Uploaded by zaid.mehr

Middle english Glossary

Middle-english Glossary
abid, abyd, abyde verb, prsnt. remain, await, wait; abood verb, pst. awaited, remained
abideth, abydeth verb awaits
abidyng verb awaiting
able adj. suitable
abluciouns noun cleansings
abood noun delay
above adj. superior
abregge verb abridge, shorten
accidie noun sloth, laziness
accord, acord noun agreement
achatours noun buyers
acorded verb agreed
adoun prep. below
adrad adj. afraid
afered, aferd adj. afraid
affiance noun trust
affraye verb, prsnt frighten
affrayed verb, pst. frightened, afraid
after-mete prep. the time after diner
agast verb, pst. prtcpl. frightened
agaste verb, pst. sg. frightened
agu noun acute fever
aiel noun grandfather
aketoun noun wadded jacket worn under the chain-mail coat
al conj. although
alauntz noun wolfhounds
al bifore adv. first, before everyone else, heading the procession
alday adv. daily
alderbest best of all
alderfirst first of all, to begin with
alderlevest most beloved
aldermost most of all
aleyes noun garden paths
algate, algates adv. always, all the same
alkamystre noun alchemist
Alkaron noun the Koran
alle and some one and all, everyone
allegge verb adduce, cite
allye noun kinsman
allyen verb ally oneself, marry
almesdede noun almsgiving
almesse noun charity
al speke he although he may speak
alyght verb arrived
als cleere adv. as clearly
amalgamyng noun blending, amalgamation
amende verb improve, correct, remedy
amended verb, pst. prtcpl. improved, corrected
amblere noun pacing horse
amonesteth verb, prsnt. sg. admonishes
Amor vincit omnia (Latin) Love conquers all
angwissous adj. anxious
anlaas noun broad two-edged dagger
annueleer noun chantry priest, a priest who sings anniversary masses for the dead
anon, anoon adv. straightway, at once, immediately
anoy noun trouble
antiphoner noun anthem-book, book of antiphonal hymns
apayed verb, pst. pleased
ape noun 1. fool, dupe; 2. monkey
apertenen verb befit
aperteneth verb, prsnt. sg. befits
apiked verb adorned, trimmed
appalled adj. pale-looking, faded
apposed verb questioned
appreved verb approved, proven, tested
approwours noun agents
areste verb stop, restrain
a-rewe adv. in succession
argumentz noun logical reasoning
aright adv. certainly
armee noun military expedition
armure noun armour, protective covering
array noun 1. equipment; 2. dress, clothes
arrayed verb, pst. prtcpl. prepared, adorned
arreest noun restaint, seizure
artelries noun artillery, shooting equipment, cannons and catapults
arwes noun, pl. arrows
aslaked calmed
asonder adv. apart
assaut noun assault
assay noun 1. trial; 2. test
assaye verb, prsnt. sg. test
assayed verb, pst. sg tested
assege noun siege
asseged verb besieged
assent noun consent, will, opinion
assente verb, prsnt. consent, agree; assented verb, pst. consented, agreed
assise noun the court of assizes
assoille verb absolve
assoillyng noun absolution
assured adj. confident; verb entrusted
astert verb escaped
asterte, asterted verb escaped
astoned verb amazed, astonished, surprised
astored verb provided
aswowne adv. in a swoon, aswooned
atemprely, attemprely adv. moderately
at erst prep. for the first time
atones adv. 1. at once, immediately; 2. at one time, at the same time
attamed verb, pst. begun
attempree adj. moderate
atthamaunt, adamant noun adamant, a very hard kind of stone
atwo adv. in two
atwynne adv. apart
auctorite, auctoritee noun 1. written authority, an authoritative statement or passage;
2. legal power or authority
aungel noun angel
aungellyk adj. angel-like
auter noun altar
avalen verb take off
avarice noun greed
avaunce verb prosper
avauntyng verbal noun boasting
avayle verb help, benefit
Ave Marie (Latin) Hail Mary (first words of a Latin prayer)
avoutrye, avowtrie, avowtrye noun adultery
avowtier noun adulterer
avow noun vow, solemn pledge
avys noun 1. discussion; 2. opinion
avyseth verb, 3rd prs. sg. look at, consider
avysement noun deliberation
awreke verb avenged
axe verb, prsnt. sg. ask
axed verb, pst. asked
axeth verb, prsnt. sg. asks
ay adv. always
ba verb kiss
baar verb carried
bacheler, bachiler noun young man, unmarried man, young knight
bachilrie noun knighthood, knightly conduct
Bacus noun Bacchus, god of wine
baillif, bailly noun bailiff, an agent for a lord's estate who administered justice and
collected revenues
balke noun beam
balled adj. bald
bane noun killer
Barbre nacioun noun pagan world
bargaynes noun bargains, buying and selling
barge noun sailing ship
baronage noun nobles, nobility
bataille noun battle
bath noun cauldron
bathen verb bask
bauderye, bawderye noun pandering
bawdes noun pimps
bawdryk noun baldric, shoulder strap, a belt for a sword, bugle, etc. hung from the
shoulder across the body to the opposite hip
bawme noun balsam
beautee noun beauty
beddes heed noun head of the bed
bede noun bead, a small usually rounded and perforated piece of glass or stone for
threading with others to make jewellery
bedrede adj. 1. bedridden, confined to bed by infirmity; 2. decrepit
beggestere noun beggar-woman
bekke nod
benefice noun ecclesiastical living
benigne, benygne, benyngne adj. 1. kind, good; 2. gracious
benignely, benygnely adv. graciously
benignytee, benygnytee, benyngnytee, noun goodness
benyson, benysoun noun blessing
bereth verb acquits
berkyng verbal noun barking
berne noun barn
best noun beast
bible noun book
bibledde adj. covered with blood
biddeth verb, prsnt. pray
bifel, bifil verb (it) happened
bigileres noun liars, deceivers
biheeste, biheete, biheste noun promise
bihight, bihighte verb promised
bihighten verb promised
biknowe verb reveal, confess
bileve verb remain, stay
bille noun petition, formal charge
