“CONTINUOUS EFFORT—NOT STRENGTH OR INTELLIGENCE—IS THE KEY TO UNLOCKING OUR POTENTIAL.” – WINSTON CHURCHILL AP Language and Composition SURVIVAL GUIDE Tools to help you succeed in AP Language and Composition Mrs. Fitch 2011-2012 ADAPTED FROM THE “AP HANDBOOK” BY PEGGY WINTER AND THE “YELLOW PAGES” BY JENNIFER CULLEN, BETH PRIEM, AND ELIZABETH DAVIS OF WESTWOOD HIGH SCHOOL, AUSTIN, TX, AND HANDOUTS FROM OTHER INFLUENTIAL INSTRUCTORS. What are the Benefits of the Advanced Placement (AP) Program? For Colleges and Universities: It identifies and attracts highly motivated students who have succeeded in rigorous, college-level courses and demonstrated their ability through demanding national examinations. It provides admissions officers with an excellent predictor of student success in college. It enables students to diversify and deepen their college curriculum by placing them out of introductory level college courses to which they have demonstrated competence. It improves the articulation of college and high school curricula. For High Schools: It enhances the quality of the curriculum. It encourages focused efforts in curriculum alignment. It challenges the academically capable students. It provides opportunities for the best faculty to teach capable, motivated students in demanding courses. It affords rewarding in-service opportunities for motivated faculty members. It gives the college-preparatory program a reputation for high quality and standards. For Students: It can provide college credit for courses taken in high school. It develops the analytical and study skills required to succeed in college courses. It motivates students to undertake more challenging work in both high school and college. It provides direction in selecting college majors. It sets students on a more likely path to college graduation, double majors, and graduate school. How does the AP English Class Differ from the On-Level Class? Class Content: Less or no use of the chronological and historical approach to English, World, and American Literature More use of thematic and skill approaches to literature study Longer, more challenging research projects, with emphasis on literary analysis Focus on skill areas which directly relate to the kind of thinking and writing demanded by the national AP exams, such as critical reading, timed writings, style analysis, and independent novel and drama study A summer reading requirement To succeed, AP students must: Be able to read very well Be confident in class discussion and oral expression Be able to listen and participate in the thoughtful exchange of ideas Take responsibility for reading and writing assignments without relying on CliffNotes, internet summaries, and other available resources Be able to accept and to offer constructive criticism Be able to accept and to offer questions for which there are no clear answers Possess writing abilities which demonstrate control of mechanics, grammar, and usage, organization, diction, and syntax Seek out challenges and new concepts Possess a respect and regard for literature, composition, and learning in general Be willing to go beyond the minimum requirements of any assignment M. L. Mosier-AP English JUST INGREDIENTS NOT A FORMULA! [For AP Essays] INTRODUCTION [TTAA*PPS*] T-Title and Author T-Topic of Prompt A-Attitude (tone; in verb or adjective form) T+A+because=Thesis A-Audience (non-fiction only) *P-point of view *P-purpose *S-structure of the piece (*only when applicable) 2+ sentences CONCLUSION [ARCCBE] A- Author’s lesson R- Reader’s learning, specific and global C- Character’s learning C- Connections B- Biases revealed E- Ending of the work 2+sentences BODY PARAGRAPHS [TADEQIT] T- Topic of section/part A- Attitude T+A+because=topic sentence D- Device/Characteristic E- Explain how device works in section, purpose Q- Quotes/Examples I- Interpretation and Anlaysis T- Tie it back to the attitude 9-8 GENERIC SCORING GUIDE FOR AP LANGAUGE The writers of these well-constructed essays completely answer the question using evidence and explaining the relevance of the evidence. With a convincing thesis, the write demonstrates a clear understanding of the task and the piece. Although not without flaws, these essays reflect the writer’s ability to control a wide range of the elements of effective writing to provide a keen analysis of the literary text. 7-6 Developing a sound thesis, these writers answer all parts of the question. These essays may not be entirely responsive to the underlying meanings, but they provide specific examples and meaningful evidence. The analysis is less persuasive and somewhat less sophisticated than 8 & 9 essays. They seem less insightful, or discussion is more limited. Nonetheless, they confirm the writer’s ability to read literary texts with comprehension and to write with organization and control. 5 These essays construct a reasonable thesis. They discuss the work without serious errors but the analysis is often superficial. The writer may be vague and demonstrate insufficient development. Typically, these essays reveal simplistic thinking. May include misinterpretations of particular references or illustrations which distract from the overall effect. The writer also exhibits some lack of control over the elements of composition. 