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EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY
TRAINING SERIES
LEVEL 1:
AWARENESS
1
Introduction
2
INTRODUCTION TO EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY
OBJECTIVES
MINDSET
 The Business Case for improving equipment performance in
today’s environment
 Reliability’s relationship to equipment performance
 Importance of production’s sponsorship/ownership
 Change in culture: From reacting to failure to preventing
failure
CAPABILITY
 Introduce key reliability concepts and terms
 Begin the understanding of how these reliability
concepts relate to improving equipment performance
 Awareness of reliability resources at Whirlpool
PROCESS
 Offer processes to apply equipment reliability methods and tools
3
EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY TRAINING SERIES
Level 5
• Provides high
Reliability Consultant
level reliability &
methods skills
Level 4
Reliability Application Engineer
• Local process understanding
• Quantifies and reduces equipment losses
• Applies reliability tools/methods
Level 3
Level 2
Level 1
• A series of 4hr to 8hr training modules on
Practitioner
selected reliability tools & methods
• How to set up business driven equipment performance goals
• How to link performance goals to improvements in loss categories
• Tools & methods to reduce losses (including maintenance strategies)
• Development and achievement of reliability requirements in Design
• Importance of high levels of equipment performance
• How to measure equipment uptime/downtime
• Key reliability tools and how to apply to improving equipment performance
Novice
Practitioner
Awareness
4
EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY
TRAINING SERIES
Reliability Awareness (4 Hrs) - at the completion of this training level, the
person should be able to describe the following:
Equipment Performance
1) The importance of high levels of equipment performance and lower (including maintenance) costs in today’s
competitive marketplace
2) The key factors that affect equipment performance (5M’s)
3) Downtime categories and opportunities for improvement
4) The key elements of high level equipment performance measures (Efficiency, OEE and TEEP)
5) Can perform a simple OEE / TEEP calculation
RAM Concepts/Reliability Basics
6) The concepts Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM) and how each of these impacts equipment
performance
7) The importance of defining function and failure
8) The difference between a repairable and a non-repairable system and the associated measures (MTTF,
MTBF and MTTR)
9) The relationship between equipment reliability and process reliability
10) Conceptually define FMEA and FTA their applications
5
EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY
TRAINING SERIES
Reliability Awareness (4 Hrs) - cont’d.
Reliability Elements in the Asset Life Cycle
11) How, at a conceptual; level, reliability can be integrated into all phases of the Asset Life Cycle
(the “7 Rights”) in order to achieve predictable and high levels of equipment reliability. Specifically,
can describe the key reliability considerations in the equipment design, purchasing and maintenance
phases of the Asset Life Cycle.
12) The important role that operational and maintenance strategies play in improving the reliability of existing
equipment. How to optimize maintenance tasks to reduce costs and still be effective.
Resources
13) Aware of the key support resources for reliability tools, methods and diagnostic technologies.
6
Tab 2
Equipment Performance
7
PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES
Equipment Performance
Record, Categorize and Reduce Equipment
Downtime Losses
Understand and encourage the use of OEE and
TEEP Charts
8
INTRODUCTION TO EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY
 The Need for Change
• Extreme Price Competition
• Forced to make substantial Price Reductions
(lowers Profit $)
 Improvement Thrusts:
• Reduce Costs
• Improve Equipment Performance
“30 / 30”
TEEP
9
EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE
Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)
Range and Average of Key Equipment
100%
85%
World Class OEE
75%
65%
55% Avg.