biraft verb taken away (from)
birafte verb took away (from)
bireve verb remove, deprive, take away
bireveth verb removes, deprives, takes away from
biseche, biseke verb beseech
bisemare noun scorn
bisette verb, pst. applied, used
bitook verb entrusted
bitrayseth verb, 3rd prs. prsnt. betrays
bitwix, bitwixe, bitwixen, bitwyxen prep. between
biwrey, biwreye verb, prsnt. 1. reveal, expose; 2. betray
biwreyed verb, pst. revealed
blak, blake adj. black
blent verb deceived, blinded
blew adj. blue
bleynte verb turned pale
blisful adj. blessed
blyve adv. quickly
bobance noun boast
bocher noun butcher
bodies, bodyes noun metals
boef noun beef
boghte verb redeemed
bokeler, bokeleer noun buckler, small shield
bond noun bond, knowledge of practitioner
boone noun request, prayer
boote noun remedy
bootelees adv. without remedy, cureless
bord noun dinner table
bord bigonne sat in the place of honor
bountee noun goodness, virtue
bountevous adj. generous
bour noun, sg. inner room, bedroom, private room for lord and lady
bourde noun jest
boures noun, pl. bedrooms
boidekyn noun sg. dagger
boydekyns noun, pl. daggers
brawen, brawn noun, sg. 1. muscle; 2. meat
brawnes noun, pl. muscles
breme adv. fiercely
brenne, brennen verb burn
brenneth verb, 3rd prs. sg. burns
brent verb burned
brennynge verb burning
bresten verb break, burst
bretful, bret-ful adj. brimful
bretherhed noun guild, fraternity
briberyes noun ways of stealing money
bridale noun wedding-party
brid noun, sg. bird
briddes noun, pl. birds
brigge noun bridge
brike noun trap, plight
Britouns noun Bretons
brode adv. plainly
brood adj. broad, wide
brond noun torch
brosten verb broken
brotel adj. insecure, unstable, brittle
brotelnesse, brotilnesse noun insecurity, unstability, fickleness
browdynge noun embroidery
brybe verb steal
brydel noun bridle, the harness fitted about a horse's head
brymstoon noun sulphur
bryngen verb bring
brynne verb burn
bulles noun papal bulls, edict, indulgences
burel adj. uneducated, unlearned
burghes noun, pl. boroughs, a town (as distinct from a city) with a corporation and
priviliges granted by a royal charter
burdoun noun bass (part in a song)
burgeys noun citizen of a city (tradesman)
buryeles noun burial places (the catacombs)
but conj. unless
butiller noun butler, steward
buxom adj. obedient
buxomly adv. obediently
by aventure by chance
byg adj. strong
byle noun beak
by oon assent unanimously, all together
by noon assent not at all
by rote by heart
by taille on credit
byte verb burn
byynge verb purchase (buying)
caas noun case, circumstances
cake noun loaf of bread
calcenyng noun calcination, reducing to powder by heat
calculinge noun astrological computation
Cantebrigge Cambridge
caples noun, pl. horses
capul noun nag, a small riding-horse or pony
careyne noun corpse
carl noun fellow
carryk noun barge, large sailing ship
cartere noun charioteer
caste verb, pst. sg. thought, planned
catel noun property, possessions
caytyf, kaityf, kaytyf noun wretch
caytyves noun wretched creatures
ceint, ceynt noun belt
celle noun a subordinate monastery
certes adv. certainly, indeed
chaar noun chariot, a stately or triumphal vehicle
chaast adj. chaste
chaffare noun merchandise, goods
chalons noun, pl. blankets
chamberere noun (chamber)maid
chambre noun, sg. (bed)room
chambres noun, pl. bedrooms
chanon, chanoun noun canon, a member of the clergy serving in a cathedral or
collegiate church
chaped verb mounted
chapeleyne noun a nun serving as a secretary to a prioress
chapman noun merchant
chasteyn noun chestnut tree
chastitee noun chastity, abstinence from sexual intercourse
chaunterie noun appointment as a chantry priest, an endowment for a priest to serve
in a chapel for the soul of its patron
chaunteth verb, prsnt. sg. sings
cheere, chere noun 1. manners, behaviour; 2. facial expression, look
chees verb choose, chose
chekker noun chess board
ches, chese verb choose
ches noun chess
cheste noun coffin
chevyssaunce noun financial arrangements
chidyng verbal noun scolding
chiknes noun, pl. chickens
childhede noun childhood
chirche noun church
chirche dore noun door of the church
chivalrie, chivalrye noun 1. nobility; 2. knights
ciser noun strong alcoholic drink
clad verb, pst. prtcpl. clothed
cladde verb, pst. sg. clothed
clepe verb call; clepeth 3rd prs. prsnt. sg. calls; cleped (ycleped) pst. called
clergeon noun choir-boy, schoolboy
clerk noun 1. university student; 2. scholar
clene adv. neatly
clennesse noun purity, chastity
clippeth verb embraces
cloutes noun rags
clowde noun cloud
cloystre noun monastery
clyket noun key
cok noun rooster
cokenay noun weakling, coward
cokewold noun cuckold, husband of an adulteress
cokkow noun cuckoo, a kind of bird
col-fox noun fox with black-tipped tail, feet and ears
collacioun noun colloquy, discussion, conference
colt noun a young uncastrated male horse usually less than four years old
commune verb communicate, have conversation with
commune profit noun common interest
communes noun common soldiers
complayne verb lament
complexioun noun temperament, balance of the body's fluids
concupiscence noun sexual desire, lust
conscience noun moral sense and solicitude
conseil noun 1. opinion, decision, advice; 2. council, adviser
conseil kepe verb keep secret
conseille verb tell, instruct, teach, advise
consistorie noun court
constellacion noun configuration of the celestial bodies
contek noun strife
continuance noun perseverance
countour (contour) noun auditor
contree noun district, country
contricioun noun the state of being contrite, affected by guilt, feeling remorse or
convertible adj. interchangeable
conveyen verb introduce
coom verb came
cop noun top
coppe noun cup
