April 12th, 2020 States of Matter Revision Test Section A Multiple Choice/True or False Questions 20 questions 1 mark per Total 20 marks (Estimated time 20 minutes) 1 Which theory describes the arrangement and movement of particles in solids, liquids and gases? Theory of relativity Kinetic theory Atomic theory 2 In which state of matter are the particles mostly touching but arranged in a random way? Solid Liquid Gas 3 In which state of matter do the particles have the most energy? Solid Liquid Gas 4 Why can liquids not be compressed easily? The particles are in a random arrangement The particles are closely packed The particles are free to move over each other 5 Why do solids have a fixed shape? The particles are fixed in place The particles are closely packed The particles vibrate 6 What is the name of the change when a liquid becomes a solid? Melting Boiling Freezing 7 What is sublimation? When a solid turns into a gas When a gas turns into a solid When a gas turns into a liquid 8 What eventually happens if energy is continually removed from a liquid? It boils It evaporates It freezes 9 What eventually happens to a gas if its pressure is increased? It condenses It evaporates It melts 10 Which of the following will sublime at room temperature and pressure? Ice Graphite Solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) 11. A gas partially fills its container A. True B. False 12. The physical state of a type of matter depends mostly upon how its atoms and molecules are arranged and how they move. A. True B. False 13. The higher the temperature of matter the slower the particles are moving A. True B. False 14. Particles that make up matter are in a state of constant motion. A. True B. False 15. When a warm object is brought near a cool object, the cool object will warm up. A. True B. False is 16. Vaporization NOT a change from a liquid to a gas. A. True B. False 17. If an object's density is less than that of the fluid it is in, it will float. A. True B. False 18. The temperature remains constant when a liquid reaches its boiling point. A. True B. False 19. A chef fills a 50 mL container with 43.5 g of cooking oil. What is the density of the oil? (Round to the nearest 10th) NOTE: Density = 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠⁄𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 A. 1.1 g/ml B. 0.9 g/ml C. 8 g/ml D. 9 g/ml 20. A machine shop worker records the mass of an aluminum cube as 176 g. If one side of the cube measures 4 cm, what is the density of the aluminum? NOTE: Density = 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠⁄𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 A. 2.8 g/cm cubed B. 14.7g/cm cubed C. 0.4g/cm cubed D. 44g/cm cubed Section B Essay Type Questions Attempt All Questions Total 40 Marks Time Allocated 30 Minutes 1. Use the particulate theory to briefly describe properties of the three states of matter (12 marks). Answer: The particulate theory can be used to help explain: 1. the properties of matter 2. what happens during physical changes such as melting, boiling and evaporating The properties of matter Solids have a definite shape fixed volume are difficult to compress as the particles are already Liquids do not have a definite shape flow and fill the bottom of a container. They maintain the same Gases do not have a definite shape expand to fill any container are easily compressed because packed closely together are often dense as there are many particles packed closely together volume unless the temperature changes are difficult to compress because there are quite a lot of particles in a small volume are often dense because there are quite a lot of particles in a small volume there are only a few particles in a large volume are often low density as there are not many particles in a large space 2. Explain how a burning candle demonstrates both physical and chemical changes. Is evaporation of water a physical change or a chemical change? Explain your answer (5 marks). Physical vs Chemical Changes Physical changes involve either the change in shape or the change in phase of a substance. A chemical reaction takes a substance and creates new products with new physical and chemical characteristics. Answer and Explanation: A burning candle demonstrates physical changes as the wax melts from one shape into another. A burning candle demonstrates chemical changes as the wick is burned in a chemical reaction called a combustion reaction and turns to ash. Evaporation of water is a physical change. Liquid water turning into gaseous water is a phase change that is characteristic of physical changes. The water is still water, but the molecules are spread apart further in the gaseous form. 3. Which characteristics of solid, a liquid, and a gas are exhibited by each of the following substances? How would you classify each substance? (8 marks) A. A bowl of pudding. B. A bucketful of sand. Properties of liquids, solids and gases: Liquids: definite volume, no definite shape, takes the shape of its container Solids: definite volume and shape Gases: no definite volume or shape Answer and Explanation: A. A bowl of pudding = liquid no definitive shape takes the shape of its container definite volume B. A bucketful of sand = solid sand is a sold definite volume each grain of sand has definite shape, although together they move around 4. Why are gases more easily compressed than liquids? Why do liquids have a greater ability to flow than solids? (10 marks) Matter: All materials which can be seen around us are matter. The atom is the fundamental unit forming an element. Matter can be present in three different forms viz, gas, liquid && solid. Matters possess mass, occupies space as well as some volume. Answer and Explanation: The solid is one form of matter in which the force of attraction between particles is more as compared to liquids and the liquid have more force of attraction between particles as compared to gas. Therefore the space between the particles is minimum in solids, intermediate in liquid and high in gas. And also the kinetic energy between the particles in solid is minimum and intermediate in liquid and high in gas. So the gases can be compressed easily as compared to liquid because there is enough space between the particles in gas as compared to liquids. In liquids, there is only very little free space between particles, so the liquid resist the external force and compress slightly. When one compare liquid and solids, the particles are held very tightly in solids than liquid due to the greater force of attraction between the particles in solids. Hence, liquid can flow easily as compared to solids. So the gases are more easily compressed than liquid. Liquids have a greater ability to flow than solids due to the less force of attraction between particles in former as compared to latter. The force of attraction between particles is greater in solid, intermediate in liquids and low in gas. 5. If the air is 20 degrees C, it's hot. If water is 20 degrees C, it's hotter than air. If steam is 20 degrees C, it's very hot. Why is this true even if the temperature is the same? (5 marks) States of Matter: A substance may exist in any of the three possible states of matter. These differ in various parameters including, energy, density, forces of attraction and others. It is possible to interconvert one state into another. Answer and Explanation: At the same temperature, the extent of heat present in the three states is different. This can be attributed to the difference in kinetic energy of these states. The gaseous state is the state of highest kinetic energy. The solid state particles experience least amount of kinetic energy. When the particles move more randomly in gases, a greater amount of heat is generated. In solids, very less heat is generated due to negligible motion of the particles. Hence, even when the same temperature is maintained, different states have different heats.