4-3 These essays attempt to discuss the part of the question. The discussion, however, is undeveloped or inaccurate. These writers may misread the passage in an essential way or rely on paraphrase. Illustrations and examples tend to be misconstrued, inexact, or omitted altogether. The writing may be sufficient to convey ideas, but typically characterized by weak diction, syntax, grammar, or organization. Essays scored a 3 are even less able, may not refer to technique at all, and will exhibit even more misinterpretation, inadequate development, or serious omissions. 2-1 These essays fail to respond adequately to the question. They may demonstrate confused thinking and/or weaknesses in grammar or other basic elements of composition. Mechanical errors may be distracting. They are often unacceptably brief. Although the writer may have made some attempt to answer the question, the views presented have little clarity or coherence, and significant problems with reading comprehension are evident. Essays that are scored 1 are especially inexact or mechanically unsound, and do less to address the topic. 0 This score is reserved for essays that make no more than a reference to the task, those that are off-topic, and for a blank sheet. Tips for Timed Writing 1. Read the prompt carefully. Identify the abstract concept that is the focus of the prompt. Identify any concrete device(s) the prompt specifies or suggests you use. 2. Read the passage for understanding. Ask yourself who, what, when, where, why questions if necessary. Keep the prompt in mind when you read. 3. Reread and mark the passage. Focus on concrete devices that create the abstract. Jot notes in the margins as you read. These notes may be all of the prewriting you have time to do. 4. Your thesis should directly reflect the prompt. Do not be afraid to state the obvious. Be clear as to the approach that you are taking and the concepts that you intend to prove. 5. Focus on your commentary. Your insight and understanding of the literature, as well as how you make the connections called for in the prompt are what the grader will look for. Be sure to organize your ideas logically. 6. Your conclusion must be worth reading. Do not just repeat with you have already said. Your conclusion should reflect an understanding of the passage and the question. Use a thematic statement, but avoid moralizing and absolute words. Tone Vocabulary AP Prompts often ask students to identify the author’s tone. AP gurus will tell you that to misinterpret tone is to misinterpret meaning. Therefore, it is crucial that you develop a “tone vocabulary.” The tone of a text may be articulated in several ways. The examples below are drawn from AP English exams multiple choice questions. • With a single adjective (use with a part of Ambivalent, ironic, hopeful, hysterical, insistent (AP Lit a text) exam 2009) Callous and reckless, petulant and critical, resigned and • With an adjective-conjunction-adjective construction reconciled, detached but hopeful, civil but angry (AP Lang 2007) Grounded optimism, stoic determination, grim despair, • With an adjective-noun construction bewildering chaos, violent retribution (AP Lit 2009) With an adverb-adjective construction Grudgingly appreciative, cleverly nonjudgmental, bitterly • disillusioned, viciously sarcastic (AP Lang 2007) Like the tone of a speaker’s voice, the tone of a work of literature expresses the writer’s feelings. To determine the tone of a passage, ask yourself the following questions: 1. What is the subject of the passage? Who is its intended audience? 2. What are the most important words in the passage? What connotations do these words have? 3. What feelings are generated by the images of the passage? 4. Are there any hints that the speaker or narrator does not really mean everything he or she says? If any jokes are made, are they lighthearted or bitter? 5. If the narrator were speaking aloud, what would the tone of his or her voice be? Positive Tone Happiness Amiable Exuberant Cheery Jubilant Contented Sprightly Ecstatic Genial Pleasure Enraptured Amused Peaceful Appreciative Playful Whimsical Satisfied Friendliness/Courtesy Accommodating Forgiving Pitying Tender Approving Gracious Sociable Tolerant Compassionate Indulgent Solicitous Trusting Cordial Kindly Soothing Courteous Obliging Sympathetic Animation Ardent Ecstatic Hearty Vigorous Brisk Energetic Hopeful Impassioned Crisp Exalted Inspired Eager Feverish Lively Earnest Hasty Rapturous Affectionate Tender Amorous Erotic Lustful Sensual Tranquility Meditative Dreamy Optimistic Idyllic Serene Soothing Spiritual Neutral Tone General Authoritative Disbelieving Matter-of-fact Restrained Baffled Factual Nostalgic Sentimental Ceremonial Formal Objective Shocked Clinical Informative Questioning Urgent Detached Learned Reminiscent Dispassionate Rational/Logical Admonitory Curious Instructive Sincere Argumentative Deliberate Oracular Unequivocal Candid Didactic Pensive Probing Coaxing Frank Pleading Analytical Insinuating Preoccupied Serendipitous Impish Romance Self-Control Solemn Nonchalant Stoic Serious Cool Gentle Wary Temperate Cautious Imperturbable Prudent Apathy Blasé Indifferent Sluggish Bored Inert Sophisticated Colorless Languid Vacant Defeated Monotonous Dispassionate Resigned Humorous/Ironic/Sarcastic Tone Amused Bantering Condescending Contemptuous Facetious Flippant Ironic Irreverent Pompous Ribald Satiric Scornful Teasing Wry Playful Hilarious Bitter Cynical Giddy Malicious Ridiculing Sharp Belittling Uproarious Caustic Disdainful Humorous Mocking Sarcastic Silly Haughty Comical Droll Insolent Patronizing Sardonic Taunting Insulting Negative Tone General Agitated Childish Desperate Passive Irritated