corage noun, sg. 1. heart, feeling; 2. (sexual) desire, ardor
corages noun, pl. spirits, feelings
cordial medicine of the heart
corn noun grain, any cereal before or after harvesting
corone noun, sg. crown
corones noun, pl. crowns
corrumpable adj. corruptible
cors noun corpse
costlewe adj. very expensive
cosynage noun kinship
cote noun 1. dungeon, cell; 2. cottage, small farm
couched verb placed, arranged
countrefete verb imitate
countrefeted verb imitated
courtepy noun short coat, jacket
coveitise, coveityse noun avarice, greed, covetousness
covenable adj. appropriate
covenant noun agreement, contract
covent noun convent, a religious community, a group of friars or monks
coverchief noun, sg. head-dress
coverchiefs noun, pl. head-dresses
covyne noun treachery
cow noun chough, a crow-like bird
coy adj. quiet, shy
craft noun profession, occupation, trade
cracchynge scratching
creaunce verb obtain credit, borrow money
creaunceth verb obtains credit
crekes noun tricks
crispe adv. curly
cristal stones noun glass cases
croce noun cross
crommes noun crumbs
croppes noun shoots, new leaves
crosselet noun crucible, a vessel made of a refractory substance used for melting
materials at high temperatures
croys noun cross
crude adj. raw, unrefined
crueltee noun cruelty
culpe noun guilt
curaat, curat noun parish priest
cure noun charge, jurisdiction
curious adj. skillful, skillfully made
curiously adv. skillfully
cursyng noun archdeacon's curse, excommunication
curteisie noun gracious and considerate conduct, refinement of manners
daliance, daliaunce noun 1. flirtation; 2. sociability, gossip
dame noun mother
dampned verb condemned
dangerous, daungerous adj.domineering, arrogant, fastidious, hard to please,
dartes noun, pl. spears
daswen verb are dazed
dayesye noun daisy, a small plant bearing flowers each with a yellow disc and white
rays, usually found in meadows
day of doom noun Judgement Day, the day on which the Last Judgement is believed
to take place
debonaire adj. modest, gracious
debonairetee noun graciousness, meekness
debonairely, debonairly adv. gently, modestly, graciously
decree noun text of ecclesiastical law
dede, deed adj. dead
deedly adv. deadly
deef adj. deaf
deerne adj.secret, sercretive
deeth noun death
defaute noun 1. flaw; 2. lack, absence; 3. wickedness
defended verb forbad
deffended verb forbad, forbidden
deffenden verb forbid
deffendeth verb forbids
defye verb repudiate
delit, delyt noun, sg. delight, pleasure, desire
delices noun, pl. pleasures
deliciously adv. luxuriously, voluptuously
delivernesse noun dexterity
delve verb dig
delyvere adj. agile, active, nimble
delyverly adv. nimbly
demande noun, sg. question
demandes noun, pl. questions
demeth noun judge
Depardieux by God
depe adv. deeply
depeint verb, pst. prtcpl. stained
depeynted verb, pst. prtcpl. painted
depper comp. more deeply
derk, derke adj. dark
derknesse noun darkness
descensories noun, pl. retorts, flasks used for distillation
despit, despyt noun scorn, disdain, insult, contempt
despitous adj. scornful
desport, disport noun amusement, pleasure
desray noun disorder
destreyneth verb afflicts, distresses, compels
dette noun debt, obligation
dettelees without debts
dettour noun
Deus hic God is here
deve adj. deaf
devoir noun duty
devyne verb guess, conjecture
devyse verb 1. tell, narrate; 2. look upon, inspect; 3. instruct, command
deynous adj. haughty, arrogant
deyntee noun, sg. delicacy; adj. fine, valuable, excellent
deyntees noun, pl. fine food and drinks, delicacies
deyntevous adj. delicicious
deys noun dais (stage, raised platform)
dide execucioun carried out the law
diffamacioun noun slander
diffame bad reputation
diffye verb repudiate, despise
dight verb, pst. 1. prepared; 2. had sexual intercourse with
digne adj. worthy
digne of reverence adj. worthy of respect
dilatacioun noun elaboration, increase of words
diligence noun effort, diligence
disclaundre noun slander, defame
discord noun disagreement
discryve verb desribe
disfigure noun deformity, disfigurement
disese noun discomfort, distress
dispence noun expenditure(s)
dispitous adj. angry
dispitously adv. angrily
dispoillen verb undress
disporte verb amuse oneself
disposed verb determined, decided
dissevere verb separate, be separated
dissymuleth verb dissembles
divynynge noun speculation
dokked verb cut short
dolven verb buried
doomes noun, pl. judgements, decisions
doost verb, 2nd prs. sg. prsnt. do
dooth verb, 3rd prs. sg. prsnt. do, does
dores noun, pl. doors
dorste verb, pst. dared
dortour noun dormitory
dotage noun feeble-minded senility
doutances noun uncertainties
dowaire noun dowry, property or money brought by a bride to her husband
drad verb feared, respected
drasty adj. worthless, lousy
drawen to memorie verb be remembered
draweth cut draw lots (straws)
drede noun fear; drede, dreden verb be afraid
dredelees adj. 1. fearless; 2. doubtless
dredeth verb, 3rd prs. sg. is afraid, fears
dreem noun, sg. dream
dremes noun, pl. dreams
drenche verb drown
drenchyng verb drowning
dresse verb go, move
dressed verb treated
dreynt, dreynte verb drowned
droghte noun dryness
dronkelewe adj. habitually drunk, addicted to drink alcohol
droppynge verb leaking
dryve verb rushed
duc noun duke
dure verb last, endure
duren verb last, continue
duszeyne noun dozen, twelve
dwale noun sleeping potion, drug
dyamauntz noun diamonds
dyched surrounded by a ditch
dyke noun ditch
dyvynytee noun theology
ech pro. each (one)
eek, eke adv. also
eelde, elde noun old age
eem, em noun uncle
eere, ere noun, sg. ear
eeris, eres, erys noun, pl. ears
eet verb ate
eft adv. 1. again; 2. immediately
eftsoone, eft soone, eft-soone, eftsoones, eft-soones adv. 1. again, once more; 2.
