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The Impact of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients with Respiratory
Disease
Dr. Nancy Agens, Head,
Technical Operations, Pubrica
[email protected]
II. THE EXCHANGE OF GASES
BETWEEN THE HEART AND LUNGS
In Brief
The relationship between respiratory and
cardiovascular diseases and the effect of
cardiovascular diseases in patients with
respiratory disease are still unclear. This
study determines the relationship between
the individual cardiovascular disease with
the chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease (COPD), asthma and interstitial
lung disease (ILD). Pulmonary disease is
independently associated with cardiac
conditions, mostly during Heart Failure
(HF), and Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD),
which significantly contributes to allcause mortality. Yet, patients with
pulmonary disease are likely to receive
coronary revascularization.
I. INTRODUCTION
The thoracic cavity contains the heart and
the lungs, which are intimately connected.
Though they are independent organ with
different functions, they work together to
ensure that all the cells in the body get the
oxygen to survive. In most cases,
breathing or the inhalation process is
spontaneous and are effortless, but at times
it can be very challenging. It is due to the
complications present in the respiratory
system or lungs such as infection,
inflammation, allergies, asthma, bronchitis
which can lead to difficulties in breathing
and some situations indicate breathlessness
that could be an indication that there is a
problem with the heart of improper
functioning.
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The primary function of the heart is to
pump the blood around the body, and that
circulation process takes blood into the
lungs to top up the oxygen and removes
other gases presents in the blood as it
makes sure the Red Blood Cells are
oxygenated and it is an incredible process
too. The exchange of gasses in the blood is
the coordination process between the heart
and lungs, and the oxygen attaches to a
protein called haemoglobin in the RBC.
The charged or the oxygenated blood
returns to the heart where it will be
pumped back to the tissues and organs of
the body through the blood vessels and
capillaries. The body cells use the
transported oxygen and release CO2, which
as de-oxygenated blood will be moved
back to the heart through veins and further
the heart pumps it into the lungs. The CO2
passes through the thin walls of lungs and
release CO2 when you breathe out, the
whole process to start again.
III. HOW CAN THE HEART AFFECT
BREATHING
The function of the human body is a
delicate and finely balanced system, so
when some significant part of the organs
goes wrong, it can have enormous effects
in function. For instance, the heart is
damaged or diseased, and it cannot be able
to pump efficiently, and that can
significantly affect the lungs, meaning that
breathing can be impaired.
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IV. THE PULMONARY
ABNORMALITIES AND ITS
ASSOCIATION WITH CARDIAC
DISEASE
Pulmonary abnormalities are often present
in patients with respiratory disorders,
which includes neuromuscular or chest
wall disorders, Chronic Obstructive
Pulmonary Disease, sarcoidosis, idiopathic
pulmonary fibrosis, and disorders of
ventilatory control including obesity
hypoventilation syndrome and sleep apnea
syndromes. The complex nature of the
organ and the interactions between the
cardiovascular system and the lungs has
been increasingly studied, and one such
study shows that the most common cause
of pressure overload is Pulmonary Arterial
Hypertension (PAH) which leads to the
dysfunction of the right ventricle.
Pulmonary hypertension is classified as
Group III in World Health Organization
(WHO) scheme, and it is also known as
pulmonary heart disease. The development
of pulmonary heart disease is typically
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related to weaker prognosis and increased
death. The association of increased cardiac
death and impaired health status is due to
the systemic manifestation of the
pulmonary disorder, especially obstructive
diseases.
V. HOW CARDIAC DISEASE AFFECTS
THE PULMONARY SYSTEM
Though systemic manifestation becoming
increasingly recognized in obstructive
disorders, cardiovascular involvement is
related explicitly because of its association
with deteriorated mortality rate and
impaired health status. The evolving
research data regarding pulmonary
vascular abnormalities in the most
common respiratory disorders, and it is
mandatory to explore the relationship
between cardiovascular death, and Chronic
Obstructive
Pulmonary
Disease,
atherosclerosis,
and
systemic
inflammation. Cardiovascular disease and
respiratory disorder are frequently
2
coexisting as the shared risk factors are
common. It has become clear that the
combination
between
cardiovascular
disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease is independent of the risk factors;
certainly, cardiac disease occurrence and
mortality rate is now well established
along with the relationship between the
severity of pulmonary obstruction. Further,
the
relationship
between
asthma,
interstitial
lung
disease
(ILD),
characterized by restrictive lung function,
with cardiovascular disease, are less well
defined.
The association between pulmonary
diseases and individual cardiovascular
diseases, which comprise a range of
different
conditions
with
different
mechanisms and manifestations, as it is not
well characterized. Moreover, there are
extensive data to show that lung diseases,
particularly chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease, adversely affect the prognosis of
patients with cardiac conditions, few
studies have investigated the impact of
specific cardiovascular diseases on
mortality in patients with lung diseases.
In
summary,
cardiovascular
and
respiratory diseases are the leading causes
of premature death worldwide where half
of all deaths from cardiovascular disease
are quick and unexpected. Though
studying two major organs and its relation
involves more complexity in identifying
new procedures as research professional
develop their understanding of some of the
most common and rarer types of heart and
lung diseases the complex nature of the
cardiac and respiratory disease will also be
explored, particularly concerning the
coordination
between
cardiovascular
death, chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease, atherosclerosis, and systemic
inflammation.
Pulmonary Diseases and the Heart., Circulation.
2007; 116:2992–3005
2.
Chowdhuri S, Crook ED, Taylor HA Jr, Badr MS.
Cardiovascular complications of respiratory
diseases. Am J Med Sci. 2007 Nov;334(5):361-80.
Available
from:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18004091
3.
Rogliani P, Cazzola M, Calzetta L., Cardiovascular
Disease in Chronic Respiratory Disorders and
Beyond., J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 May
7;73(17):2178-2180.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.11.068.
4.
Carter P, Lagan J, Fortune C, Bhatt DL, Vestbo J,
Niven R, Chaudhuri N, Schelbert EB, Potluri R,
Miller CA., Association of Cardiovascular Disease
With Respiratory Disease., J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019
May 7;73(17):2166-2177.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.11.063.
5.
Jørgen Vestbo, Natural experiments and large
databases in respiratory and cardiovascular disease,
European Respiratory Review 2016 25: 130 – 134.
DOI: 10.1183/16000617.0028-2016
6.
Lee ES, Vedanthan R, Jeemon P, Kamano JH,
Kudesia P, Rajan V, Engelgau M, Moran AE.
Quality Improvement in Cardiovascular Disease
Care. Cardiovascular, Respiratory, and Related
Disorders. 3rd edition. Washington (DC): The
International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development / The World Bank; 2017 Nov. Chapter
18.
REFERENCE
1.
MS Vallerie V.McLaughlin, MeiLan K. Han, MD,
and MD Fernando J. MartinezMD, MSFrom the
University of Michigan Health System (MKH, VM,
FJM), Ann Arbor, Mich, and Temple University
School of Medicine (GC), Philadelphia, Pa.
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