Uploaded by Hussan Ara Begum

Ecology and Behavior

Ecology and Behavior
Ecology is defined as the branch of science that studies how people or organisms relate to
each other and their environment. An example of ecology is studying the food chain in a
wetlands(‫ )ڑک یچ ۔ دل دل‬area.
Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environment.
The term oekologie (ecology) was coined in 1866 by the German biologist, Ernst Haeckel from
the Greek oikos meaning "house" or "dwelling", and logos meaning "science" or "study".
Thus, ecology is the "study of the household of nature". or the study of the place we live in.
Within the discipline of ecology, researchers work at five broad levels, sometimes discretely
(Separately)and sometimes with overlap(have some elements in common):
organism, population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere.
Ecologists study ecosystems at every level, from the individual organism to the whole
ecosystem and biosphere. They can ask different types of questions at each level.
Examples of these questions are given in Table below, using the zebra (Equus zebra) as
an example.
How do zebras keep water in their bodies?
What causes the growth of a zebra population?
How does a disturbance, like a fire or predator, affect the number of mammal species
in African grasslands?
How does fire affect the amount of food available in grassland ecosystems?
How does carbon dioxide in the air affect global temperature?
The discipline of ecology emerged from the natural sciences in the late 19th century.
Ecology is not synonymous with environment, environmentalism, or environmental
science. Ecology is closely related to the disciplines of physiology, evolution, genetics
and behavior.
There are many practical applications of ecology in conservation biology, wetland
management, natural resource management (agriculture, forestry, fisheries), city
planning (urban ecology), community health, economics, basic & applied science and it
provides a conceptual framework (‫ ) ت صورات ی ف ری م و ک ر‬for understanding and
researching human social interaction (human ecology
The different types of ecology include- molecular ecology, organismal ecology,
population ecology, community ecology, global ecology, landscape ecology and
ecosystem ecology.
Scientists who study these interactions are called ecologists. Terrestrial ecoregion and
climate change research are two areas where ecologists now focus.
When we study ecology with behavior we actually come to know “How does environment dictate life's
Which of these statements is the most complete definition of ecology?
The study of the environment, in particular how to preserve it
The study of the environment, in particular how to save endangered species
The study of the interactions between organisms in terms of competition and predation
The study of the interactions between organisms and their environment
What is the term given to a group of populations of different
species living in given area?
Which of the following best describes an organism's environment?
a) Made up of its geography and climate
b) Made up of its physical surroundings
c) Made up of the plants and animals it is surrounded by
d) Made up of the abiotic and biotic components of its surroundings
The most basic level of ecological organization is a(n)
A.biosphere. B.individual C.ecosystem. D.population
The study of living and nonliving components of a system can best be described as a(n)
A.abiotic factor.
B.level hierarchy.
C.ecosystem ecology. D.organism interaction.
Multiple Choice
Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on
the line provided.
1.Which of the following descriptions about the or
ganization of an ecosystem is correct?
a.Communities make up species, which make up populations.
b.Populations make up species, which make up communities.
c.Species make up communities, which make up populations.
d.Species make up populations, which make up communities.
The simplest grouping of more than one kind of organism in the biosphere is
3.Which ecological inquiry method is an ecologist using when he or she enters
an area periodically to count the population numbers of a certain species?