immediately, very soon, right now
eggyng verb incitement, urging
egle noun eagle, a large bird of prey
egre adj. fierce
eir noun air
elf-queene noun fairy queen
elvysshe adj. mysterious
embassadrye noun negotiation
embrouded adj. embroidered
empeyre verb damage, injure
emprented verb imprinted, made an impression of
emprentyng noun imprint, impression
emprise noun enterprise, chivalric exploit
encombred verb, pst. prtcpl. 1. stuck; 2. burdened, encumbered (by)
encressen verb increased
endite, enditen, endyte verb write, describe in writing
enditynges verb writings
engendrure noun procreation, offspring
enoynt adj. anointed, rubbed with oil
ensample noun 1. example, model; 2. illustrative story
entencioun noun intention
entende verb endeavour, strive
entente noun 1. intention, will; 2. plan
ententif adj. attentive, diligent, eager
entremetteth verb, 3rd prs. sg. interferes, meddles
entuned adj. intoned
envenymynge noun poison
envyned adj. stocked with wine
er adv. before, formerly; conj. before; prep. before
ercedeken noun archdeacon
ercedekenes curs noun excommunication, the official exclusion of a person from
participation in the sacraments or formal communion with the Church
ere noun plough
erl noun earl
ernest noun seriousness
ers noun arse
erst adj. superlative before, earlier, previously
erthe noun earth
eschawfed verb, pst. prtcpl. heated
eschawfyne verbal noun heating
eschewing noun avoidance
eschewe, eschue, eschuwe verb escape, avoid
eschueth verb, 3rd prs. sg. escapes, avoids
ese noun pleasure, refreshment
esement noun redress, compensation
esily adv. comfortably, easily, gently
espiaille noun (network of) spies
estaat, estat noun 1. state, condition; 2. rank, social standing
estatlich adj. dignified
estatly adj. dignified
estres noun & adj. interior
ete verb eat
eterne adj. eternal
evene adj.1. equal; 2. impartial
evene lengthe medium height
ever lenger the wers increasingly worse
everich, everych adj. every (one), each (one)
everichon, everichoon, everychon pro. everyone
everideel, everydeel, every deel adv. completely, in all respects, in every
detail; noun everything
expounde, expounden verb interpret, explain
expowne verb explain, expound
expres adv. clearly, explicit
ey noun egg
eyen narwe swollen eyelids
eyr noun air
fable noun fiction, falsehood
fadme noun fathom
fair adj. pleasing, handsome, fine, morally good
fairnesse noun graciousness, kindness
faldyng noun coarse woolen coat
famyne noun famine, shortage of food
fare noun commotion
fareth verb behaves
farsed adj. stuffed
faucon noun falcon, a kind of bird of prey
fay, fey noun faith
Fairye, Fayerye noun fairyland
fayerye adj. something bewitching, delightful
fayn adj. glad, happy, pleased; adv. gladly, happily
feend noun demon, devil
feendly adj. devilish
feere noun companion
fee symple noun unrestricted possession, absolute possession
feffed verb enfeoffed, endowed with
fel noun skin
fellen verb happened
Femenye noun Amazons
ferne halwes noun distant shrines
ferre adj. farther
ferreste adv. superlative farthest, those farthest away
fers noun queen, a chessman
ferthe adj. fourth
ferthyng noun 1. speck, spot; 2. farthing (a coin worth one-fourth of a penny),
something of little value
feste noun feast, festivity
fetisly adv. elegantly
fettres noun fetters, iron foot chains
feyned verb faked
figure noun methaphor (figure of speech)
figures ten Arabic numerals
fil in office verb was employed, got employment
fir, fyr noun fire
fithele noun fiddle
Flaundryssh adj. Flemish
flee verb 1. fly; 2. run away, escape
fleemeth verb, 3rd prs. sg. drives out
fleeth verb, 3rd prs. sg. flies
flemed wrecche noun banished exile
flesshhook noun meat-hook
flete verb float
fletynge verb, prs. prtcpl. floating
flo noun arrow
flokmeele adj. in groups
Flora the goddess of flowers
flour-de-lys noun lily
floytynge verb, prs. prtcpl. whistling
fnorteth verb, 3rd prs. sg. snorts
fodder noun dried hay or straw for cattle or horses
folily adj. foolishly
fonge verb receive
fonne noun fool
foore noun footsteps
fordoon verb 1. destroy, ruin; 2. violate
forneys noun cauldron
fornicacioun noun fornication, sexual intercourse between persons not married to
each other
forpyned goost noun tormented spririt
for sith conj. because
forster noun forester, game-keeper
forthren verb help
fortunen the ascendent calculate the planetary position
forward, foreward noun agreement, promise
forwityng noun forknowledge
foryeve verb forgive
foryeveth verb, 3rd prs. sg. forgives
foryifnesse noun foregiveness
fostred verb brought up, nourished, educated
fostryng noun nourishment
foul adj. 1. ugly, dirty; 2. vicious, evil
foul affray noun terrible assault
fowel noun, sg. noun bird
foweles noun, pl. birds
foynen verb thrust
foyson adv. plenty
frankeleyn noun landowner of the gentry class
fraternitee noun religious guild, fraternity
fredom noun liberality, generosity of spirit
freend noun friend
freendes noun, pl. 1. friends; 2. husbands
freeten verb devoured
freletee noun weakness
fremde adj. foreign
frenesye noun frenzy, madness
frenges noun ornamental fringes
frere noun friar, a member of any certain religious orders of men
freten verb devour
frutesteres noun girls who sell fruit
fruyt noun essence, essential part
ful adv. 1. very; 2. fully, completely
ful faste very close, very fast
ful fayn very gladly
ful fetys very elegant
ful fetisly very elegantly