Superficial Vindictive Arrogant Coarse Disappointed Furious Manipulative Surly Artificial Cold Disgruntled Harsh Obnoxious Threatening Audacious Condemnatory Disgusted Indignant Quarrelsome Uninterested Brash Contradictory Disinterested Inflammatory Shameful Menacing Sadness Despairing Melancholy Somber Despondent Maudlin Foreboding Regretful Gloomy Remorseful Bleak Grim Pain Annoyed Miserable Sulky Crushed Mournful Sullen Dismal Pathetic Troubled Fretful Plaintive Uneasy Unfriendliness Belittling Imprudent Unsociable Boorish Pitiless Reproachful Curt Scolding Demeaning Spiteful Disparaging Suspicious Anger Belligerent Enraged Furious Volatile Irritable Querulous Vexed Livid Wrathful Savage Passion Fierce Insane Reckless Frantic Impetuous Insistent Avaricious Impulsive Uncompromising Voracious Jealous Hysterical Nervous Arrogance/Self-Importance Boastful Bold Didactic Bombastic Defiant Dignified Smug Lofty Pretentious Self-righteous Domineering Peremptory Supercilious Assured Egotistical Resolute Pedantic Confident Imperious Saucy Sorrow/Fear/Worry Aggravated Embarrassed Ominous Anxious Intimidated Paranoid Apologetic Grave Pessimistic Apprehensive Hollow Poignant Disturbed Morose Enigmatic Submission/Timidity Aghast Contrite Meek Timid Alarmed Self-deprecatory Modest Tremulous Ashamed Docile Obsequious Unpretentious Astonished Groveling Servile Introspective Astounded Ingratiating Sycophantic Language Words-Used to describe the force or quality of the entire piece Like word choice, the language of a passage has control over tone. Consider language to be the entire body of words used in a text, not simply isolated bits of diction, imagery, or detail. For example, an invitation to a graduation might use formal language, whereas a biology text would use scientific and clinical language. Different from tone, these words describe the force or quality of the diction, images, and details AS A WHOLE. These words qualify how the work is written. Artificial Bombastic Colloquial Concrete Connotative Cultured Detached Emotional Esoteric Euphemistic Exact Figurative Formal Grotesque Homespun Idiomatic Informal Insipid Jargon Learned Literal Moralistic Obscure Obtuse Ordinary Pedantic Picturesque Plain Poetic Precise Pretentious Provincial Scholarly Sensuous Simple Slang Symbolic Trite Vulgar Verbs These verbs will be especially effective when the subject is the author, speaker, or a character. They are excellent replacements for “be” verbs and instrumental in the formulation of thesis statements. Careful use of these verbs can result in precise identification of an author’s purpose. Verbs for Analysis Accentuates Accepts Achieves Adopts analyzes Advocates Allows Alludes (to) Alters Approaches Argues Ascertains Assesses Assumes Attacks Attempts Attributes Avoids Bases Believes Challenges Changes Characterizes Chooses Chronicles Claims Comments Compares Compels Completes Concerns Concludes Condescends Conducts Conforms (to) Confronts Considers Contends Contests Contrasts Contributes Conveys Convinces Defies Defines Delineates Demonstrated Depicts Describes Despises Details Determines Develops Deviates (from) Differentiates Differs Directs Disappoints Discovers Discusses Displays Disputes Disrupts Distinguishes Distorts Downplays Dramatizes Elevates Elicits Emphasizes Enhances Enriches Enumerates Envisions Evokes Verbs to Use Instead of “Exemplifies” Appears Defines Asserts Demonstrates Attests to Denotes Certifies Depicts Confirms Discloses Connotes Elucidates Corroborates Endorses Excludes Expands Experiences Explains Explores Expresses Extends Extrapolates Focuses Forces Foreshadows Functions Generalizes Guides Heightens Highlights Hints Honors Identifies Illuminates Illustrates Imagines Imparts Impels Implies Includes Indicates Infers Inspires Intends Interprets Interrupts Inundates Investigates Justifies Juxtaposes Lambasts Laments Lampoons Links Lists Maintains Makes Manages Manipulates Minimizes Moralizes Mulls (over) Muses Notes Observes Opposes Organizes Outlines Overstates Patronizes Performs Permits Personifies Persuades Ponders Portrays Postulates Prepares Presents Presumes Produces Projects Promotes Proposes Provides Qualifies Questions Rationalizes Reasons Recalls Recites Recollects Records Recounts Refers Reflects Regards Regrets Rejects Represents Results Reveals Ridicules Satirizes Seems Sees Selects Specifies Speculates States Strives Suggests Summarizes Supplies Supports Suppresses Symbolizes Sympathizes Traces Undermines Understands Vacillates Values Verifies Establishes Evinces Exhibits Exposes Expounds Intimates Manifests Points to Proves Ratifies Relates Shows Substantiates Suggests Typifies Upholds Validates Adjectives for Use in Rhetorical Discussion Describing the Author/Speaker Analytical Hypocritical Bigoted Idealistic Broad-minded Imaginative Conservative Intellectual Cultured Intolerant Cynical Liberal Erudite Narrow-minded Fanatical Opinionated Humorous Optimistic Original Orthodox Perceptive Philosophical Progressive Prophetic Provincial Radical Rational Reactionary Realistic Romantic Sagacious Sensible Sentimental Shallow Skeptical Sophisticated Spiritual Superficial Sympathetic Unorthodox Unprejudiced Visionary Well-read Whimsical Describing the Style/Content Lucid Graphic Exact Concise Piquant Aphoristic Poetic Prosaic Pure Vigorous Fluent Glib Polished Classical Rhetorical Turgid Vague Diffuse Ungraceful Harsh Unpolished Crude Utilitarian Humanistic Subjective Melodramatic Credible Recondite Absurd Trivial