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Faculty of Engineering Technology
Semester I, Session 2019/2020
FACILITY LAYOUT IMPROVEMENT AT ERUL FOOD
INDUSTRY: A SIMULATION
Nur Lyana Syahirah Suriansah, Salwa Mahmood1, Muhammad Khairul Samat2
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Tun
Hussein Onn Malaysia, Pagoh Campus, KM 1 Jalan Panchor, 84600 Pagoh, Johor
2
Erul Food Industries, Kampung Pekan Pedas, 71409 Rembau, Negeri Sembilan
*Corresponding E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract
Simulation is a problem solving methodology for the solution of many real world problems. By using
simulation, planner can compare different alternatives. Simulation study various scenarios to determine if the
layout would be more effective for the workers to work at the workstations. The main objective of this project
is to simulate the improvement of the develop layout by using FlexSim software. This project was held at
Erul Food Industry, a small industry that producing frozen smoked meats which located at Rembau, Negeri
Sembilan. SketchUp software and FlexSim software are the tools used to design and analysed the developed
layout for Erul Food Industry. The workstation is measured before start the design process. Next, SketchUp
software was applied for design process. Then, this project start the simulation using FlexSim software.
Processor staytime, processor operation, content VS time, processor time and financial analysis data are being
gathered and observed. The total running time for the developed layout Design 1 was recorded for 1021.13
minutes, Design 2 recorded as 1020.96 minutes, while the total running time of Design 3 was 1021.24
minutes. Meanwhile, for cost analysis, the cost recorded for Design 1 is RM 13785.31, RM 13782.94 for
Design 2 and lastly, RM 13786.68 recorded for Design 3. Overall, comparison had been made to choose the
developed layout that had optimum time and cost analysis. Then, the chosen developed layout, which is
Design 2 is selected and will be proposed to Erul Food Industry. It is expected that this project will help Erul
Food Industry to develop the real layout in order to optimize the time and cost analysis at the workstations.
Keywords: Simulation, Layout, Time analysis, Cost analysis, SME
1.0
Introduction
Manufacturing facilities design can be explained as the organization of physical facilities
to promote the efficient use of the resources such as people, equipment, material and energy. This
facilities design includes the plant layout, plant location, building design and material handling [1].
This leads to a requirement of a company to produce a work layout that need to be considered. In
many cases, a company may need to develop their products and enhance a new variant product [2]
[3]. This development requires a facility layout of the design which must fulfill the different aspects
to achieve the desired production. The facility layout considers as the way to develop the company
especially in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Facilities layout at SMEs is one of the
requirements for an industry to work efficiently as operator works on more than one workstation.
It is desired to arrange the workstations in such way operator able to easily and safely move from
one station to another [4]. Other than that, SMEs required an improvement on the facility layout in
order to expand the company and mostly to control ergonomics.
This project is conducted at SMEs selected which is Erul Food Industry which is known as
Salaiport in advertisement. The demand of customers for the product is outstanding since their
company become well known. Currently there is no layout at Erul Food Industry because the
company operate manually in house. The main aim of this project is to propose design of several
layout for Erul Food Industry. Hence, the selected layout is expected to optimize the working time
and cost for a facility layout that have been improved.
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2.0
Literature Review
Facilities planning provides support in the development, evaluation and justification of
facility needs [5]. In facilities planning, it can be facilitating any production tasks which the
machines tools, department, production stations and many more. There are several factors that need
to be taken into consideration when planning the facilities layout which is safety, ergonomics and
operator references [6]. Layout is process in general to an efficient way for place equipment in the
building which meeting the criteria of constraints a space, surrounding the areas and legislations
concerning on the ergonomics or the safety [7]. In this case, layout development is related to the
process on improving the facility layout. The optimal for the facility layout is an effective tool in
the cost reduction. This can be done by enhancing the productivity of the facility layout. Facility
layout involves the physical arrangement of different workstations, machines, equipment and
storage areas in the industry [8].
2.1
Previous Research Work on Facility Layout Improvement
Table 1 shows the previous research work on facilities layout improvement.
