple structure concerning a dead current divider network is as over twins’ resistors linked together between parallel. The Current Divider Rule permits us according to reckon the cutting-edge drift through every balance resistive department as a percentage concerning the amount current. Consider the circuit below. Voltage Dividers Role Voltage Divider Circuits are useful within imparting one-of-a-kind voltage tiers beyond a common supply voltage. This frequent grant execute to be an individual provide either positive than negative, for example, +5V, +12V, -5V then -12V, etc. along with respect in conformity with a frequent factor or ground, usually 0V, and it ought to stay throughout a dual supply, for example, ±5V, or ±12V, etc. Voltage dividers are additionally regarded so strong dividers, because the unit on voltage, the “Volt” represents the aggregate over the potential distinction between twain points. A voltage or potent divider is an easy numb anus to that amount takes abilities on the impact about voltages life dropped throughout factors as are related between series. The potentiometer, who is an unstable resistor with a sliding contact, is the most fundamental example on a voltage divider namely we may pray a voltage across its terminals then outturn an output voltage among proportion in conformity with the mechanical function about its sliding contact. But we perform also make voltage dividers the usage of alone resistors, capacitors and inductors namely those are two-terminal factors as perform remain related collectively of series. Resistive Voltage Divider The simplest, best after understand, and most primary structure concerning a passive voltage divider network is so regarding twain resistors connected collectively between series. This simple combination allows us in conformity which utilizes the Voltage Divider Rule in conformity with tell the voltage drops across each sequence resistor. Kirchhoff’s Current Law To determine the volume yet magnitude concerning the electric modern-day gush round an electrical and electronic circuit, we want after using absolute legal guidelines and regulations so much allows to us in imitation of draw beneath it currents in the form over an equation. The network equations back are those by Kirchhoff’s laws, yet so we are behavior including anus currents, we desire to stand searching at Kirchhoff’s current law, (KCL). Gustav Kirchhoff’s Current Law is certain regarding the quintessential legal guidelines ancient because of tour analysis. His contemporary rule states that for a compare direction the quantity cutting-edge getting into a circuits league is exactly equal after the quantity modern-day leaving the same junction. This is due to the fact it has no lousy vicinity by pace so no cost is lost. In mean words, the algebraic extent about ALL the currents getting into and leaving a suture must remain amount after nil as Σ IIN = Σ IOUT. This thought using Kirchhoff is frequently recognized so the Conservation concerning Charge, as the modern-day is conserved around the junction along with no loss over current. Let's appear at an easy instance concerning Kirchhoff’s present-day regulation (KCL) now applied after an alone junction. (KCL) Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) Gustav Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law is the 2d over his quintessential laws we execute makes use of because of circuit analysis. His voltage rule states so much for a closed-loop sequence course the algebraic sum regarding all the voltages around any confined loop of an anus is equal in imitation of zero. This is due to the fact a circuit loop is a close conducting path then no energy is lost. In mean phrases, the algebraic sum concerning ALL the dynamic differences around the loop need to remain even in conformity with duck as ΣV = zero Note right here to that amount the term “algebraic sum” skill in imitation of smoke between tab the polarities or symptoms regarding the sources yet voltage drops around the loop. This thinking by Kirchhoff is oftentimes recognized as like the Conservation over Energy, namely shifting around a closed-loop, then circuit, ye will stop up lower back after the place ye started of the anus yet therefore back in imitation of the identical initial main with no deprivation regarding voltage around the loop. Hence anybody voltage drops around the loop ought to keep equalize after somebody voltage sources met along the way. So then applying Kirchhoff’s voltage system in conformity with a particular circuit element, such is necessary so we grant-specific interest in imitation of the algebraic signs, (+ yet -) over the voltage drops throughout elements and the emf’s over sources in any other case our calculations might also lie wrong. But earlier than we seem greater carefully at Kirchhoff’s voltage provision (KVL) lets first recognize the voltage decline across an odd issue certain as a resistor. Definition The current in an electrical circuit is directly proportional to the applied voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance. Usage We use the Ohm's law to measure the resistant. Theory CDR A parallel circuit acts as a current divider as the current divides in all the branches in a parallel circuit, and the voltage remains the same across them. current divider rule can also be used to find individual branch currents when the equivalent resistance and the total circuit current are known VDR The voltage across a resistor (V) in a series circuit is equal to the value of that resistor (R) times the total applied voltage divided (E) by the total resistance (RI) of the series configuration. Voltage divider circuits are used in electronics to supply a range of voltages needed by a system from a single source. Suppose, the values of three resistors are respectively R1, R2 and R3. One end of each resistor is connected at point A and the other ends of the resistors are connected at B so that same potential difference (VA — VB) exists between two ends of each resistor; here the potential of points A and B are respectively VA and VB. The Voltage Divider Rule (VDR) states that the voltage across an element or across a series combination of elements in a series circuit is equal to the resistance of the element or series combination of elements divided by the total resistance of the series circuit Ohm's law: Ohm's law states that the current I in a resistor is proportional to the potential difference V across it, provided that the temperature of the object is constant. KCL The sum of all the currents entering and leaving a node is always equal to Zero It is used to solve complex electrical circuit. KVL The sum of the voltage drops around any closed loop is zero It is used to solve complex electrical circuit. Kirchhoff’s current law states that: At any node (junction) in an electrical circuit, the sum of currents flowing into that node is equal to the sum of currents flowing out of that node, or: The algebraic sum of currents in a network of conductors meeting at a point is zero. Kirchhoff’s voltage law states that: The directed sum of the electrical potential differences (voltage) around any closed network is zero, The solution 1: Node analysis The Solution 2: Mesh Analysis The Solution 3: Superposition Theorem Conclusion Since we noticed so much the current-voltage kin appears in conformity withstand the identical as much some will increase the sordid increases also which proves to that amount the modern-day voltage is at once proportional to every other subsequently ascertainment to that amount Ohm's Law was once verified. The results near through it scan are satisfactory. From the lab experiment, it is for this reason measured up to expectation between collection anus the modern-day remains the equal but not of parallel. In parallelism current divides of branches. Also, such is validated so much of sequence anus Kirchhoff's Voltage Law is utilized since among analogy Kirchhoff's Current Law.