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ELM200 T1.CognitiveDevelopmentTable 6

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Cognitive Development Table
Cognitive
Development Concept
Piaget
Sensorimotor stage
Example that Could be
Observed in an
Elementary Classroom
Developmentally
Appropriate Learning
Activity
The child is playing
with a toy that is circle
shaped with different
shapes cut out all
around it. The child has
to take the different
shaped blocks and put
them into the right
shape. But the child is
doing this incorrectly.
Children can usually
Children sometimes
think figuratively
role-play, and they
around the ages of 2 to might use a car as a
6. Sometime during this telephone, or they might
age group there is an
use a piece of paper as a
expansion in a child’s
telescope. This is called
linguistic abilities, but
pretending.
they are incapable of
logical reasoning at this
age (Ormrod & Jones,
2018).
The teacher can teach the
child where the shape
should go on the toy so
the child can learn how to
correctly insert the toy.
Definition
It starts when a baby is
born and goes up until
they are 2. The child
uses his/her sensations
to help them relate with
their environments.
Preoperational stage
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Having a center in the
classroom where the
children can play dress up,
and they can act out the
role they are dressed up
as, for instance, if a child
puts on a nurse outfit then
they would act like a
nurse, taking a pulse,
blood pressure,
temperature etc..
Concrete operations
stage
Children start having
adult like thoughts
starting between the
ages of 7 to 11. They
do have a narrow way
of thinking about truelife specific
circumstances.
(Ormrod & Jones,
2018, p. 218).
A child is now able to
organize various items
into two or more distinct
groups (Ormrod &
Jones, 2018, p. 218).
The teacher can give a
student a certain number
of blocks. For instance,
the teacher gives her
student 30 blocks the
teacher assembles the
blocks into three separate
stacks and then asks the
student if the number of
blocks remain the same or
are there extra or are there
a smaller amount than
before.
Formal operations stage
11 to 12 is the start of
rational thinking and
processes are utilized to
hypothetical concepts
and specific items and
circumstances. At
sometime during this
period students will
have skills that appear
and will be necessary
for further thinking in
science and math
(Ormrod & Jones,
2018, p. 218).
During this time in the
classroom the students
is making plausible
assumptions from
proposed theories.
In the classroom the
teacher can have students
work a problem and then
the teacher can have the
students assess the result
to the theory.
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Assimilation
Assimilation is reacting
to and maybe
understanding an item
or experience in a way
that’s reliable with and
current arrangement
(Ormrod & Jones,
2018, p. 212).
When the student hears
a bell, they know it is
time to finish the
assignment that the
teacher has given them.
Fire alarms, tornado
alarms can make for chaos
in the classroom. The
teacher can show the
students how to stay calm
and listen to directions
during one of these
alarms.
Accommodation
Children have a hard
time when they are
presented with a new
item or applying their
current arrangements,
so they also alter the
current arrangement for
a new one (Ormrod &
Jones, 2018).
The teacher can make a
lesson that teaches the
students about the
differences between these
animals.
Equilibration
The effort to move
from stability to
instability and back to
stability yet again
(Ormrod & Jones,
2018, p. 215).
A child no matter what
age does not develop
All children associate
one word with two
different things such as
a snake. When a child
learns what a snake is,
they will then call a
worm a snake, because
they think they are the
same because they are
long, slimy and can
move the same way.
A child can tell the
difference between two
things such as a worm
and a snake and can
correctly classify them.
Role of diversity
In the classroom you
will see games, toys,
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The teacher can make a
lesson that shows different
animals and how they
look different, feel
different, what the
differences are in general.
In the classroom the
teacher needs to try new
Social construction of
meaning
Vygotsky
Mediated learning
Internalization
Inner speech
like everyone else.
Every child develops
differently, and they
also act differently
when presented with
the same situations.
Students are allowed to
work together so that
they can find the
solution to a problem.
puzzles and educational
devices that are suitable
for the age of the
children.
Looking around the
classroom you would
see students sitting in
groups working together
to get a solution for the
problem.
and different ways to keep
students interested and
involved in the classroom.
The teacher can make a
lesson that includes all
students. Some students
can be helping other
students solve a problem
and this helps create
social connections.
Social collaboration
This activity can be seen The teacher can put new
where an adult is going by putting different
objects in the boxes that
to help a child
things in separate boxes, are hard, soft, rough
understand a trend or
such as cooked noodles, texture and slimy. As the
experience (typically
pudding, rocks, etc. and students feel the different
ethnically suitable)
the students are sticking objects the teacher can tell
methods (Ormrod &
their hands in the boxes them what feeling senses
Jones, 2018, p. Gr 4).
feeling these different
they are having.
objects.