Table 1: Previous research on facilities layout improvement with or without simulation
References
Title
Findings
Simulation
[9]
Analysis
and
Simulation of Factory
Layout using ARENA.
The efficiency depends on the
various production facilities,
location of machine in a plant and
amenities.
Yes – Arena Simulation
Software.
[10]
Facility
Layout
Improvement Model
using Ergonomics and
Layout Simulations.
Case study revealed the existing
process and layout produced
unproductive time and reduced the
total units produced. Ergonomic
phased showed several factors that
causes higher ergonomic risks
among workers.
Yes
–
Simulation.
[11]
Facility
Layout
Simulation
and
Optimization:
An
Integration of Advance
Quality and DecisionMaking Tools and
Techniques.
The result of the simulation is to
develop the model that represents
real life scenarios, to identify
bottlenecks and to enhance the
system
performance
in
productivity.
Yes – Arena Simulation
Software.
[12]
Ergonomics
and
simulation-based
approach in improving
facility layout.
Analysis revealed the delays in the
operation during movement of
material.
Yes
–
Simulation.
Promodel
Promodel
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Table 1: Previous research on facility layout improvement with or without simulation (continue)
2.2
[13]
Simulation-based
Optimization
for
Facility Layout Design
in Conditions of High
Uncertainty.
Case show conceptual modelling
activities for facility layout design
are
determined
by
the
characterization
criteria.
Conceptual model development
requires transferring from high
level to lower level uncertainty.
Yes – Simulation-based
Optimization.
[14]
Improvement
of
Facility Layout by
Using Data Mining
Algorithm and an
Application.
Based on the First Directive
Connect (FDC) algorithm shows
decreasing number of step due to
the facility layout improvement.
No.
[15]
Improvement
of
Facility Layout Using
Systematic
Layout
Planning.
Systematic Layout Planning (SLP)
proved that procedural tool can be
used for designing layout
improvement.
No.
[16]
Facility
Layout
Improvement: Based
on Safety and Health at
Work and Standards of
Food
Production
Facility.
The results of calculations show
minimize difference between total
distance of displacement and total
displacement design layout. The
total time of design layout is
reducing from the total time of
initial layout design.
No.
[17]
Increasing
Productivity through
Facility
Layout
Improvement
using
Systematic
Layout
Planning
Pattern
Theory.
The total material handling costs is
reduced due to reduction of
distance between workflow and
smooth flow of material through
the cycle.
No.
Ergonomic Related to Facility Layout
Ergonomics can be defined as the science of designing the job or task to fit the worker instead
of worker to fit into the job [18]. Ergonomics due to lack of facility layout affecting the workers
from getting high risk category of injuries. For examples, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and
fatigue. Besides, ergonomic workstations are important at the production line which from the
stations it can adverse effect on worker’s performance. MSDs are injuries or pain in human
musculoskeletal system including tendons, joints, muscle, ligaments and nerves [19]. Some task at
the workstations requires workers to stand for a long time which can cause back pain. MSDs can
be preventing by designing efficient ergonomics design of the workstations. Meanwhile, fatigue
can be defined as the state of feeling tires, weary or sleepy which causes from insufficient sleep,
stress and doing physical work repetitive [20]. Fatigue can increase the risk of damages and
accidents at the workstations if ergonomics problem is not fixed. In order to reduce fatigue among
worker, ergonomic design at the workstations is important as it is included to shorten the length of
time-on-task and work pace [21].
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2.3
MeSTI Checklist
Based on MeSTI checklist, every premises especially for SMEs food premises must have
MeSTI certification that provided by Food Hygiene Regulation 2009 [22]. Table 2 summarized the
checklist element that needed for the develop layout at Erul Food Industry. This checklist of
elements is one of method and need to be referred to design properly the workstations.