45%
35%
1992
1993
1994
OEE =
1995
1996
Good Product Made
Expected Product
1997
1998
10
EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE
OPPORTUNITIES
• Utilize the “hidden factory”
- Increase Uptime of existing equipment
• Reduce Costs
Reduced wastes
Reduced cycle time
Reduced inventory
Reduced product variability
More efficient use of direct labor
Reduced maintenance costs
- type of work (less reactive)
- extent of work (reduce PM’s)
Reduced schedule disruption
Increased EVA
Reduced capital expenditures
In
Focus
- 6 Sigma
- 10X
- AOP Goals
- Lean Manufacturing
Needs
more
focus
11
INTRODUCTION TO EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY
Equipment Performance
Equipment Reliability
Exercise
12
INTRODUCTION TO EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY
Equipment Performance
Materials
Methods
Reliability
— Develop
— Design
— Purchase
— Fabricate
— Install
— Operate
— Maintain
— Store
Machines
(How well
equipment performs)
Measures
Manpower
Maintainability
The “Rights
of Reliability:
13
PARTNERSHIP WITH OPERATIONS
HIGH LEVELS OF EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE
-
Important to Operation
Important to Capital Projects Team
Important to Maintenance
REDUCING COSTS IS A SHARED GOAL
-
Reducing Operations Cost
Reducing Maintenance Costs (but not sub-optimize)
OPERATIONS MUST LEAD IMPROVEMENT EFFORT
- Operation “Owns” Asset
- Operations Sets Performance Expectation
- Operation has “most” control of improvement opportunities
25% of Downtime
75% of Downtime
Maintenance
Manufacturing
14
THREE MOST IMPORTANT FACTORS IN
IMPROVING PERFORMANCE
• Measure
• Measure
• Measure
15
EQUIPMENT/PROCESS EFFECTIVENESS MEASURES
A (Total Time)
B (Scheduled Time)
C (Up Time)
D
E
Planned
Losses
Operational
Losses
Speed
Losses
• Weekends/Holidays
• Shifts not worked
• No Schedule
• Breaks/Lunch
• Meetings/Tours
• Training
• General Cleaning
• PM’s
• Capital Improvement
• Development
• Set-ups/Change-overs
• No Personnel
• No Material
• Equipment Breakdown
• Jams and Minor Stoppages
• Support System Failures
• Reduction from
expected speed
OEE ( Overall Equipment Effectiveness) = E/B
Quality
Losses
• Product not meeting First
Pass Yield Specs,
which includes:
- Held Product
- Defects/Waste/Scrap
- Machine Rejects
- Quality Samples
- Rework
Good Production
• First Pass Yield
(Product made right the first time)
TEEP ( Total Effective Equipment Performance) = E/A
16
PERFORMANCE MEASURES
OEE is a measure of the amount of good product produced compared to the amount
of product that could have been produced if the manufacturing system operated
perfectly (no downtime, operating at its expected speed and all product conforming
to specification) for its entire scheduled time.
OEE =
Good Product Made
Scheduled Production
(Units: Time (hrs) or Production Quantities)
World Class OEE = 85%*
17
PERFORMANCE MEASURES
TEEP is a measure of the amount of good product produced compared to the amount
of product that could have been produced if the manufacturing system operated
perfectly (no downtime, operating at its expected speed and all product conforming
to specification) for the total amount of time (calendar time) over the time period
under consideration.
Good Product Made
(Units: Time (hrs) or Production Quantities)
TEEP =
Total Time or Total Expected Units
Also, TEEP can be considered as follows:
Scheduled Time
TEEP = OEE x Utilization
(where Utilization =
Total Time
)
18
OEE / TEEP
OEE / TEEP can also be expressed in terms of a formula as follows:
OEE = Efficiency X Performance Rate X Quality
OEE =
Uptime
Scheduled Time
X
Actual Rate
Expected Rate
World Class Equipment Performance
OEE =
90%
X
95%
(Efficiency)
TEEP =
TEEP =
OEE
Good Product Made
X
Total Product Made
X
(Performance Rate)
X
99%
= 85%
(Quality)
Utilization
Good Product Time
Scheduled Time
X
Scheduled Time
Total Time
19
EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY TRAINING SERIES
The Real Value of measuring OEE/TEEP:
•Understand causes of equipment downtime so that
improvements can be made
•OEE/TEEP is also as valuable as an Equipment
Performance Measure
20
OEE / TEEP
EXAMPLE
Time interval: 24 hrs.
Shift worked: A & B (C not worked - no demand)
Operational downtime Losses:
1.5 hrs equipment (mechanical) breakdown
1.3 hrs no material
1.2 hrs set up
4.0 hrs total loss
(Time Basis)
Determine: - categorize machine time losses
- determine amount of time machine
was at “standard”
- calculate OEE & TEEP
1 hr PM during A shift
Speed loss: 5%
Quality loss: 3%
Solution:
Planned
Loss
Operational
Loss
8 hr. C Shift
1 hr. PM
9 hrs
4 hrs
Speed
Loss
Quality
Loss
Good Product
Time
Uptime
Therefore Uptime = 11 hrs (by difference)
Total
Time
24 hrs
21
OEE / TEEP
EXAMPLE
Speed Losses = Uptime x Speed Loss Rate =
11 hrs x (0.05) = 0.6 hrs
Quality Losses = (Uptime - Speed Loss) x Quality Loss Rate =
(11 hrs - 0.6 hrs) x (0.03) = 0.312 hrs
Planned
Loss
Operational
Loss
Speed
Loss
Quality
Loss
Good Product
Time
Total
Time
9 hrs
4 hrs
0.6 hrs
0.3 hrs
? hrs
24 hrs
Good Product Time (by difference) =
10.1 hrs
Scheduled Time
Scheduled Time = Total Time - Planned Loss
Scheduled Time = 24 hrs - 9 hrs = 15 hrs
OEE
= Good Product / Scheduled = 10.1 hrs / 15 hrs = 67%
TEEP = Good Product / Total Time = 10.1 hrs / 24 hrs = 42%
22
EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE MEASURES
Listed Increasing Levels of Sophistication
I.