Internalization is when This is usually seen
The teacher can have a
a person who is
when young children
lesson plan that allows the
learning is slowly
begin to converse with
student to speak and make
integrating communally others.
word sounds to help
centered events to his
further the child’s
or her inner mental
development.
activity. (Ormrod &
Jones, 2018, p. G-4).
This is a method of
This can be seen when a The teacher can give the
someone talking to
student is working alone students a lesson on lists,
themselves to steer
on a math problem,
for instance she can give
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Scaffolding
Zone of proximal
development (ZPD)
them psychologically
instead of talking out
loud. (Ormrod & Jones,
2018, p. G-4).
This is a type of
support system that will
help a student
effectively execute a
difficult assignment
(Ormrod & Jones,
2018, p. 117).
reading, etc. You might
even see their mouth
moving.
them a task list or can
give a lesson on
sequential order.
You will see this in the
classroom anytime an
adult or student is
helping a student to
achieve their goals.
The teacher can make the
harder lessons into smaller
lessons and work with the
students who are
struggling with the
concept the teacher is
trying to teach. Once the
student/students learn the
concept the teacher can
then move on to the next
part of the lesson and keep
doing this procedure until
the students have
conquered the key goal.
These are tasks that
children need help
perform. They cannot
do them on their own
but can accomplish the
task with help (Ormrod
& Jones, 2018, p. 216).
You will see this in the
classroom when a child
asks for help or when
they ask someone a
question about the
information.
A good lesson would be to
put high students in a
group of low students.
Students that are high will
help the low students with
the material. This also
helps the students to learn
to work in groups.
Students are now helping
each other to problem
solve.
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Role of diversity
The belief of Vygotsky
was that children
developed differently,
and it was influenced
by communal and
intellectual conditions.
A diverse classroom
will show how students
are growing.
The teacher’s lesson
should be able to adapt to
each child on their
developmental stage.
Reflection
Not everyone can agree on the cognitive development of elementary students. If you look at the chart above, you can see that Piaget
and Vygotsky had two different opinions on cognitive development and show how development is different in everyone. For instance,
Piaget felt that the cognitive development of a child happened during different ages start from when the child is born. Vygotsky did
not agree with Piaget because he was not as rigorous with his ideas on mental expansion. I will reflect on how the concepts that are
associated to elementary children educational learning procedure, mental growth ideas when preparing for teaching, and
developmentally suitable learning events.
Piaget and Vygotsky had two different opinions on cognitive development. Piaget felt that children could gain their own
knowledge by themselves. For instance, using paints, playing with blocks or just playing alone. He felt that children enthusiastically
try to make sense of the environment applying equilibration (Ormrod & Jones, 2018).
Vygotsky believed societal contact plays a big role in a child’s learning. Because of children interacting with other people,
including their parents, classmates, and teachers it is a continuous learning process. Vygotsky’s theory also suggests that the ethnic
legacy of a child is a component in his/her mental growth (Ormrod & Jones, 2018). His theory also suggests that a child’s mental
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growth occurs when new data is just beyond the zone in which a child can identify on their own, this is known as the Zone of
Proximal Development (Ward & Lee, 2005).
When making lesson plans and instructions it is crucial to maintain ideas like the ones above to help your students to succeed. If
the teacher decides that he/she likes Piaget’s theory, then the teacher would need to make sure that the lessons that are taught are age
appropriate. If the teacher decides to go with Vygotsky’s theory, then the teacher will introduce things to students that are a little bit
harder for the child to master. Teacher must be aware of how advanced their student is when they are making lesson plans. If the
lesson is too hard for some students, then the teacher might step in and put those children in a small group and break it down for them
until they understand the task (Ormrod & Jones. 2018). These methods are a great way for teachers because it will help them plan their
lessons and instruction and it can also help them meet the needs of their students.
It is important for teachers to have age appropriate materials for their students. These materials can be books, puzzles, memory
games, math and science materials. For instance, for fourth and fifth grade students you can use activities that include cooking because
the student must use fractions, puzzles organizing and categorizing different items. These can help the student’s problem solve and
conclude on how to find the answer to the problem (Ormrod & Jones, 2018). Teachers must remember to keep everything age
appropriate and the teacher must leave room in the lesson plans for any type of modification to meet the requirements of the pupils.
This will help the students recollect the idea of the lesson.
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Reference
McLeod, S. A. (2019, April 09). Sensorimotor stage. Simply psychology: https://www.simplypsychology.org/sensorimotor.html
Ormrod, J.E., & Jones, B.D. (2018). Essentials of Educational Psychology: Big Ideas to Guide Effective Teaching. (5th ed). Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
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Ward, P., and M. Lee. 2005. “Peer-Assisted Learning in Physical Education: A Review of Theory and Research.” Journal of Teaching
in Physical Education 24 (3): 205–225. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2013.868875
© 2018. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.
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