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Chapter 1. General Methods of Teaching

1 The Concept and Principles Of Teaching
The chief task of education is, above all, to shape man, or to guide the evolving dynamism through which man
forms himself as a man. There are two concepts of teaching:
A. Traditional concept: - Teaching is the act of imparting instructions to the learners in the classroom
situation. It is traditional classroom teaching. In traditional classroom teaching the teacher gives information
to students, or one of the students, or one of the students reads from a textbook, while the other students silently
follow him in their not merely imparting knowledge or information to students. While imparting knowledge
teacher should kept in mind the child as well as the orderly presentation of subject-matter.
B. Modern concept: Teaching is to cause the pupil to learn and acquire the desired knowledge, skills and
desirable ways of living in the society. It is a process in which learner, teacher, curriculum and other
variables are organized in a systematic and psychological way to attain some pre-determined goals.
Definitions of Teaching:
H.C. Morrison (1934): “Teaching is an intimate contact between a more mature personality and less mature
one which is designed to further the education of the latter.”
B.D. Smith (1961): “Teaching is a system of actions intended to produce learning.”
Ryburn’s view: “Teaching is a relationship which keeps the child to develop all his powers.”
Burton’s view: “Teaching is the stimulation guidance, direction and encouragement of learing.”
N.L. Gage (1962) “Teaching is a form of interpersonal influence aimed at changing the behavior potential
of another person”.
John Adams’ View:
There is constant interaction between the teacher
and the taught and the impact of personalities
The teacher consciously designs and plans
educational experiences in the light of social
like two poles interacting with each other.
environment. This is possible when the child
participates in the social situations and there is
interaction between him and the environment.
The main characteristics of good teaching are as following:
▪ It gives desirable information of subject matter.
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General Methods of Teaching by Hina Jalal (PhD Scholar)
It creates self-motivation for learning.
The students remain active in good teaching.
It is based on democratic ideals.
It is based on the co-operation of teacher and students.
It is progressive and productive.
It attempts to adjust the students with the environment.
It is diagnostic and therapeutic in nature.
It is the best medium for preparing the next generation for the changing world order.
It enhances the potentialities of the students.
The teacher works as a philosopher, friend and a direction.
It reflects harmony between teacher and the students.
➢ Good teaching is stimulating the learners towards acquisition of knowledge, and skills.
➢ Drawing out process: good teaching draws out situation in which learners explore their hidden knowledge,
disposition, and values rather than pour in them.
➢ An active process: good teaching is an active and dynamic process rather than passive.
➢ Motivate students: good teaching motivates students in positive manners to lead them towards their goals.
➢ Mature skill: it is mature skill to teach students. This will acquire with teaching experiences.
➢ Guided skill: a good teacher is good communicator to guide and facilitate students with range of solutions.
➢ Well-planned: a good teaching is well-planned, organized, effective, and managed.
➢ Means of adjustment: teacher is the mean whereby society trains the young. Good teaching well-adjusted
in certainty and uncertainty of environment.
➢ Equips learners: good teaching equips learners with futuristic knowledge and skills. So that they can
perform well in working world.
➢ Diagnostic and remedial: teacher must study individual differences and assesses students’ weaknesses
and strength for remedies.
➢ Suggestive, democratic, and cooperative: good teacher does not impose decision but select decision in
suggestive manners. Good teacher behaves in democratic ways in corporation with students.
Planning can be defined as “thinking in advance what is to be done, when it is to be done, how it is to be done
and by whom it should be done”. A key aspect of effective teaching is having a plan for what will happen in
the classroom each day. Teaching and learning should be well planned with clear objectives that are understood
by learners.
Purpose Of Planning:
The purposes of planning include:
• Clarification of the objectives to the pupils,
• Provision for individual differences,
• Development of means for stimulating interest,
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General Methods of Teaching by Hina Jalal (PhD Scholar)
• Provision for a logical instructional sequence,
• Provision for flexibility, and
• Enabling the teacher to teach with confidence.
Steps of Planning:
1. Formulation of instructional objectives
2. Taking decision about content/subject
3. Selecting elements of contents
4. Deciding teaching methods and strategies
5. Resource Development
6. Execution of plan
7. Evaluation
8. Feedback
Components of Teaching Planning:
The teachers’ attitudes, beliefs, orientations and teachers’ social background
The pupils’/students’ age, background, knowledge, motivational level of interest
The type of content that influences the planning process, textbook and other instructional materials.