Table 2: MeSTI Checklist [22]
No
Element
Sub-Element
Descriptions
Related with
Layout (/)
Separation cutting board
which is for a raw material
/
and dry material
Calibration measurement
tool
Water supply
/
Closed container
/
Sink (Hand free operated)
/
Soap or liquid (Dispenser)
Hand wash sink
Tissue or hand dryer
Closed dustbin (Hand free
operated)
Toilet
Not directed opened
Changing room
Must have at least one
Separation chemical
equipment with others
Storage room or store
Good ventilations and
temperature
/
/
/
Poster of procedure and
material record
Washing facilities
2
Raw materials controls
Processing activities
Must have the facilities
Washing procedures
Cannot be operate on the
floor
3
Packaging controls
Packaging activities
Cannot be operate on the
floor
Separation
4
Food and non-food are
stored separately
Storage controls
System
/
Used FIFO/FEFO
/
/
/
/
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Table 2: MeSTI checklist [22] (continue)
Distance between food and
the floor is 20 cm, food
/
and wall are 15 cm
Raw food with processed
foods is stored separately
2.4
/
Simulation by FlexSim Software
Simulation literally defined as the experimental technique that is usually performed on a
computer. Simulation is used to analyse any real-world problem that related and can be solved by
using the simulation [23]. Simulation advantage are that the possibility to compare different
alternatives and to analyse the long-term behavior of a system [2, 24]. FlexSim is a software that
using 3D simulation that can models, simulated, predicts, and visualize systems [25]. FlexSim is
suited to production manufacturing, storage and delivery as well as for the operation model to
realize the simulation experiment [26]. FlexSim also designed to reduce cost and increase revenue.
This method is to study the effect on the simulation and prioritize the possible problem in the
simulation [27].
3.0
Methodology
The steps of this methodology is focused on the development of the layout and the simulation
of the layout. Workstations measurement and SketchUp software are direct observational method
to develop the facility layout. The simulation of the developed layout are analysed using FlexSim
software. Then the comparison of time and cost analysis are made for choosing the best developed
layout.
Start
Observing the current
facilities layout
Develop the layout design
Proposed layout design
Simulation analysis result
No
Action level
(Satisfied?)
Yes
Report writing
End
Figure 1: Flowchart of methodology
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3.1
Workstations Measurement
Measurement of workstations and layout were essential to make sure the layout of
workstations is efficient for workers to work. These workstations was measured using one
instrument which is a measuring tape. For this instrument, the most suitable type of measuring tape
used is long tape. This long tape is designed for engineers and builders to measure large, long and
wide distance [28]. This instrument also used to measure every length, width and height of every
workstations at Erul Food Industry.
3.2
SketchUp Software
SketchUp software was developed by company @Last Software of Boulder, Colorado, by
co-founded Brad Schell and Joe Esch [29]. SketchUp software is 3D modelling computer program
which focusing on drawing interior design for industry. It also for drawing application such as
interior design, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, film and video game design [30]. In
SketchUp software, it includes the functionality of drawing own design and allow variable styles
of surface design. By designing the develop layout of workstations at Erul Food Industry, it is
expected to minimize any risk factors at the workstations as well as reduce the time and cost of
production at the workstations. Step 1 until step 7 shows the steps of developing layout using
SketchUp software.






Step 1: SketchUp software will start with various type of template after opening the software.
Step 2: After choosing the template, the unit of template is change to feet.
Step 3: The layout then put with dimensions after designing the layout.
Step 4: After that, the develop layout is decorated to shows real design of the layout.
Step 5: The develop layout is then labelled.
Step 6: Figure 2 shows the real develop layout after being labelled and all dimensions is
removed.
 Step 7: Lastly, the develop layout is save as .skp file.
Figure 2: Real develop layout
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3.3
FlexSim Software
FlexSim software is developed by Bill Nordregen which is software that using of 3D
simulation that can solved the real-world problem [31]. The simulation of the FlexSim software can
model, simulates, predicts and visualize systems. The simulation of the FlexSim software requires
the layout or problem that consists the design for the problem that needed to be solve. This
simulation will analyse the layout and identify a solution to the simulation product which is the
optimization to the improvement of the layout. This result of optimization may able to reduce the
time of producing products and reducing cost.
4.0
Data Analysis and Result
The result and analysis of the project were discussed and shows the develop layout was
designed using SketchUp software for Erul Food Industry. The simulation of the develop layout
was simulate using the FlexSim software.