Intelligible Succinct Syllogistic Plain Forceful Natural Artistic Pompous Verbose Abrupt Vulgar Pragmatic Fanciful Controversial Commonplace Explicit Condensed Allusive Simple Eloquent Restrained Bombastic Grandiose Pedantic Labored Formal Naturalistic Authentic Mystical Heretical Precise Pithy Metaphorical Homespun Sonorous Smooth Extravagant Obscure Ponderous Awkward Artificial Impressionistic Plausible Improbable Describing Diction (Avoid saying The author uses plain diction. Instead, make diction the subject of your sentence, as in The author’s plain diction conveys…) High or formal Low or informal Neutral Precise Homespun Concrete Abstract Plain Simple Figurative Esoteric Learned Cultured Literal sensuous Literary Connotative Symbolic Picturesque Idiomatic Neologistic Provincial Colloquial Slang Obscure Pedantic Inexact Euphemistic Trite Jargon Emotional Bombastic Grotesque Vulgar Scholarly Insipid Obtuse Moralistic Ordinary Scientific Proper Pretentious Old-fashioned Exact Describing Syntax (Avoid saying The author uses syntax. Instead, make syntax the subject of your sentence as in The author’s syntax conveys…) Loose sentence Complex CompoundDeclarative Inverted Compound Exclamatory complex Antithetic Terse Imperative Rhythmical Telegraphic Emphatic Euphonic Balanced Epigrammatic Simple Periodic Interrupted Interrogative Describing Organization/Structure/Point of View Spatial Chronological Step-by-step Objective Contemplative Reflective Omniscient Flashback Subjective Clinical Flash forward Nostalgic Impersonal In media res Reminiscent Dramatic Describing Imagery AP prompts often ask students to discuss the author’s imagery. The most successful student writers are able to categorize the images in a prose passage. Such categorization may be articulated with precise adjectives like those in the list below. Bucolic Decay/ Religious Olfactory Sexual Kinetic decomposition Gustatory Sacred Chaotic Auditory Pastoral Sensual War/militia Kinesthetic Animal Tactile Imagery may also be classified with nouns. Ex: imagery of death, decay, and decomposition. (The primary imagery is that of darkness.) Describing Speaker’s/Characters’ Physical Qualities (Great substitutions for pretty and ugly!) Manly Virile Muscular Dainty Strapping Stalwart Handsome Attractive Fair Comely Shapely Androit Graceful Elegant Immaculate Nimble Ravishing Dapper Agile Weak Adept Skillful Vivacious Emaciated Lively Spirited Decrepit Homely Sickly Frail Hideous Clumsy Effeminate Unwomanly Awkward Incongruous Unkempt Slovenly Grotesque Odious Graceless Bizarre Repulsive Sturdy Repellent Repugnant Hardy Lovely Loathsome Robust Brawny Delicate Describing Speaker’s/Characters’ Mental Qualities (Great substitutions for smart and stupid!) Educated Erudite Scholarly Wise Intellectual Precocious Capable Competent Apt Rational Reasonable Sensible Prudent Observant Clever Ingenious Subtle Cunning Crafty Wily Unschooled Unlettered Ignorant Illiterate Irrational Puerile Foolish Fatuous Simple Thick-skulled Idiotic Imbecile Deranged Demented Articulate Eloquent Describing Speaker’s/Character’s Moral Qualities (Great substitutions for good and bad!) Idealistic Temperate Faultless Ascetic Guileless Truthful Chaste Straightforward Undefiled Virtuous Austere Decent Puritanical Exemplary Trustworthy Notorious Innocent Abstentious Righteous Immoral Upright Honorable Pure Ribald Winsome Dexterous Active Feeble Cadaverous Coarse Ungainly Ghastly Invidious Astute Gifted Shrewd Inventive Unintelligent Inane Vacuous Witless Deceitful Vile Respectable Vicious Unprincipled Vulgar Dishonest Foul Wicked Incorrigible Reprobate Intemperate Unscrupulous Recalcitrant Corrupt Dissembling Depraved Sensual Dishonorable Philandering Degenerate Infamous Describing Speaker’s/Characters’ Spiritual Qualities (More great substitutions for good and bad!) Religious Reverent Saintly Impious Regenerate Holy Irreligious Carnal Agnostic Atheistic Materialistic Unregenerate Profane Sacrilegious Blasphemous Faithful Diabolic Fiendlike Devout Skeptical Charitable Pious Angelic Irreverent Describing Speaker’s/Characters’ Social Qualities (Great substitutions for nice and mean!) Civil Courteous Cooperative Genial Tactful Gracious Amiable Cordial Hospitable Jovial Jolly Urbane Convivial Acrimonious Quarrelsome Antagonistic Anti-social Impudent Impolite Insolent Discourteous Unrefined Rustic Provincial Ill-mannered Churlish Fawning Obsequious Brusque Fractious Crusty Peevish Grumpy waspish Taciturn Reticent Gregarious Amicable Contentious Unpolished Sullen Indecent Dissolute Base Opportunistic Godless Altruistic Affable Congenial Suave Misanthropic Ill-bred Boorish Sniveling Petulant Garrulous Nouns for Use in Rhetorical Discussion Analyzing Characters Foil Confidante Nemesis Doppelganger Adversary Analyzing Structure/Organization/Point of View Foreshadowing Epiphany Parallel structure Comparison Juxtaposition Contrast Categorization Anecdote Perspective Placement Analyzing Syntax Repetition Subject Phrase Modifier Conjunction Semicolon Pronoun Abstract noun Parenthetical expression Hyphen Parallelism Predicate Clause Dependent clause Interjection Colon Narrator (unknown, reliable, etc.) Protagonist Antagonist Analogy Transition Frame story Person (first, second, third) Extended metaphor Sequence Arrangement Shifts Definition Classification Proper noun Concrete noun Footnote Dash Compound nouns/ adjectives Anaphora Object Infinitive Independent clause Deliberate fragment Rhetorical question Common noun Dialogue