Use measures
II.
Use measures to drive improvement
- baseline
- reasons for downtime
- improvement goals
III.
Use consistent measures based on scheduled time
- use common definitions of uptime / downtime for benchmarking
- use OEE as high level measure of equipment
performance. Compare to World Class.
IV.
Use Performance Measures based on both Scheduled Time (OEE)
and Total Time TEEP
- awareness of amount of time equipment is
not “scheduled”
23
Performance Measure
Example
Total Time Interval
Scheduled Production Time
Operational Downtime
Material Problems
Product Change Overs
Equipment Related Downtime
Operator Training Issues
Planned Production Rate
1 Wk. (7 days;168hrs)
100 Hrs.
6 Hrs.
6 Hrs.
4 Hrs.
4 Hrs.
20 Hrs.
10 Parts/Hr.
Actual Output
720 Parts
Good Parts (Meeting Specs)
700 Parts
Calculate:
- Losses ( in hrs)
Planned, Operational, Speed and Quality
- Good Product Time (in hrs):
Good Quality & At Expected Speed
- OEE
- Teep
Assume: - All downtime has been identified
- Actual Speed Rate is less than expected
24
EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY TRAINING SERIES
Total time =
Scheduled Time =
Uptime =
Planned
Loss
Operational
Loss
Speed
Loss
Quality
Loss
Good Product
Time
___ hrs
___ hrs
___ hrs
___ hrs
___ hrs
25
EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY TRAINING SERIES
SOLUTION
Total time =
168 hrs
Scheduled Time =
100 hrs
Uptime =
80 hrs
Planned
Loss
Operational
Loss
Speed
Loss
Quality
Loss
Good Product
Time
68 hrs
20 hrs
hrs
hrs
? hrs
- data is given
- obtained by difference
Speed Loss: Parts @ expected speed = 80 hrs X 10 parts = 800 parts
hr
Actual parts = 720 parts
Speed Loss =
parts lost
expected speed
=
800 parts - 720 parts
10 parts/hr
= 8 hrs
26
EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY TRAINING SERIES
parts lost
720 parts made - 700 parts good
Quality Loss: expected speed =
10 parts/hr
Planned
Loss
Operational
Loss
Speed
Loss
Quality
Loss
Good Product
Time
68 hrs
20 hrs
8 hrs
2 hrs
70 hrs
OEE =
Also OEE =
TEEP =
Good Product Time
Scheduled Time
Good Parts
Total Scheduled Time
(Time)
70 hrs
=
=
Good Product Time
Total Time
= 2 hrs
100 hrs
=
700 parts
100 hrs x 10 parts
hr
70 %
=
70 %
70 hrs
=
168 hrs
=
42 %
27
PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES
Equipment Performance
Record, Categorize and Reduce Equipment
Downtime Losses
Understand and encourage the use of OEE and
TEEP Charts
28
RAM Definitions, Measures & Tools
29
Performance Expectations
RAM Definitions, Measures &
Tools
•
•
•
Describe the three components of RAM
Record the “right” failure data
– run time to failure
– machine conditions at failure
– by category
Use data to analyze failures
– charts
– measures (MTBF, MTTR, OEE,
Availability)
30
Quality - A New Definition
The
QUALITY
of some subject (i.e. of some product or process) means
the extent to which the subject satisfies the expectations
and needs of the users in operational environments over
a period of time.
David Garvin, Managing Quality, Free Press, 1988
31
Reliability = Quality over Time
Reliability is the time dimension to
quality. Product or processes that
meet or exceed customer
expectations, not just when they
are new but over a period of time,
are generally considered to have
high reliability.
Time may be some other measure
than hours like footage, cycles,
indexes, images, copies or
actuations.
32
What is Reliability?