4.1
Develop Layout of SketchUp Software
The develop layout for workstations of Erul Food Industry were design using the SketchUp
software based on measurement that suitable for the workstations. Three layouts were design for
Erul Food Industry, with each layout has different position of workstations and different shaped
production line. Figure 3 until Figure 8 show the design of layouts. As for Design 1, Figure 3 shows
the 3D layout design of the develop layout while Figure 4 shows the top view of the develop layout
Design 1.
Figure 3: 3D layout design of develop layout Design 1
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Figure 4: Top view of develop layout Design 1
For Design 2, the 3D layout design of the develop layout shows in Figure 5. Next, Figure 6
shows the top view of the develop layout Design 2. The difference between Design 1 and Design 2
is the position of workstations and the route of flow product. Other than that, for this design it only
had one way in and one way out while Design 1 had two ways that is for way in and other for way
out.
Figure 5: 3D layout design of develop layout Design 2
Figure 6: Top view of develop layout Design 2
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Figure 7 and Figure 8 shows the 3D layout and top view design of develop layout Design
3. The different of this design layout from Design 1 and Design 2 is the position of the smoker
except that position of smoker in Design 1 and Design 2 are at the same place. For Design 3, the
smoker is placed outside the building while Design 1 and Design 2, it is placed inside the building.
Other than that, Design 1 and Design 3 had a U-shaped production line and Design 2 had a gridline
production line.
Figure 7: 3D layout design of develop layout Design 3
Figure 8: Top view of develop layout Design 3
The measurement of the workstations as shown is Table 3. The measurement of the
workstations was in unit of feet.
Table 3: Measurement of stations for the develop layout
No
Stations
Measurement (feet)
Units
Cost (RM)
Length x Width x
Height
1
Freezer
5 x 2.5 x 1.5
1
1699
2
Sink
3 x 2.5 x 0.3
2
900
3
Marinated table
5 x 2.5 x 1
1
500
4
Working table
5 x 2.5 x 1
1
300
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Table 3: Measurement of stations for the develop layout (continue)
5
Smoker
7x6x3
1
3000
6
Conveyor
-
1
208
7
Meat rest table
5 x 2.5 x 1
1
300
8
Table
3 x 2.5 x 1
1
150
9
Meat slicer
5 x 2.5 x 1
1
1800
10
Weigh table
5 x 2.5 x 1
1
500
11
Packaging
5 x 2.5 x 1
1
4000
12
Finish product freezer
10 x 2.5 x 1.5
1
2199
4.2
Time and Cost Analysis
Time and cost of the develop design are analyse using the simulation of FlexSim software.
This data gathering optimize the workflow at the workstations. This simulation also visualizes the
results of proposed develop layout at Erul Food Industry. The data decided using chart templates in
the simulation. After the simulation run, the study on the data outputs be export. The simulation of
FlexSim software gather the data of this project to help Erul Food Industry making decisions.
Moreover, this simulation helps to optimize the time and cost at the workstations.
4.2.1 Time and Cost Result for Design 1
By referring Figure 9, processor operation show that the marinated table processing 57.51%
of the product while the working table already processing the product in 28.76%. Operator 1 also
fully utilize at the initial of the simulation. As for content VS time, for marinated table, the time for
one batch of product to finish is 120 minutes which ended at 09:00 am. Then continue to 10:00 am
where the product completed process at working table workstation. For processor time, it shows
that the marinated table processing until 09:00:08 am then go to idle time when it is finish processed.
Then the working table is in idle state from 07:00 am to 09:00:08 am and start processing for 60
minutes. Finally, financial analysis shows that for the cost the processor at the initial of the
simulation is the value runs for RM 2799.42.
Figure 9: Initial data from simulation Design 1
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During the intermediate of the simulation as shown in Figure 10, the product completed the
process at meat slicer workstation at 21.82% and at weight table with 5.32%. However, operator 1
only utilize for 72.73% while operator 2 utilize for 27.14% since the raw material section processing
is finished. As for content VS time, shows that the smoker stations finish processing for 420 minutes
around 05:00 pm while the meat slicer ended process for 120 minutes at 08:00 pm. Next, processor
time also shows that smoker started to be processing at 10:00:17 am. The processor time also shows
operator 1 started utilize from 07:00 am. Then at the intermediate data shows the cost that runs
through the processor are RM 11132.01.