Capitalization for effect Active voice Asyndeton Direct object Participle Subordinate clause Appositive Noun Collective noun Apostrophe Inversion Passive voice Polysyndeton Indirect object Gerund Preposition Noun Comma Chiasmus Antecedent Tense Identifying Genre/Purpose Novel Letter Précis Travelogue Farce Novella Sermon Synopsis Essay Conceit Autobiography Speech Critique Diatribe Editorial Memoir Treatise Personal narrative Polemic Tirade Biography Abstract Journal Commentary Review Assessment Apology Eulogy Soliloquy Argument Elegy Monologue Verse Parody Portrayal Allegory Identifying Sound Devices Alliteration Assonance Consonance Repetition Rhetorical Devices Allusion Personification Oxymoron Analogy Paradox Classical allusion Understatement Persona Euphemism Simile Hyperbole Synecdoche The Language of Argument Verbs Attack Challenge Validate Answer Grant Assert Nouns Warrant Solution Vested interest Logos Induction Audience Rebuttal Refutation Invective Appeal to authority Credentials Charge Qualify Confirm Agree Disagree Generalize Trivialize Claim Counter Affirm Verify Specify Simplify Propose Repudiate Argue Resolve Debate Disparage Defend Allege Assume Concede Dispute Validity Resolution Conflict of interest Counterargument Fallacy Purpose Antithesis Slippery slope Proponent Qualification Hypothetical examples Plausibility Bias Enthymeme Premise Ad hominem Message Non sequitur Anecdote Assertion Begging the question Practicality Credibility Pathos Syllogism Exigence Precedent Circular reasoning Advocacy Adherent Justification Proposal Accountability Ethos Deduction Speaker Testimonial Bandwagon Rhetoric Adversary Cause/effect Annotating Texts ANNOTATING simply means marking the page as you read with comments and/or notes. The principle reason you should annotate your books is to aid in understanding. When important passages occur, mark them so that they can be easily located when it comes time to write an essay or respond to the book. Marking key ideas will enable you to discuss the reading with more support, evidence, and/or proof than if you rely on memory. ANNOTATING MAY INCLUDE: Highlighting key words, phrases, or sentences Writing questions or comments in the margins Bracketing important ideas or passages Connecting ideas with lines or arrows Highlighting passages that are important to understanding the work Circling or highlighting words that are unfamiliar SPECIFIC ITEMS FOR ANNOTATION MIGHT INCLUDE: Character description Literary elements (symbolism, theme, foreshadowing, etc.) Figurative language (similes, metaphors, personification, etc.) Plot elements (setting, mood, conflict, etc.) Diction (effective or unusual word choice) Vocabulary words HOW TO ANNOTATE A TEXT: HIGHLIGHTING/UNDERLINING-This stands out from the page and allows you to scan a page quickly for information. Be careful not to mark too much—if everything is marked, then nothing becomes important! BRACKETS [ ]-If several lines seem important, place a bracket around the passage, then highlight or underline only key phrases within the bracketed area. This will draw attention to the passage without cluttering it with too many highlighted or underlined sentences. ASTERISKS *-This indicates something unusual, special, or important. Multiple asterisks indicate a stronger degree of importance. MARGINAL NOTES- Making notes in the margin allows you to: ask questions, label literary elements, summarize critical elements, explain ideas, make a comment, and/or identify characters. MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION (MLA) IN-TEXT CITATIONS Standard format: double quotation mark/quoted material/double quotation mark/left parenthesis/page number/right parenthesis/period For example, when Jem and Scout are building their snowman, they “[cannot] wait for Atticus to come home for dinner” (71). If the quote ends with a question mark or an exclamation point, put it inside the last quotation mark and put a period after the page citation. For example, while discussing the group of men who want to hang Tom Robinson before the trial begins, Atticus says, “Every mob in every little Southern town is always made up of people you know— doesn’t say much for them, does it?” (160). Use brackets when you alter words from the original quotation. Actual text: Atticus “went to the court reporter and said something, nodded to Mr. Gilmer, and then went to Tom Robinson and whispered something to him” (214). Your quote: For example, before leaving the courtroom Atticus “[goes] to the court reporter and [says] something, [nods] to Mr. Gilmer, and then [goes] to Tom Robinson and [whispers] something to him” (214). Reminders: 1. Never put periods or commas immediately before the closing quotation mark. 2. Never write pg./p./pp., etc. inside the parentheses. The only thing that can appear inside the parentheses is Arabic numbers. 3. Never put only the first quotation mark at the end of a line or the last quotation mark at the beginning of a line by itself. 