ful litel very little
ful oft, ofte very often
ful perilous very dangerous
ful semely, semyly in a very seemly manner
ful swithe very quickly
ful wel very well
fundement noun, sg. 1. foundation; 2. anus
fynde verb provide
fyr, fyre, fir noun fire
fyr-reed adj. fire-red
fyve wittes five senses
galle noun bitterness
gale adj. complain loudly
galpyng verbal noun yawning
galyngale noun sweet spice prepared from the root of sweet cyperus
gan verb, pst. began
ganeth verb, 3rd prs. sg. yawns
gan hye verb hastened, hurried
gappe noun gap
gargat noun throat
garleek noun garlic
gastly adj. horrible, terrifying
gat-tothed adj. gap-toothed
gaude noun trick
gauren verb stare
gay adj. bright
gayler noun jailer, warder
geere noun equipment, outfit
geldyng noun eunuch
gentil adj. 1. noble (in character); 2. refined, excellent
gentillesse noun nobility, excellence
gerdon, gerdoun noun & verb reward, requital
gerl noun girl
gerner noun granary
gesse verb suppose, estimate
gestes noun lodgers, guests
girdel, girdle noun belt
girles noun young women, young people
girt adj. encircled
giterne, gyterne noun stringed instrument
gleedes noun embers
glose noun, sg. 1. flatter; 2. gloss, interpretation; verb flatter
glymsyng noun glimpse
gnat noun gnat, mosquito, flying stinging insect
gnof noun churl, peasant
gnow verb gnawed
gobet noun piece
goodly adv. gladly
Goost noun Holy Spirit
goot noun goat
gooth verb, 3rd prs. sg. goes; imperative go
gossib noun (close) friend
governance, governaunce noun 1. behaviour; 2. control, management
gras noun grace
graunges noun outlying farms, granges
graunt noun decree
graunt mercy interj. thank you
grece noun grease
greet desport excellent deportment
greet estaat excellent condition
Grete See noun Mediterranean
gretter comparative larger
greveth grieve
greyn noun seed
grifphon noun griffin, a mythical creature with a lion's body and an eagle's head and
grisly adj. terrible
grope verb examine
grounded verb instructed
grucche, grucchen verb complain
gruccheth verb, 3rd prs. sg. complains
grucchyng, gruchchyng verbal noun complaining
gyde noun & verb guide
gye verb 1. lead, guide, govern; 2. preserve, protect
gylour noun deceiver
gyn noun contrivance
gynglen verb jingle
gypon, gypoun noun tunic, surcoat worn over the armor
gyse noun manner, custom
haberdasshere noun a dealer in hats or small wares
haliday, halyday noun religious festival, holy day
halkes, noun hiding places
hals noun neck
halse verb beseech
halwed verb hallowed, consecrated
halwes noun, pl. apostles, saints
ham noun home
han verb have
hardily adv. certainly
hardy adj. bold, strong
hardynesse noun boldness, bravery
harlot noun rascal, buffoon, jester; servant
harlotrie, harlotrye noun ribaldry, harlotry, wickedness
harlotries noun scurrility, deeds of harlotry, obscenities
harm noun pity, suffering, misfortune
harneised verb ornamented
harneys noun armor, fighting equipment
hasardour noun gambler
hasardrie, hasardrye noun gambling
hastifliche adv. quickly, hastily
hastifnesse noun rashness
haubergeoun noun coat of chain-mail
haunt noun skill
haunteden verb practised
hauteyn adj. loud, impressive
hawe noun yard
hawebake noun a poor meal (literally baked hawthorn berries)
heddes noun, pl. heads
heed, heede noun, sg. head
heele, hele noun (good) health, well-being
heer, heeres, heeris, heris, herys noun hair
heeste noun, sg. 1. command; 2. promise, vow
heestes noun, pl. 1. commands; 2. promises, vows
heete noun heat
heeth noun heath, an area of open uncultivated land with coarse grasses
hem pro. them
hen noun chicken
hende adj. courteous, pleasant
hente verb caught
herberwe noun inn, lodging; figuratively astrological house
herkne verb, prsnt. hear, listen to; herde verb. pst. heard
herkneth verb, 3rd prs. sg. hears, listens to
herknynge verb, verbal noun listening
hernes noun hiding places
heronsewes noun young herons (heron, a wading bird with a long neck, long legs, and
a long, pointed bill)
hert noun stag, adult male deer
herte noun heart
hertelees noun coward
hertely adv. really, sincerely
hethenesse noun heathendom, the non-Christian world
hethyng noun contempt, mockery
hevedes noun heads
hevene noun heaven
heve of harre verb lift off its hinges
hevynesse noun 1. drowsiness; 2. sadness
hewe noun hue, appearance
hierde noun shepherd
hight, highte verb was called, was named
hire noun wages, payment
his wit bisette used his wits
hochepot noun mixture
hoker noun disdain
holwe verb emaciated
homycide noun murderer
honeste cure noun sense of decency, care for decency, self-respect
honestee noun good manners, chastity, purity
hool adj. healthy
hooly verb blessed
hooly writ noun the Bible
hoom noun home prep. homeward
hoor, hoore adj. white-haired, grey
hoote adv. passionately; adj. passionate, hot
hope verb expect
hopur noun hopper, through which the grain passes into the mill
hosen, hoses noun stockings
hostelrie, hostelrye noun inn, lodging
hostileer, hostiler noun innkeeper
houndes noun pl. dogs
housbondes noun husbands
housbondrye noun (domestic) economy
hunte noun hunter
hyer hond noun upper hand
hym liste he preferred to, he chose to
hym was levere he would rather
hynde noun female deer
hyndreste adj. superlative last
hyne noun farm worker, servant, hind
icched verb itched
ilhayl bad luck
ik pro. I
ilke adj. same
impertinent adj. irrelevant
in a clause briefly, in a few words
I nam but I am as good as ...
