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Grammar u5

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Adjectives and Articles
An adjective is a word that describes a noun or pronoun. An adjective
usually comes before the word it describes, but it can also follow the
noun or pronoun. Many adjectives answer the question What kind?
They describe color, shape, size, sound, taste, touch, or smell. Other
adjectives answer the question How many? or Which one?
A careless camper can cause a fire. Wildfires are scary.
My sleeping bag is resistant to flames.
There are four fires in that area.
The smokejumpers jumped from an airplane into the heart of a firestorm.
A, an, and the are special adjectives called articles. A and an are
used only with singular nouns. Use a before words that begin with a
consonant sound. Use an before words that begin with a vowel sound
or a silent h. The is used with both singular and plural nouns.
• Proper adjectives are formed from proper nouns.
Proper Nouns
America, California, Alaska
Proper Adjectives American, Californian, Alaskan
Adjectives can be used to combine short related sentences:
Firefighters are dedicated. They are also brave.
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Firefighters are dedicated and brave.
Directions Underline each adjective and circle each article.
1. A spark from a small fire set off the huge wildfire.
2. This forest has been here for many centuries.
3. The men dug a ditch between the fire and the Californian town.
4. A strong wind blew hot sparks to new areas.
Directions Choose the correct word in ( ). Write the word.
5. Lightning has caused (many, axe) fires in forests.
6. A fire can cause (from, terrible) loss of lives.
7. I use my (frying, swimming) pan carefully at camp.
Unit 5 Smokejumpers
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Adverbs
An adverb is a word that tells about a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. An
adverb can appear before or after the word it describes. An adverb may tell how
something happens, where something happens, when something happens, or
other details. Many adverbs that tell how something is done end in -ly.
The stones were cut perfectly.
They would leave soon from Cusco.
He looked everywhere for the lost city.
He was discouraged sometimes.
He almost gave up.
By using an adverb, you can combine two sentences to get rid of words that
repeat.
They crossed the river. They crossed it easily.
They crossed the river easily.
Directions Write the adverb in each sentence.
1. A man once searched for a lost city.
2. He traveled far.
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3. It was very dangerous.
4. Carefully, he watched for snakes.
5. He was usually tired.
6. He never stopped searching.
Directions Combine the sentences by adding an adverb from sentence B to sentence A.
Write your new sentence on the line.
7. A He climbed the mountain slowly. B He climbed carefully.
8. A He found the lost city. B Finally he found it.
Unit 5 Lost City
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Comparative and Superlative
Adjectives and Adverbs
A comparative adjective compares two people, places, things, or
groups. A comparative adverb compares two actions. Add -er to most
short adjectives and to many adverbs to make them comparative.
Use more with longer adjectives and with most adverbs that end in
-ly. Do not use more with the -er form of an adverb.
Comparative AdjectivesThis mountain is taller and more
beautiful than that one.
Comparative AdverbsHe climbed slower today than he
did yesterday, but he climbed more
cautiously.
A superlative adjective compares three or more people, places, things,
or groups. A superlative adverb compares three or more actions. Add
-est to most short adjectives and to many adverbs to make them
superlative. Use most with longer adjectives and with most adverbs
that end in -ly. Do not use most with the -est form of an adverb.
Superlative AdjectivesIt was the strongest and most violent
storm he had ever seen.
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Superlative AdverbsHe climbed slowest and most carefully
than the other climbers.
Some adjectives, such as good and bad, have irregular comparative
and superlative forms: good, better, best; bad, worse, worst. Some
adverbs, such as well and badly, also have irregular comparative and
superlative forms: well, better, best; badly, worse, worst.
Directions Choose the correct form of the adjective or adverb in ( ) to complete each
sentence. Write the adjective or adverb.
1. This is the (tough) climb I’ve ever done.
2. The wind blew (hard) above than it did below.
3. Dag is a (good) climber than Axel.
4. I climbed (slowly) today than I did yesterday.
5. This is the (remarkable) storm I have ever seen.
6. Which of the three of us slept (well) afterward?
Unit 5 Cliff Hanger
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Transition Words and Phrases
A transition word shows how one idea relates to the next. It is often used
between sentences.
I unpacked my gear. Later, I set up my tent.
First, I went to Palmer. Then I went to Litchfield.
I checked my watch. Soon, my friend would return.
Transition phrases can also be used to show how ideas relate.
Erosion works on ice. As a result, there are many caves and hollows.
I enjoyed the trip. On the other hand, I missed my home.
above
before
after
behind
Common Transition Words and Phrases
all in all
as a result
as soon as
below
between
during
finally
last
soon
first
later
suddenly
for example
meanwhile
then
for instance
near
therefore
however
next
today
at
especially
in conclusion
on the other hand
yesterday
Directions Underline the transition words or phrases in each sentence.
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1. We traveled to Santiago. Next, we boarded a plane for Punta Arenas.
2. The ship entered Antarctica. Later, the motor stopped humming.
3. The weather was brutal. In conclusion, the animals had to be struggling.
Directions Choose a transition word or phrase in ( ) to join the pairs of sentences.
Write the sentences with the word or phrase.
4. I had food, extra clothes, and my daypack. (All in all, next) I was ready.
5. We had scary encounters. (Therefore, For example) we saw a pair of orcas.
6. It was time to leave. (For example, First) I opened my suitcase.
Unit 5 Antarctic Journal
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Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases
A preposition begins a group of words called a prepositional phrase. A
prepositional phrase ends with a noun or pronoun called the object of the
preposition. The preposition shows how the object of the preposition is
related to other words in the sentence.
Preposition
The boys walked on the moon.
Prepositional Phrase
on the moon
Object of the Preposition moon
Common Prepositions
above, across, after, along, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, between,
by, during, for, from, in, into, of, on, over, through, to, under, upon, with
Related sentences can be joined by using prepositional phrases.
The boys looked around them. They looked at the silent landscape.
The boys looked at the silent landscape around them.
Directions Write the prepositional phrase in each sentence. Underline the preposition.
Circle the object of the preposition.
1. The boys jumped over gullies.
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2. Vern fell into a deep crack.
3. The power in Vern’s suit stopped working.
4. Gerry helped him after the incident. Directions Combine sentences by adding a prepositional phrase from sentence B to
sentence A. Write the new sentence and underline each prepositional phrase.
5. A The ride to the moon is long. B The ride takes off from the Earth.
6. A Let’s collect moon rocks for scientists. B The scientists are on Earth.
Unit 5 Moonwalk
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