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production layout

Work study is a term used to embrace the techniques of method study and work
measurement, which are employed to ensure the best possible use of human and material
resource carrying out specified activity. Thus, the work study of human works in all aspects
in order to improve productivity. It is a systematic and analytical study of work process and
work method with the objective of increasing efficiency and reducing cost.
Work study helps to reduce waste through standardasation of qualitative and quantitative
element of the job
Importance of work study
Uniformity and improved production flow
Higher productive efficiency
Better employee and employer relation
Better service of customers
Less fratigue to operators
Higher wages to workers
Work study also aims and finding the best and most efficient way of using available resource
that is man material machinery the time itself and money.
Techniques of work study
Work study has two techniques closely related facts; thus method study, an examination of
the ways doing work and work measurement , which is the assessment of the time , which a
job should take . Both are carried out systematically and follow every similar patterns
Method study
1. Select task to be studied
2. Record the facts
3. Examine the facts
4. Develop and define the new method
Install the new method
6 Maintain
Work Measurements
1Select task to be studied
2Record the facts
3Analyze the facts
4Measure the task
5Compile the standard
6 Define methods and its time
Method study; is a systematic recording and critical examination of the way of doing a task
or and determination of the best method
The method study has its main objectives that is method study improves the process and
work procedure. Another objective is to obtain effective use on man , material , and
machinery. Also improves design and specification of the product.
Steps in method study
The steps involves in the method study are;
Selection of the work to be studied
Examine the recorded facts critically and challenge everything that is done
Recording all the relevant fact of present propose method by observation and
Define the most practical, economical and effective method considering all the
Define new method so that it can be always be identified
Install the method as standard practice
Maintain that standard practice by regular machine check up .
Method study has it techniques which include Recording and recording is defined as
systematic note down of all relevant facts of proposed method by observation and analysis.
Recording techniques can be done using charts , for example outline process chart, flow
process chart, multiple Activity Chart, Two hand process chart. It can also by Diagram, for
example cycle graph flow and string diagram and template and model.
Recording is important because it helps to carry out examination carefully and the success
of method study depend upon on the accuracy with which facts are recorded.
Work Measurement
Work measurement is the application of techniques design to establish the time for a
qualified work to carry out a task at a defined rate of working . It provides the
management witha means of measuring the time taken in the performance of an
operation in such a way that ineffective time is detected and can be separated from the
effective time.
Objective of work measurement
To eliminate the ineffective time
To balance the assignment of work amongthe workers in a team with the help of
multiple To decide production To reveal the existence of ineffective time
activity chart
To provide a basis for product planning and control choice of a better layout and for
process planning
The basic procedure of work measurement is to select the work to be studied and
determine the time study, Record all the relevant data, examine the recorded data and
measure the time required to complete each element of the work using work measurement
techniques compile standard time for the operation of work cycle by considering all
Uses of work measurement
To compare the efficiency of the alternative method
As a basic for labour budgeting and control system
To reveal the existence of ineffective time
To decide production time and provide useful data in planning and scheduling
Work measurement has its techniques which can be classified as direct method thus time
sampling and work sampling . Then indirect method thus standard time data and analytical
estimation. Techniques of work measurement are the principles techniques by which work
measurement is carried out. These may include ;
Stop watch time study
Predetermined motion time systems
Activity sampling
Analytical estimating
There are five main types of layout. These types include Plant layout, Process layout,
Product layout ,Combination layout and fixed position layout
Plant layout
Plant layout means the disposition of the various facilities equipment ,material, manpower
and service of the plant within the area of the site selected previously. Plant layout begins
with the design of the factory building and goes up to location and movement of a work
table. All the facilities like equipments raw materials , machinery tools, futures, workers are
given a proper place. In deciding the place for equipment , the supervisor and workers who
have to operate them should be consulted
In a good plant layout material handling and transportation is minimized and efficiently
Bottlenecks and point of congestion are eliminated by line balancing so that
the raw materials and some finished goods move fast from one work station
to another
Work stations are designed suitably and properly
Suitable spaces are allocated to production centres and service centre
The movement made by the workers are minimized
There is increased flexibility for changes in product design and for the future
There is increased productivity and better product quality with reduced
capital cost
Process layout
It is also known as functional layout and is characterized by keeping similar
operations at one location . In other words ,all lathes will be at one place all milling
machines all another , that is machines have been arranged accordingly to their
functions . this type of layout is generally employed for industries engaged in job
order production and non repetitive kind of mainteinance or manufacturing activity.
Advantage of process layout
Various of job coming a different job order make the work more interesting
for the workers.
Better utilisation of available resource.
Better product quality because the supervisors and workers attend to one
types of machine operation.
Workers in one section are not affected by the nature of the operations
carried out in another sections.
Disadvantage of process lay out
For the same amount of production , process layout needs more space
Completion of the same product takes more time
More material in process lay out remains in queue for further operation
It needs more inspection and efficient coordination
Product layout
It is also known as line type layout .it implies that various operations on raw materials are
performed in a sequence and machine are placed in along the product flow line. That is
machines are arranged in the sequence in which the raw materials will be operated upon .
this type of layout is involving a continuous flow of in process materials towards the
finished product stage.
Advantage of product lay out
Automatic material handling, lesser material handling movement times and cost.
Less space requirements for the same volume of production.
Product completes in lesser time.
Better coordination and simple production planning and control.
Smooth and continuous work flow.
Less skilled workers may serve the purpose
Disadvantages as compared with process layout
Since specified product determines the layout a change in product involves major
changes in layout and thus the layout flexibility is considerably reduced
Machines being scattered along the line , more machines of each type have to be
purchased for keeping a few as stand by because if one machine in the line fails , it
may lead to down of the complete production line . This is how product layout
involves higher capital investment.
It is difficult to increase production beyond the capacities of the production line