When we speak of
the reliability of a
product or
process we are
using an
umbrella term
which includes
the concepts of:
Reliability
Maintainability
Availability
Manufacturability
Safety
Serviceability
other ....ilities
33
Components of Reliability
RELIABILITY …
How long will it last?
MAINTAINABILITY …
How long does it take to repair?
AVAILABILITY …
Is it capable of running when I need it?
SAFETY …
Could someone get hurt?
34
Reliability is Probability of
Success
Reliability is the
probability that an
item will perform its
intended function
adequately for a
specified period of
time under the
specified operating
conditions.
⇒Probability - A number
between 0 and 1
⇒Intended Function What is it supposed to do?
⇒Time - For how long:
24x7x365 or many short runs?
⇒Operating
Conditions - Where is it
going to be
installed?
35
What is Failure?
A product or process is said to have failed when it no
longer performs its intended function adequately.
Consider a fuse. Its job is to protect a circuit from
overloading.
If a fuse blows because there was an over-current spike,
the fuse did its job.
However, if there was a current spike and the fuse did not
blow and the wiring caught fire, then the fuse failed!
Therefore, function needs to be clearly defined.
36
Reliability
Reliability is the
probability that an
item will perform its
intended function
adequately for a
specified period of
time under the
specified operating
conditions.
Example
A packaging line is designed
to fill 1000 multipacks of film
without a failure. This
constitutes one run. One
hundred runs were initiated
and 90 runs were completed
successfully. The packaging
line reliability can be
estimated by
R(t=1K) =
# of Successful Trials 90
=
= 0.9
Total Number of Trials 100
37
Maintainability
Maintainability is the
probability that an item
can be restored to
satisfactory operating
condition within a
specified period of
time under stated
conditions by personnel
having prescribed skill
levels, resources and
procedures.
Example
A piece of equipment was
designed so that all failures
could be fixed in less than 30
minutes by entry level techs.
Reviewing the most recent
100 service events, 15 of then
took longer than 30 minutes
to remedy.
M(t=30) =
# of Successful Events 85
=
= 0.85
Total Number of Events100
38
Availability
Availability is the
probability that an item,
when used under given
conditions, will perform
satisfactorily when
called upon.
Example
Nine times out of ten, when I
walk up to the copier at 8AM,
the copier is ready to process
my job. It is not in STANDBY
and does not have a sign
stating that service has been
called.
9
# of Successful Trials
A(t= 8) =
=
= 0.9
Total Number of Trials 10
39
Repairable and Nonrepairable Devices
•
•
•
NONREPAIRABLE
One-shot device
If it breaks, throw it out.
Examples
–
–
–
•
Bearings
Light Bulbs
Electronic Components
Replacement strategies
•
•
•
REPAIRABLE
If it breaks, fix it.
Employ preventive and
predictive maintenance
strategies.
Examples
–
–
–
–
Spoolers
Packaging equipment
Pumps
Knife sets
Note: The distinction between repairable and nonrepairable devices is critical to how we
collect and analyze data.
40
How is Reliability Measured?
Number of Failures
Life Cycle Cost
Service/Repair Costs
Reliability (Probability of
Success)
Availability
Costs of Downtime, Waste
B10, B50 Life
Failure Rate
MTTF (Mean Time To
Failure)
MTBF (Mean Time
Between Failures)
MTTR (Mean Time to
Repair/Restore)
OEE (Overall Equipment
Effectiveness)
TEEP (Total Effective
Equipment Performance)
41
Reliability
Reliability is the
probability that an
item will perform its
intended function
adequately for a
specified period of
time under the
specified operating
conditions.
MEASURE
S
Example
A packaging line is designed
to fill 1000 multipacks of film
without a failure. This
constitutes one run. One
hundred runs were initiated
and 90 runs were completed
successfully. The packaging
line reliability can be
estimated by
R(t=1K) =
# of Successful Trials 90
=
= 0.9
Total Number of Trials 100
42
MEASURE
S
Mean Time To Failure
MTTF = Sum Failure Times
Number of Failures
Example: Run times to
failure are
10,7,26,20,21,53,32,24,15,19
MTTF=227/10=22.7 hr
H
H istogram of Failure T im es
3.0
Number of Failures
Mean Time To Failure
(MTTF) applies to
nonrepairable items.
2.0
1.0
0.0
5 101015 202025 30 30
35 404045 505055
Time
43
MEASURE
S
What Data Should Be
Collected?
1.
