Uploaded by Zahira Belaidouni

Code switching

Can speak 1language
Can speak 2 languages
Can speak 3 or more
CS: code switching
CM: code mixing
ML: matrix language
EL: embedded language
W hat is a code and what is code
• Wardhaugh (1998 :88) defines the term 'code'
as being able to refer to "any kind of system
that two or more people employ for
• Jacqueline Toribio defines CS as “the
alternating use of two languages in the same
stretch of discourse by a bilingual speaker”
Classifications of CS
Types of CS
Situational CS
• As its name indicates, CS may happen due to a
change of situational factors during a
• Wardhaugh defines situational CS as when “
the conversants find themselves: they speak
one language in one situation and another in
a different one".
Metaphorical CS
• Wardhaugh (1998) opines that "When a
change of topic requires a change in the
language used we have metaphorical codeswitching" .
’’ I speak Spanish to God, Italian to
women, French to men, and German
to my horse’’, Charles V
Types of Metaphorical CS
1. Inter-Sentential
• In inter-sentential CS, the language switch is
done at sentence or clause boundaries.
For example:
Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in English y
termino en espanol (En- Sp)
2. Intra-Sentential
• In intra-sentential CS, the shift is done within
the sentence or the clause boundary, with no
interruptions, hesitations, or pauses to
indicate a shift.
 For example:
hadik l’opération hija ṣʕiba fihum
3. Extra-Sentential or Tag Switching
• This is the insertion of either a single word or
a tag phrase (or both) from one variety into
 For example:
Have a good day, Adios! (En-Sp)
a’salaːmu ʕalajkum, How are you? ( Ar- En)
Code Switching or Code Mixing?
• “Not all researches use the same terms
in the same way, nor do they agree on
the territory covered by the term code
switching”( Djennane, 2010:31)
• Some scholars argue that there is a clear
distinction between CM and CS, such as
CS occurs on the sentence boundaries,
while CM takes place within the sentence
( intrasentential switch)
• CS is something speakers do intentionally
because they want to express themselves with
a personal style or flavour, but CM is
something speakers might do unintentionally.
• However, other researches use the term CS
and CM interchangeably or selecting CS as an
umbrella term , and CM is regarded as only
one type of switching ( called conversational
Some of the prevailing grammatical
constraints theories about CS
• Many scholars, such as Sankoff & Poplack
(1980-81), Wentz and McClure(1976), Timm
(1975), Gumpers (1976-82),to name a few,
have shown that CS is not sporadic and is
highly regularized process constrained by
grammatical rules.
• Timm (1975) was the pioneer to identify the
syntactic constraints in Spanish-English CS.
Then in 1981, Sankoff & Poplack proposed 2
syntactic restrictions: the equivalence and the
free morpheme constraints.
The Equivalence Constraint
• According to the equivalence constraint, CS
happens only when languages shared the
same surface structure.
• For example, the sentence: Waqtaʃ jabda l
coure ("quand va commencer le coure") is
allowed because it obeys the syntactic rules
of both Arabic and French.
• E.g. Balʕɒ les supermarchés parce que
ʒa l contrôle
• Another example where we have an
adjective that must precede its modifier
in French, however, it is ruled out.
Kajən problème waħdaxɒr «il y a un autre
problème »
The Free Morpheme constraint
• On the basis of the free morpheme
principle, Poplack (1980) predicts that CS
may not occur between a bound
morpheme and a lexical form unless the
lexical form has been phonologically
adapted into the morpheme of the host
• The examples that may often occur in
our speech involve French verb routs
with Arabic inflections:
o Partage-i-t-lak les documents mais tbali
o ta-block-a l pc c’est pour ça ditah la l
réparatoire ba∫ j-format-ih
The Matrix Model
• In general, “ the Matrix frame model is based
on the assumption that one of the languages
is dominant and provides the grammatical
frame, and that only certain types of
morphemes can be switched” ( Wardhaugh &
Janet 2014:97)
Matrix language
The dominant language
Embedded language
The additional
• The problem with this model and the free
morpheme principle is that they are
controversial among linguists, but despite this,
they remains powerful constraints in CS.
To sum up
• Code switching is when the speaker alternates
between two or more codes.
• CS Classification: internal & external.
• Types of CS: situational & metaphorical.
• types of metaphorical CS: intersentential,
intrasentential, and extrasentential .
• CS & CM
• Reasons of CS
• CS constraints: the equivalence, and the free
morpheme constraintes and the matrix model
• Djennane, T (2010). Social Meaning and Linguistic Aspects
of Code Switching
• Wardhaugh, R. (1998). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics
• Wardhaugh, R. & Janet M. Fuller. (2014) An Introduction to
• SUSAN BERK-SELIGSON. Linguistic constraints on
intrasentential code-switching: A study of Spanish/Hebrew
• http://multilingualparenting.com/2015/07/01/codeswitching-vs-language-mixing/
• https://owlcation.com/humanities/Code-SwitchingDefinition-Types-and-Examples-of-Code-Switching
Thanks for your attention
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