Figure 10: Intermediate data from simulation Design 1
At the final data of the simulation from Figure 11, shows that all the workstations reached
100% of the operation. The final data content VS time shows that the weight process continue for
60 minutes and the packaging process completed for 180 minutes before entering the finished
product freezer. Next, on data processor time for smoker is processing from 10:00:17 am until
05:00:17 pm and be in idle state after 05:00:17 pm. For meat slicer, it is being in idle state from
morning until it starts to process at 05:00:58 pm then the weight processing continues from 08:01:02
pm. It is also shows that operator 2 started to utilize on 05:00:58 pm while operator 1 started to be
in idle state at 05:00:17 pm. Lastly, the final data of the simulation on financial analysis shows that
overall cost of the process in Design 1 is RM 13785.31 with total run time 1021.13 minutes as
shown in Figure 12.
Figure 11: Final data from simulation Design 1
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Figure 12: Simulation Design 1
4.2.2 Time and Cost Result for Design 2
Based on Figure 13, the processing operation showing the operation of marinated table at
56.72% while the working table operate for 28.36%. In the initial data also shows the operator 1 is
utilize 100%. In data of content VS time Design 2 show the content for one batch of product is
started at 07:00 am and ended at 09:00 am for marinated table workstations. For working table
workstations, the content started to process at 09:00 am and finish processing at 10:00 am. Next,
the processor time for the initial data of the simulation showing that the marinated table started to
process at 07:00:08 am and ended at 09:00:08 am. For working table, the workstation started to
process at 09:00:12 am while being idle before the process started. The process then finished at
10:00:12 am with total duration process of 60 minutes. Financial analysis of the simulation Design
2 shows the cost of the process started at RM 2840.84.
Figure 13: Initial data of simulation Design 2
From Figure 14, the intermediate data of processor operations showing that the marinated
table is operated for 12.71% and working table for 6.36%. Then the smoker showing the operations
processor for 44.50% while the meat slicer operated at 18.07%. The weight processing operated
6.36% and the packaging workstation at 10.91%. It is also showing that the operator 1 started to be
being idle and operator 2 started to utilize at 36.33%. For content VS time, the product continues at
smoker workstations which ended process at 05:00 pm. The product enters the meat slicer
workstation at 05:00 pm, continue for about 180 minutes and 60 minutes at weight workstations. In
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data of processor time, the smoker can be seen started to process at 12:00:17 pm while being idle
at 05:00:17 pm. The weight workstation started to work from 08:00:52 pm while the packaging
started process of product at 09:00:57 pm. After that, the intermediate data of Design 2 shows that
the cost running across the processor is RM 12726.45.
Figure 14: Intermediate data of simulation Design 2
For the final data of the processor operation, the total operation percentage would be 100%
after finishing one batch of product. From Figure 15, the process packaging started at 09:00 pm and
ended after 180 minutes for content VS time. In the final data of the simulation, the process ended
at 12:00:52 am. At the end of the simulation, the cost that provide is RM 13782.94 with total run
time 1020.96 minutes as shows in Figure 16.
Figure 15: Final data of simulation Design 2
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Figure 16: Simulation Design 2
4.2.3 Time and Cost Result for Design 3
By referring Figure 17, processor operation show that the initial data, the marinated table
workstation operated for 58.09% and the working table workstation operate for 28.09%. After being
idle for 87.23%, the smoker started to process at 12.72%. As for content VS time at marinated table,
showing that the one batch of product completed at 09:00 am and continue at 09:00 am with working
table workstation. Then the processor time show the process started to produce at 07:00:08 am
where the process ended at 09:00:08 am and continue to another workstation which is working table
at 09:00:12 am. The financial analysis of Design 2 simulation cost started with RM 2779.40.
Figure 17: Initial data of simulation Design 3
Figure 18 show the smoker process for 48.27% and meat slicer started to operate at 20.69%.