in chyvachie on a cavalry expedition
in comune adj. generally, in general
incubus noun evil spirit that copulates with women in their sleep
Inde India
induracioun noun hardening
infect adj. invalidated
infecte verb affect negatively, pollute
in maladye adj. ill
inpossible noun impossibility
instaunce noun request
ire noun anger, irritability, the deadly sin of wrath
janglere noun chatterer, loud talker, teller of dirty stories
jangleresse noun chatterbox, female gossip
janglerie verbal noun chatter
jangles noun gossip
japed verb, pst. tricked
jape noun, sg. trick, joke
japes noun, pl. tricks, jokes
je vous dy (French) I tell you
Jewerye, Juerie noun Jewish quarter, ghetto
jogelour noun conjurer
joust noun one to one combat
jubilee noun fiftieth anniversary
juge noun judge
justise, justice noun judge
kan verb, 3rd prs. sg. knows
kankedort noun bad situation
kaynard noun dotard, a person who is feeble-minded
keen noun cows
kembd (ykembd) verb, pst. prtcpl. combed
kembeth verb, 3rd prs. sg. combs
kempe adj. shaggy, unkempt
kepe verb keep, take care after, preserve
kervere of ymages noun sculptor
kervyng noun sculpture
keste, kist, kiste verb kissed
kiked verb gazed
kithe verb reveal, show
kithed verb, pst. prtcpl. shown
kitte verb cut
knarry adj. gnarled
knave noun, sg. (male) servant
knaves noun, pl. (male) servants
knedyng-trogh noun kneading-trough, large trough for kneading dough
knobbes noun swellings
knotte noun (main) point
knowe verb recognize
knoweleche, knoweliche noun acquaintance
knowes noun knees
knyght noun knight
konnyng, konnynge noun skill, understanding
koude verb knew how to
kowthe verb known
kultour noun coulter, a vertical cutting blade fixed in front of a ploughshare
kymelyn noun tub used to brew beer
kynde noun nature
kynrede noun kindred, family
kyte noun kite, a predatory bird with a long, often forked tail
laas noun cord
Lameth noun Lamech, the first bigamist according to the Bible
large adv. 1. freely, generously; 2. free-spending, extravagant
latoun noun a brass-like alloy
laude noun praise
launde noun clearing
laus adj. loose
lazar noun leper
leche noun physician, healer
lecherye noun lechery
lede verb bring
leden noun language
leef verb leave, depart
leek noun a vegetable with flat overlapping leaves forming an elongated cylindrical
leere verb learn
leet verb 1. allowed; 2. left
leeve, leve adj. & noun dear
leeve dame noun dear lady
leevestow do you believe
lemes noun, pl. 1. limbs; 2. flames
lemman noun sweetheart, lover, loved one
lekes verb leeks
leon, leoun noun lion
lere verb learn
lese verb loose
leseth verb loose, loses
lest noun desire
leste verb, pst. sg. pleased
lesynge noun loss
lesynges noun, pl. lies
letterure noun book-learning
lette noun delay
lette, letten verb hinder
lettest verb hinder, spoil
letteth verb, 3rd prs. sg. hinders
Lettow Lithuania
letuarie noun medicine
letuaries noun medical mixtures, electuaries
leve noun permission
leve verb grant, allow
leveful adj. lawful, permissible
levere comp. rather
lewed adj. uneducated
lewed man noun uneducated man, layman
lewednesse noun ignorance
leyser noun leisure
licenciat licensed to hear confessions
lief adj. & noun beloved
lif, lyf noun life
ligeance noun allegiance, obedience or loyalty owed to a nation, sovereign or cause
liggen verb lie
liggynge verb lying
lightly adv. easily
lightnesse noun agility
likerous adj. wanton, flirtatious, gluttonous
likerousnesse noun wantonness
list, liste verb, prsnt. sg. please, pleases
litarge, lytarge noun lead monoxide
lixt verb, 2nd prs. sg. lie
lodemenage noun skill in navigation
lokynge verb looking
lomb noun lamb
lond noun country, land
longes noun lungs
long yherd adj. long-haired
loode-sterre noun North star, polar star; figuratively guiding star
loone noun 1. loan; 2. grace
looth adj. 1. displeasing; 2. reluctant, unwilling
loothly adv. loathsome, hideous
lordynges noun, pl. sirs, gentlemen, my lords
lorn verb lost
losengeour noun flatterer
lotynge adj. in hiding
lough verb laughed
lowely adj. modest, humble
luce noun pike
Luna noun the moon
lusty adj. lively, pleasing, lusty
lustynesse noun delight, pleasure
luxurie noun lechery
lymaille noun metal filings
lymytacioun noun territory, district
lymytour noun friar licensed (by his order) to beg in a specific district
lyne noun family, lineage
lyst noun ear
magyk natureel noun natural science
Mahoun Mohammed
maister strete noun main street
maistresse noun, sg. governess
maistresses noun, pl. governesses
makelees adj. matchless
maken stryf verb cause trouble, quarrel
Makomete Mohammed
maladye noun illness
male noun pouch, bag
malisoun noun curse
manace verb menace, threaten
mandement noun summons
mansioun noun dwelling place, domicile
manye noun mania
marchant noun merchant
marchal noun master of ceremonies
mare noun 1. the female of any equine animal, especially the horse;
2. (figuratively) homosexual
markys noun marquis
marybones noun marrow bones
maugree prep. despite
maugree his/hir heed against his/her will, despite his/her struggles