4. Use a variety of transition words and sentence structures. Integrating Quotations: Making a QUOTATION SANDWICH “Because quotations do not speak for themselves, you need to build a “frame” around them in which you do the speaking for them. Quotations inserted into the text without such a frame may be called” [drive-by quotations], likening them to a drive-by shooting—their just blasted into the writing without warning or explanation, and they rarely hit their intended target. Example of a “Drive-by” Quotation Ann Putnam is one character who believes that supernatural forces are at work in Salem. “Why it’s sure she did, Mr. Collins saw her goin’ over Ingersoll’s barn, and come down light as a bird, he says!” Goody Putnam clearly believes that supernatural forces are possible. Another example of a character who believes in the supernatural causes of the girls’ sickness is Giles Corey… “To adequately frame a quotation, you need to insert it into what we like to call a ‘quotation sandwich,’ with the statement introducing it serving as the top slice of bread that the explanation following it as the bottom slice [see underlined portions of the example below]. The introduction of lead-in should explain who is speaking and set up what the quotation says; the follow-up statements should explain why the quotation illustrates the character’s claim” Example of a Quotation Sandwich Ann Putnam’s belief that the afflicted girls’ strange behavior can be attributed to witchcraft is clearly evident when, seeking to understand her own daughter’s condition, she visits Betty’s sickroom. Eagerly countering Parris’s claim that betty “never flew,” Goody Putnam insists that “Mr Collins” witnessed the girl “goin’ over Ingersoll’s barn.” She further demonstrates her certainty that supernatural forces are at work by describing the incident as a “marvel” and by suggesting that the girls’ sickness is a result of the “Devil’s touch.” These assertions on the part of Goody Putnam illustrate not only her belief in supernatural forces but also her desire for these supernatural occurrences to be the explanation for Betty’s and her own daughter’s sickness. Verbs for Introducing Summaries and Quotations Verbs for Making a Claim Verbs for Expressing Agreement Acknowledge, admire, agree, celebrate the fact that, corroborate, do not deny, endorse, extol, praise, reaffirm, support, verify Argue, assert, believe, claim, emphasize, insist, observe, remind us, report, suggest Verbs for Questioning or Disagreeing Complain, complicate, contend, contradict, deny, deplore the tendency to, disavow, question, refute, reject, renounce, repudiate Verbs for Making Recommendations Advocate, call for, demand, encourage, exhort, implore, plead, recommend, urge, warn Graff, Gerald and Cathy Birkenstein. “They Say/I Say” The Moves that Count in Academic Writing. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2006. Transitions and Paragraph Hooks Time Place Idea Extending elaboration by comparing Extending elaboration by contrasting Extending elaboration by emphasizing/ clarifying After, afterward, at first, as before, finally, immediately, later, next, now, previously, soon, then Above, ahead, among, beyond, down, elsewhere, farther, here, in front of, in the background, near, nearby, next to, there First, second, third, similarly, as, in the same way, for instance, likewise, however As, at the same time, by comparison, equally, in the same manner, likewise, similarly Although, and yet, as, as though, at the same time, but, in contrast, conversely, even so, unlike, even though, however, in spite of, neither, nevertheless, on the one hand, on the other hand, provided that, though, unfortunately, whereas, yet Especially, for instance, in fact, indeed, that is, in other words Extending elaboration by adding another example Moreover, most important, now, so, additionally, again, also, especially, in addition, in fact, last, again, also, besides, equally, important, furthermore, similarly, in contrast Transition list from Crafting Expository Argument by Michael Degen Transitions for the Purpose of Argumentation Purpose Agreeing Disagreeing • • • Making a concession to a different point of view • • • Anticipating and refuting counterargument • • Example I can support X’s position on… because… In defense of X’s claim that … it is clear that… I challenge the validity of X’s assertion because… cannot be verified by… I counter X’s argument for/against… because… I sympathize with X’s premise regarding…, but I propose that… Advocates of … are correct when they insist that… however, I dispute the idea that… X’s rhetoric will appeal to many voters concerned with…, but statistics actually show that… Opponents of… will try to convince you that…, but I contend that… Transitions for the Purposes of Argumentation modeled on examples in They Say, I Say (Graff and Birkenstein) AVOIDING COMMON WRITING ERRORS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Write in active, not passive, voice (e.g., The information confused the student instead of The Student was confused by the information). Punctuate compound sentences correctly to avoid comma splices and run-ons. Avoid contractions. Then you will never confuse the contraction it’s (meaning it is or it has) with the possessive pronoun its (e.g., The dog wagged its tail). Avoid announcing your intentions (This report will examine; In this paper I will argue). Develop your paragraphs. One or two sentences cannot form a developed paragraph. Vary your sentence pattern by combining sentences to create a balance of complex, simple, and compound patterns. Avoid opening your paper with a “dictionary definition” and ending your paragraphs with a “concluding” sentence. Avoid the excessive use of the expletives there is; there are; there would have been. Avoid redundant rhetoric (separate out; focus in on; exact same). Eliminate empty phrases: in today’s society (in today’s anything); hopefully; in my opinion; due to the fact Replace the words he/she or