Then the weight workstation operate at 6.09%. The product then flows through smoker workstation
at 10:00 am as shown in intermediate data for content VS time. After that, the process of product
goes to meat slicer where the product started process at 05:00 pm and ended at 08:00 pm. From the
graph of content VS time, can be seen that weight workstation started to process at 08:00 pm,
continue process for 60 minutes. Next for processor time, the process of product goes to smoker for
duration 420 minutes, from 10:00:18 am until 05:01:04 pm and the weight table workstation from
08:01:09 pm. The cost continue running through the process for RM 11747.21.
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Figure 18: Intermediate data of simulation Design 3
For the final data, the packaging operates for 17.63% and the operator 1 utilize for 58.75%
while operator 2 for 41.13%. At the final data of content VS time, the process packaging started at
09:00 pm until it finished process for duration 180 minutes. For processor time, before the product
stores in the finished product freezer, it goes packaging process for duration 180 minutes which
started at 09:01:14 pm. Meanwhile, the operator 1 started to utilize from 07:00:08 am until 05:00:18
pm then continue idle. For operator 2, it being idle from 07:00:00 am and started to utilize from
05:01:04 pm. Lastly, the financial analysis state that the cost running through the process of one
batch product is RM 13786.86 with total running time for 1021.24 minutes as shown in Figure 19
and Figure 20 respectively.
Figure 19: Final data of simulation Design 3
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Figure 20: Simulation Design 3
4.3
Comparison of Time and Cost Analysis
For the development of the layout, three design was developed for Erul Food Industry. These
three designs was simulated using the FlexSim software to gather the time and cost analysis. The
comparison for the three developed layout was to decide and choose the proper facility layout for
Erul Food Industry. This comparison had to choose based on minimum time processing and cost at
the workstations.
The running time of the simulations of the develop layout designs is difference which layout
Design 2 had lower running time compare to another two layout designs. The total running time for
layout Design 2 is 1020.96 minutes while the total running time Design 1 is 1021.13 minutes and
for layout Design 3 is 1021.24 minutes. The processor time between the three layouts design only
differed by milli-second. Due to the shaped line production in the three layout design, the processor
time between the designs is affected. However, from the total running time of the production, the
best design can be chosen for Erul Food Industry for implementation purpose.
Based on the analysis and result of three develop layout, it shows that cost for Design 2 is
lower than layout Design 1 and Design 3. According to financial analysis of the simulation, layout
Design 3 has the highest cost between the three designs which is RM 13786.68 while Design 1
shows cost of RM 13785.31 and follow by Design 2 which is RM 13782.94. The cost analysis
showing that it flow through the workstations by state time which is in this workstations is RM
13.50 per time for each workstations. The financial analysis also affected by the shaped of the
production line of the workstations and the running time of the product to complete. It can be
concluded that the shorter the total running time of production, the lower the cost for the production.
5.0
Conclusions
The aim of this research is to optimize the time and cost analysis for the workstations at
Erul Food Industry. Developed layout of workstations are designed using SketchUp software and
simulated using FlexSim software to optimize the time and cost analysis of the workstations. Three
developed layout was designed to make a comparison which developed layout were better. Then,
simulation have been successfully done for Design 1, Design 2 and Design 3. From the time and
cost analysis that have been made, Design 1 had total running time of 1021.13 minutes and cost
analysis of RM 13785.31. As for Design 2, it had total running time of 1020.96 minutes and total
cost RM 13782.94 while for Design 3, the total running time of workstations is 1021.21 minutes
and total cost RM 13786.68. Lastly, comparison was made for every developed layout and shows
that Design 2 is more suitable since it has more minimum time and cost analysis. This developed
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layout chosen and will be proposed to Erul Food Industry for consideration. This is important to
ensure Erul Food Industry had a proper facility layout to improve the work efficiency.
Acknowledgement
Authors thank the Research University Grant which is Tier 1 Scheme (Grant No. H250), Universiti
Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) for the research fund. The author grateful to the Faculty of
Engineering Technology (UTHM) and Erul Food Industries Sdn Bhd for the research supports and
opportunities.
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