6.
2.
7.
3.
8.
4.
9.
5.
10.
44
MEASURE
S
Repairable Systems
51
43
27
177
177
15
27
32
65
43
51
65
15
51
32
65
43
32
27 15
177
NEUTRAL/SAD/HAPPY SYSTEMS
The order of the failure times is important.
45
MEASURE
S
Mean Time Between Failures
For Repairable Items, the arrival order of the
failure times is important
51
43
27
177
15
65
32
MEAN TIM E BETWEEN FAILURES applies to
“neutral” repairable items.
MTBF = Sum Inter-arrival Times
Number of Failures
For example:
MTBF =
410
51+43+27+177+15+65+32
=
7
7
= 58.6
46
MEASURE
S
What
For Repairable Equipment, What
Data Should Be Collected?
1. Event Date
2. Clock Time
3. Machine clocks, meters,
counters
4. Failure Mode
What was
seen/smelled/heard?
5. Machine Parameters
What was the machine
doing prior to the
event?
6. Time to repair or restore
Did the repair go
smoothly?
7. What adjustments were
made?
8. Parts used
Were the parts broken?
Were the replacements
new or rebuilt?
9. Root cause of the stoppage
What actually happened?
10. Failure Mechanism
47
MEASURE
S
Mean Time To Repair
MTTR = Sum
Repair Times
Number of Repairs
Example: Repair times in
hours for 10 cellular
phones: 0.1, 0.6, 1.3, .05,
0.4, 1.1, 0.15, 0.1, 0.3, 0.2
MTTR=4.3/10=.43 hours
Histogram of Re pair Time s
6
5
Num ber o f Repairs
Mean Time To Repair
(MTTR) applies to time
actually spent performing
a repair.
4
3
2
1
0
0.25.25 0.5 .50 0.75.75
1
1.001.25 1.251.5 1.50
Time
48
What Additional Data
Should Be Collected For
Repairs?
MEASURE
S
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
49
Availability
MEASURE
S
Availability is the proportion of the the time the
system is operating.
UP
UP
0
DOWN
UP
DOWN
UP
DOWN
T
Over a long period of time, AVAILABILITY is
Uptime
MTBF
A=
=
Uptime + Downtime
MTBF + MTTR
AVAILABILITY combines RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY .
Note:
This is the classical definition of Availability which excludes changeover
time, scheduled maintenance and idle time.
50
Reliability Measures Summary
There are a variety of RAM measures.
One number, for example the MTBF, might not be
adequate.
For repairable systems, keep the data in time order
and generate a time line plot.
For nonrepairable data, a histogram does a good
job of displaying the variability in the data.
51
Intent of Reliability Methods
To prevent failures from occurring
To mitigate the effect of a failure
To restore the system to a working state quickly if it
did fail and, additionally, to measure and predict
failure
52
Methods to Prevent Failures
The best time to think about failure prevention is in
the development and design phases of a
project.







RAM concepts in the project requirements and
specification documents
Robust Design
Load/Strength Analysis
Failure Mode, Effects & Criticality Analysis (FMECA)
Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)
Part Selection and Derating
Flow Dynamics Analysis
53
Performance Expectations
RAM Definitions, Measures &
Tools
• Describe the three components of RAM
• Record the “right” failure data
– run time to failure
– machine conditions at failure
– by category
• Use data to analyze failures
– charts
– measures (MTBF, MTTR, OEE,
Availability)
54
Reliability: New Equipment
55
Performance Expectations
Reliability: New Equipment
Recognize the “Design for Reliability” Process
Ensure reliability REQUIREMENTS exist.
Base decisions on Life Cycle Costing.
Include reliability SPECIFICATIONS in Requests for
Quotes and Purchase Orders.
Conduct formal reliability design reviews based upon
FMECA guidelines. Enlist support from company experts.
Request R.A.M information from vendors.
Start involving cross functional team with new hardware
early in the develop/design process.
56
ASSET LIFE CYCLE
Project
Launch
Concept,
Development
and
Design
Final Engineering
Purchase
Fabricate
Install
Startup
Commission
Accreditation
Operate
and
Maintain
Decommission
“PROJECT LIFE”
Concept
Launch
MBER
REME E” IS NOT
LIF
.
JECT
“PRO SSET LIFE
A
D
N
BEYO !
K
N
I
FE
TH
C T LI
E
J
O
R
P
Design
Execution
Commissioning
Utilization
End of Useful
Life
57
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