him/her with a plural subject if appropriate: Students realize they must develop solid study habits replaces A student realizes he/she must develop solid study habits. Avoid the use of this, that, which, and similar pronouns to cover more than one specific antecedent (the noun or pronoun that the pronoun refers to). Avoid faulty predication or faulty pronoun reference: This is when; The reason is because; In the book it says.. Avoid shifting voice: The speech students learned that you had to prepare carefully to hold an audience’s attention. Distinguish subjective from objective forms of pronoun case; he/him; she/her; they/them; we/us; etc. Refer to a usage glossary to avoid using who’s for whose; affect for effect; loose for lose; to for too; presently for currently; etc. Place quotation marks outside commas and periods; generally place them inside semicolons. Adhere to the “I 0 percent rule” when writing introductions and conclusions. That is, your introduction as well as your conclusion should each measure around I 0 percent of the length of the entire paper. Underline or italicize only that portion of a title you borrow from another author. 20. Avoid the use of the verb feel when you think or believe (e.g., The character feels like he needs to get revenge). The character believes that is acceptable usage. 21. Refer to an author’s full name only when is it initially used; thereafter, use last name only and. With few exceptions, never with a title such as Dr. or Ms. (Doctor Johnson replaces Samuel Johnson, a notable exception.) 22. Indent four lines or more of quoted material without the use of quotation marks because indention in itself is the “signpost” ‘to your reader that you have borrowed the information. Use a single quotation mark, however, to indicate a speaker within the indented citation. 23. Introduce long quotations with a colon and always offer some analysis or commentary (not summary) before or after the introduction of a quotation. 24. Underline or italicize those works that are long enough to be published separately. They include television sitcoms, movies, epic poems, and music albums. 25. Space ellipses correctly, space/period/space/period/space/period ( . . . ) 26. Use brackets to reflect a change in capitalization if different from the text you are quoting: John Kennedy’s philosophy was to ‘[a]sk what you can do for your country.’ 27. Stay in literary or historical present tense when “in the text”: As Shakespeare characterizes him, Hamlet is (not was) a tragic figure. 28. Spell out all numbers ten (O-IO) and below. Always spell any number if it is the first word of the sentence. 29. Distinguish the narrator’s or speaker’s voice from the author’s when you analyze literary works (for poetry, the speaker’s voice replaces the narrator’s). 30. Avoid using a quotation as a thesis statement or topic sentence. 31. Avoid using an ellipsis to indicate an omission from the beginning of a quotation. 32. Reserve the term quote as a verb, the term quotation as a noun (She wants to quote one portion of the quotation). Revision Involves Changes… Adding • • • • • • • • completely new thoughts the other side of an issue explanation of thoughts and ideas examples, illustrations a specific audience a clarifying metaphor or analogy specific details vivid, fresh adjectives and adverbs Deleting • • • • • irrelevant passages, no matter how fond you are of them broad descriptions and vague generalizations which prevent in-depth discussion of a sharply focused topic weak beginnings pointless details lifeless, taking-up-space words and phrases Substituting • one purpose for another (e.g. a primarily informative piece changes to a primarily entertaining one) • one tone for another • one point of view for another • one form of discourse for another (e.g., expressive prose changes to poetry) • words with greater precision • strong verbs, colorful expressions Rearranging • • • • major points in least-to-most-significant order a striking sentence or idea to be used in the introduction or conclusion paragraphs into a chronological sequence items in a series AP Language and Composition Multiple Choice Stems 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. The speaker’s primary purpose in the passage is to The phrase, “ ” functions primarily as The attitude of the entire passage (or parts of the passage) is one of The author uses this (a certain image) for the purpose of The main rhetorical strategy of the ___ paragraph is for the purpose of The word “ ” in context of line ___ is best interpreted to mean By lines ___, it can be interpreted to mean The reason for the shift in tone is due to The phrase “ ” in line ___ refers to which of the following The word/phrase “ ” in line ___ refers to which of the following In relation to the passage as a whole, the statement in the first sentence presents In lines ___, “ ” the speaker employs which of the following rhetorical strategies Which of the following best summarizes the main topic of the passage In the sentence beginning “ ” the speaker employs all of the following EXCEPT The style of the passage as a whole is most accurately characterized as The principle contrast employed by the author in the passage (paragraph) is between The primary rhetorical function of lines --- “ ” is to The speaker’s reference to “ ” serves primarily to The tone of the passage shifts from one of ___ to one of ___ The second sentence lines ___ is unified by metaphorical references pertaining to (frame of