The learning content/experiences which is characterized by the subject matter guidelines
Material resources which include equipment/tools for teaching
Time frame which is considerable
Phases of Teaching:
1. Pre-active phase (planning stage):
This phase accounts for a pre-estimated idea before coming to the classroom. It includes a very good estimated
pre-plan of understanding the class with a “good lesson plan.” Lesson plan preparation includes – formation
of objectives with a selected content – content analysis – development of strategies of teaching.
2. Inter active phase (presentations phase):
This is concerned with all activities and behavior and manifested by the teacher in and after entering the
classroom during the process of presenting the content. The operation included at this stage is:
(a) Verbal and non-verbal stimulation
(b) Presentation (along with an idea of Action Research)
(c) Development and use of strategies involved in teaching.
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General Methods of Teaching by Hina Jalal (PhD Scholar)
3. Post active phase (evaluation phase):
This phase of teaching accounts for the concept achieved after the classroom situation undertaken by the
teacher which led to the achievement of objectives as estimated earlier. This stage may also be undertaken by
just mere observation. It included
– testing behavioral change of students
– selection of appropriate testing device
– feedback for evaluation
Teaching is a complex, multifaceted activity, often requiring us as instructors to juggle multiple tasks and
goals simultaneously and flexibly. The following small but powerful set of principles can make teaching both
more effective and more efficient, by helping us create the conditions that support student learning and
minimize the need for revising materials, content, and policies. To be successful in teaching, teacher must
understand following classification of teaching principles:
1) General principles of teaching
2) Psychological principles of teaching
1. General principles of teaching
It involves in:
a) It involves acquiring relevant knowledge about students and using that knowledge to inform our course
design and classroom teaching.
b) It involves aligning the three major components of instruction: learning objectives, assessments, and
instructional activities.
c) It involves articulating explicit expectations regarding learning objectives and policies.
d) It involves prioritizing the knowledge and skills we choose to focus on.
e) It involves recognizing and overcoming our expert blind spots.
f) It involves adopting appropriate teaching roles to support our learning goals.
g) It involves progressively refining our courses based on reflection and feedback.
h) Regularly raise students' awareness of the nature of different aspects of quality learning.
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General Methods of Teaching by Hina Jalal (PhD Scholar)
i) Use teaching procedures that are designed to promote specific aspects of quality learning.
2. Psychological principles of teaching
a. The principle of individual differences
Teacher must well informed about individual differences and its impact on learning. So that learning can
be more realistic and effective.
b. The principle of social linkages with learners
Learning is situated within multiple social contexts. These include families, peer groups, neighborhoods,
communities, and the larger society. The more teachers know about the different contexts, the better they
will do at creating a classroom culture that facilitates learning.
c. The principle of Motivation and reinforcement
Students tend to enjoy learning and do better when they are more intrinsically rather than extrinsically
motivated. The long-term goal is to get students to the point where they engage in activities for their own
sake – where success and mastery are sufficient motivation and reinforcement to work hard and stick with
the task.
d. The principle of Providing training to the senses
Students persist in the face of challenging tasks and process information more deeply when they adopt
mastery rather than performance goals. Mastery goals are about acquiring new skills and improving levels
of competence, while performance goals are about showing one’s ability and doing better than others.
e. The principle of Utilizing group dynamics
Teachers’ expectations about their students affect students’ opportunities to learn, their motivation, and
their learning outcomes. “These beliefs shape the kinds of instruction delivered to students, the grouping
practices that are used, anticipated learning outcomes, and methods of evaluation.
f. The principle of Encouraging self-learning
Students’ self-regulation assists learning, and self-regulatory skills can be taught. Students need to learn
planning, attention, self-control, and memory strategies.
g. The principle of feedback and Remedial teaching
Clear, explanatory, and timely feedback to students is important for learning. Specific learning goals are
the starting point, followed by feedback on what students have right and wrong that guides them to knowing
what to do, becoming self-correctors, and taking ownership for their own learning.
h. The principle of learning environment
Learning occurs within a specific context (e.g., a classroom, a lab, a textbook) and transferring or
generalizing learning will not happen by itself. Teachers need to make real-world connections, teach in
multiple contexts, and take the time to develop students’ understanding of deep, underlying concepts that
can be applied in new contexts.
i. The principle of Assimilation
What students already know affects their learning. Prior knowledge can be “Velcro” for new knowledge,
but what students “know” may also be erroneous. Teachers can gain insights on students’ current
knowledge – and their misconceptions and knowledge gaps – by giving pre-assessments and putting the
data to work in unit and lesson planning.
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General Methods of Teaching by Hina Jalal (PhD Scholar)