Branches of Ethics Normative Ethics ➔ Concerned with criteria of what is right and wrong ➔ Formulation of moral constructs I. Virtue Ethics II. Consequentialism -Utilitarianism -Ethical Egoism -Ethical Altruism -Hedonism III. Deontological Ethics -Gandhian Ethics -Kantian Ethics -Nishkama karma Descriptive Ethics Applied Ethics I. Bioethics II. Business Ethics III. Military Ethics IV. Political Ethics V. Environmental Ethics VI. Publication Ethics Meta-Ethics ➔ Origin of ethical principles, divine or human ➔ What do the words good, bad, right, or wrong mean ➔ Whether moral judgments are universal or relative I. Moral Realism ● There are moral facts -Moral Absolutism ● There are absolute standards against which moral questions can be judged -Moral relativism ● More than one moral position on a given topic can be correct -Cultural relativism ● Descriptive Cultural relativism -People's moral beliefs differ from culture to culture ● Normative cultural relativism -Its not your beliefs but moral facts themselves that differ from culture to culture II. Moral AntiRealism ● There are no moral facts -Moral subjectivism ● Moral statements can be true and false, right or wrong, but they refer only to people's attitudes rather than their actions.