reference) It can be inferred by the description of ___that which of the following qualities are valued by the speaker The antecedent for “it” in the clause “ ” is The type of argument employed by the speaker is most similar to which of the following The speaker describes ___ in an order best described as from the (loudest to softest) The pattern of exposition exemplified in the passage is best described as The point of view indicated in the phrase “ ” in line ___ is that of The atmosphere established in the ___ sentence in line ___ is that of The ___ sentence in line ___ remains coherent chiefly because of its use of a. b. c. d. Parallel syntactic structure Colloquial and idiomatic diction A series of prepositional phrases Periodic sentence structure e. Retrospective point of view 29. The function of the three clauses introduced by “that” in lines ___ is to 30. The sentence “ ” in lines ___ contains which of the following 31. Which of the following best describes the function of the third paragraph in relation to the two paragraphs that precede it 32. The passage is an appeal for a 33. The primary rhetorical function of lines ___ is to 34. In the passage, the speaker makes all of the following assumptions about his/her readers EXCEPT 35. The diction in the passage is best described as 36. One prominent stylistic characteristic of the ___ paragraph is the use of Explanation of Common Grading Marks AWK—awkward; rewrite your sentence WC—word choice; you should find a better word than the one you’ve used. The word may be too general or you may have used a word that doesn’t have precisely the same meaning as a synonym. WW—wrong word SP—misspelled word WHAT?—Seriously? I can’t believe I’m reading this in a junior-level, AP paper. Your reasoning is flawed, you’ve misread the text, or I just can’t make sense of what you’re trying to say. ?—I can’t read what you wrote. FRAG—sentence fragment CS—comma splice (putting a comma where you don’t need one) RO—run-on sentence PV—passive voice; remember to use active whenever possible So?—So what? Further explanation is needed. Elab—Elaborate on this point, or extend your commentary. ^-- insert (could be anything, a word, a punctuation mark, etc. ℓ-- remove (could be anything) #--space AP English Language and Composition Terms that have appeared on AP exams (1991-2007) Abstraction Allegory Alliteration Allusions Ambivalence Analogy Anecdote Antecedent Anticlimax Antithesis Apostrophe Appeals to authority Argument Aside Assertion Assumption Audience Author’s purpose Bias Characterization Circumlocution Claim Cliché Colloquialism Commentary Comparison Concrete diction Contrast Counterbalance Counterexample Deduction Details Diatribe Diction Digression Double entendre Dramatic monologue Endnote Epithet Euphemism Evidence Exaggeration Exposition Fable Fallacious claim Figures F speech Footnote Generalization Humor Hyperbole Hypothesis Hypothetical example Image Imagery Imperative mood Indifference Inference Invective Irony Juxtaposition Linguistic paradox Logical fallacy Lyrical Melodrama Metaphor Metaphorical language Mocking humor Motif Narrative development Narrative style Negation Nostalgia Objectivity Onomatopoeia Overstatement Oxymoron Paradox Parallelism Periodic sentence Parody Pun Qualifying statement Personification Rebutting an objection Refutation Reminiscence Resolution Rationale Reference Repetition Repudiation Rhetoric Rhetorical questions Sarcasm Satire Self-deprecating humor Sentence structure Shift Simile Slang Speaker Speaker’s attitude Speaker’s purpose Structure Style Subordinate clause Syllogism Symbol Symmetry Synonym Syntax Thesis Tone Transition Understatement Unity Verbal irony List compiled by Edie Parrot Handout courtesy of Ronessa McDonald Recommended Resources for AP English 11 and 12 Students These resources are listed using MLA documentation and are thus in alphabetical order by author and not organized by order of recommendation. Casson, Allan. Advanced Placement: English Literature and Composition Preparation Guide. Cliffs: Lincoln, 1993. Murphy, Barbara and Estelle Rankin. 5 Steps to a 5: AP English Language. McGraw-Hill: New York, 2002. Murphy, Barbara and Estelle Rankin. 5 Steps to a 5: AP English Literature. McGraw-Hill: New York, 2002. Swovelin, Barbara V. Advanced Placement: English Language and Composition Preparation Guide. Cliffs: Lincoln, 1993. Students will also find it useful to obtain their own copy of each of the following: Major novels taught in class, A dictionary of allusions, An encyclopedia of literature, A current MLA handbook, and A handbook of literary terms Note: Many of these items can often be obtained from used bookstores! Resources for this Handbook This handbook was composed using many personal, departmental, and outside resources. The following resources were also used in the development of this handbook. Crest, Catherine Bartlett. Teacher’s Guide—AP English Literature and Composition. College Board, 1999. McIntire, Debra. Introduction Materials: Summer Institute for Advanced Placement Literature and Composition, 2002. Potts, Mary Jo. Teacher’s Guide—AP English Language and Composition. College Board, 1998. Schaffer, Jane. Teaching the Multi-paragraph Essay. Jane Schaffer Publications, 1995. Student Handbook: Advanced Placement English Program. Yukon High School, 2001. The AP Vertical Teams Guide for English, 2nd ed. College Board, 2002. The Yellow Pages. Westwood High School AP English teachers, Austin, TX. Winter, Peggy. AP Handbook.