# week 12 intro DE ```Differential Equations
Agenda
• Define terms
• Learn how to separate a separable
differential equation
• Separate and solve 1st order separable
differential equations.
Differential Equations
Definition
Example
A differential equation is an equation involving
derivatives of an unknown function and possibly the
function itself as well as the independent variable.
y   sin  x  ,
 y '
4
 y 2  2 xy  x 2  0, y   y 3  x  0
1st order equations
2nd order equation
The order of a differential equation is the highest order
of the derivatives of the unknown function appearing in
the equation
In the simplest cases, equations may be solved by direct integration.
Definition
Examples
y   sin  x   y   cos  x   C
y   6 x  e x  y   3 x 2  e x  C1  y  x 3  e x  C1x  C2
Observe that the set of solutions to the above 1st order equation has 1
parameter, while the solutions to the above 2nd order equation depend
on two parameters.
Separable Differential Equations
A separable differential equation can be expressed as
the product of a function of x and a function of y.
dy
 g  x  h  y
dx
h y  0
Example:
dy
 2 xy 2
dx
dy
 2 x dx
2
y
y 2 dy  2 x dx
Multiply both sides by dx and divide
both sides by y2 to separate the
variables. (Assume y2 is never zero.)
Separable Differential Equations
A separable differential equation can be expressed as
the product of a function of x and a function of y.
dy
 g  x  h  y
dx
Example:
dy
 2 xy 2
dx
dy
 2 x dx
2
y
y 2 dy  2 x dx
h y  0
2
y
 dy   2 x dx
1
 y  C1  x  C2
2
1
  x2  C
y
1
 2
y
x C
Combined
constants of
integration
1
y 2
x C

Family of solutions (general solution)
of a differential equation
Example
dy x

dx y
 ydy   xdx
y 2  x2  C
The picture on the right shows some
solutions to the above differential
equation. The straight lines
y = x and y = -x
are special solutions. A unique
solution curve goes through any
point of the plane different from the
origin. The special solutions y = x
and y = -x go both through the
origin.
Initial conditions
• In many physical problems we need to find the particular
solution that satisfies a condition of the form y(x0)=y0.
This is called an initial condition, and the problem of
finding a solution of the differential equation that
satisfies the initial condition is called an initial-value
problem.
• Example (cont.): Find a solution to y2 = x2 + C satisfying
the initial condition y(0) = 2.
22 = 0 2 + C
C=4
y2 = x 2 + 4
Example:
dy
2
x2
 2 x 1  y  e
dx
Separable differential equation
1
x2
dy  2 x e dx
2
1 y
1
u  x2
x2
 1  y 2 dy   2 x e dx du  2x dx
1
u
dy

e
 1 y2
 du
tan 1 y  C1  eu  C2
1
tan y  C1  e  C2
x2
1
tan y  e  C
x2
Combined constants of integration

Example (cont.):
dy
2
x2
 2 x 1  y  e
dx
1
tan y  e  C
x2

We now have y as an implicit
function of x.

tan  tan y   tan e  C We can find y as an explicit function
1

y  tan e  C
x2

x2
of x by taking the tangent of both
sides.

• Look at the equation and identify the x's and y's
Treat dx as an x and dy as a y
• Separate the the x's and y's,so that they are on opposite sides of the
equation.
• It is very important that one sided of the equation is multiplied by dx
and the other by dy . In the end dx and dy should never be in the
denominator.
• Integrate both sides
• Once we integrate we only need to add &quot;+C&quot; add to the left side of the
equation
• If possible, get our answer into y=f(x) form
• Finally, if you are given an initial condition, solve for &quot;+C&quot; by plug in
the given x and y value