maunciple noun business agent, purchaser of provisions for an inn of court (temple)
may verb can
mayde, mayden noun 1. virgin; 2. girl
maydenhed, maydenhede, maydenhod noun virginity
may nat avaunce cannot be profitable
mede, meede noun meadow, a piece of grassland
meeltyd noun mealtime, lunch time
medlee adj. motley, parti-colored
medleth verb, 3rd prs.sg. meddles
mele noun ground meal
melle noun mill
meene noun instrument
membres noun, pl. sexual organs, private parts
mendynantz noun mendicants
menestow do you mean
merk noun image
merrshy adj. marshy
meschance, meschaunce noun misfortune
mescheef, meschief noun mischief, misfortune, adversity, trouble
mesuage noun messuage, a dwelling house with outbuildings and land assigned to its
mesurable adj. moderate, temperate
mesurably adv. moderately
mete noun food, dinner
mete verb dream
mette verb, pst. dreamed
meynee noun retinue, household
millere noun miller
Minerva Roman goddess of wisdom
misericorde noun charity, mercy
mishap noun misfortune
mitten noun mitten
moeble, moebles noun personal property
mollificacioun noun softening
montance noun amount, size
mooder noun mother
moore part noun majority, greater part
moost adv. most
moot verb must
mordre noun murder
mordrynge verbal noun murdering
mormal noun ulcer, sore
mottelee noun parti-colored cloth
mowes noun grimaces
Moyses Moses
much and lite noun great and small, everyone
muchel adj. much
mullok noun rubbish, garbage
multiplicacioun noun transmutation
multiplie verb transmute (technical term for changing base metals into gold and
murmur verbal noun grumbling
murye note noun pleasant voice
muwe noun mew, bird cage, usually for hawks
myddel verb waist
myght noun power
mynstralcie noun musical instrument
myre noun 1. mire, a stretch of swampy or boggy ground; 2. mud, durt; in the mire in
mysbileeve noun skepticism, suspicion
myscarie verb go wrong
mysgovernaunce noun misconduct, misbehaviour
myshappy adj. miserable
mystriste noun mistrust
nakers noun kettle-drums
namo adj. no more, no others; adv. no more, never again
narwe adv. closely; adj. narrow, small
nathelees, natheles, natheless adv. nevertheless, none the less
nat worth an oystre worth nothing; in Chaucer's time, oysters were poor-people's
natyf adj. natural
nave noun hub, the central part of a wheel, rotating on or with the axle, and from
which the spokes radiate
nece noun niece, kinswoman
nede noun necessity, need
nedelees adv. needless, without purpose
nede, neede adv. necessary, necessarily
neet noun cattle
nempne verb name, tell
nether ye noun lower eye
never a deel adv. not a bit
newefangel adj. fond of novelty
nobledest adj. ennobled
Noe Noah
nombre noun number
nones noun occasion
noon pro. none
noon of hem none of them, nobody
noot verb do not know, does not know
nortelrie noun education, nurture
nosethirles, nose-thirles noun nostrils
note noun job, task
not heed noun close-cropped head
ny prep. close
nyce adj. foolish, scrupulous
nycetee noun simplicity, foolishness
nyfles noun silly stories
nygard noun miser
nygardye noun miserliness
nyghtertale adj. night
niste, nyste verb (ne wiste) knew not, did not know
obeisant adj. obedient
obeisance, obeysaunce, obeisaunce noun obedience
observance, observaunce noun duty
offended verb, pst. prtcpl. injured
offensioun noun injury
office noun secular employment, function
ofte sithes adj. many times
Olifaunt noun Elephant
olyveres noun olive-trees
onis adv. once
ook noun oak
oon num. one
oost noun army
ooth noun oath
oother adv. other; conj. either
open-ers noun fruit of the medlar, a tree of the rose family bearing small brown applelike fruits which are eaten when decayed
opie noun opium
ordinance, ordinaunce noun decree, order, arrangement, preparations
orgon noun organ
orpyment noun arsenic trisulfide
oure aller cok rooster of us all (awakened us all)
outen verb make public
outrely adv. plainly, utterly
outridere noun a monk who rode out to supervise the estates of a monastry
over al adv. wherever
overmacche verb defeat, outmatch
overryden verb run over
owher adv. anywhere
Oxenford Oxford
oynons noun, pl. onions
paas adv. & noun footpace (the slowest gait of a horse), slowly
pace verb proceed, go
page noun 1. (male) servant; 2. boy
paire plates noun suit of plate armor
palmeres noun professional pilgrims who had been to the Holy Land
pan noun skull
panade noun cutlass, a short sword with a slightly curved blade
papeer noun pepper
papejay noun parrot
paramour noun, sg. mistress, concubine
paramours noun, pl. mistresses
paramours adv. passionately
paraventure, par aventure, peraventure, per aventure adv. 1. perhaps; 2. by chance
par cas adv. by chance
parcel noun portion
pardee interj. indeed
pardoner noun a seller of indulgences
pardoun noun 1. papal indulgences; 2. forgiveness
parfit, parfyt, perfit adj. perfect, complete
parfitly adv. perfectly
parfourne, perfourne verb perform, accomplish
parfourned verb celebrated, completed, accomplished
parissh clerk noun someone who assists the parish priest to perform services in
parisshens noun parishioners
parlement noun decision
parte noun share
Parvys noun the porch of St. Paul's Cathedral
pasture noun feeding place
patente noun letter of appointment from the king
patrimoyne noun inheritance
peert adj. impudent
pees noun peace
penaunce noun penance, suffering, distress
penyble adj. indefatigable, painstaking
percen verb pierce
per consequens adv. consequently
perdurable adj. eternal, everlasting
peril noun peril, serious and immediate danger
perilous adj. dangerous
perisse verb perish, destroy
perree, perrye noun precious stones, jewellery
pers adj. blue, bluish gray
perseveraunce noun perseverance, the persistance to a purpose, idea, or task in spite
of obstacles
person, persoun noun parson, parish priest
perspectives noun optical lenses
peyne noun efforts
peynte verb disguise
peynted verb disguised
peynture noun painting
Phebus noun Phoebus Apollo, the sun
philosophie noun alchemy
philosophre noun astrologer
phisik adj. & noun medicine
pile verb rob, take unlawfully from
pilwe-beer noun pillow-case
pissemyre noun ant
pistel noun message
plat adj. blunt, flat
plit noun (bad) condition, plight
plentevous adj. plenteous
plesance, plesaunce noun pleasure, delight
pleyn commissioun full jurisdiction
pleyynge noun amusment
plighte noun pledge
poke noun bag, sack
polax noun battle-axe, pole-axe
polcat noun weasel
Poo the river Po
popet noun little doll
porcioun noun quantity
port noun bearing, manner
portreiture noun, sg. painting, picture
portreitures noun, pl. paintings, pictures
portreytour noun painter
post noun pillar, supporter
potage noun soup
potente noun walking stick
potestat noun potentate
pothecarie noun apothecary
pouche noun 1. purse; 2. pocket
Poules noun St. Paul's Cathedral
poure, povre adj. poor, impoverished
povereste adj. superlative poorest, most impoverished
poverte noun poverty
poynaunt adj. spicy, piquant, piercing
practyk noun practice
prees noun crowd
preesseth verb, 3rd prs. sg. push
preeve, preve verb prove
prelaat noun ecclesiastical dignitary
prentys noun apprenctice
prescience noun foreknowledge
preve noun proof
preyneth verb preens, make neat
prikasour noun horseman, hunter on horseback
priketh verb, 3rd prs. sg. pierces
prikyng verbal noun tracking
privee, pryvee adj. secretive, discreet
privee (pryvee) and apert in private and in public
prively, pryvely adv. secretly, discreetly, stealthily
privetee, pryvetee noun secret(s)
proces noun argument, case, discussion
procuratour noun attorney
prolixitee noun prolixity, lengthiness, tediousness
propre good noun own wealth/income
provost noun magistrate
prow noun benefit, profit
pryme noun around 09:00 A.M., the first hour
pulled adj. plucked
purchas noun acquisition
purchasour noun land-buyer
purfiled adj. lined with fur
purged adj cleansed (by baptism)
purtreye verb draw
purveiance, purveiaunce, purveyaunce noun providence, foresight
purveye verb prepare
pye noun magpie, a kind of bird (Pica pica)
pykepurs noun thief, pick-purs
pyketh verb cleans, adorns
pynche at verb find a flaw in
pynched adj. pleated
pynchen at verb find fault with
pyrie noun pear-tree
quake verb, prsnt tremble; quaketh 3rd prs. sg. trembles
qualm noun plague
quelle verb kill
Questio quid iuris (Latin) The question is, what law applies
queynt verb extinguished
queynte adj. pleasing, elegant; noun pleasing thing, sexual favours
queynte verb was extinguished, went out
quit adj. free
quod verb said
quook verb, pst. trembled
quike, quyk, quyke adj. alive, lively, vivid
quiknesse noun liveliness
quyked verb revived, rekindled
quyken verb revive
quykkest strete busiest street
quyk-silver noun mercury
quyt verb repaid
Radix malorum est Cupiditas (Latin) Greed is the root of all evil
rafte verb ravished, took away
ragerye noun wantonness
rakel adj. rash, hasty
rakelnesse noun rashness, haste
rampeth verb shakes her fist
raughte verb reached
reawme noun realm
rebekke noun woman
recchelees adj. careless, negligent, heedless of rules
receite noun formula, recipe
reconyssaunce noun recognizance, formal pledge
rede, reed, reede adj. red
regne noun kingdom, realm
reherce, rehercen verb repeat
rehersaille noun enumeration
rekene verb enumerate, calculate, consider, take account of, count
remes noun realms
reneye verb deny, renounce
reneyed verb renounced
renoun noun fame
rente noun income
rente verb, pst. tored
repair noun visitors, resort
repleccioun noun over-eating
reportour noun record keeper
repplicacioun verb reply
reprevable adj. reprehensible, blameworthy
repreeve, repreve noun reproof
requere verb ask
rescus noun rescue
resoun noun 1. remark, argument, opinion; 2. reason
resons noun, pl. remarks, opinions
resoun adj. reasonable, just; adv. reasonably
to reste verb (gone) to rest
rethor noun rhetorician
reve noun reeve, manager of an estate or farm
revelour noun rake, profligate, recklessly extravagant person
revelrye noun delight, pleasure
reverence noun dignity, respect
reyn noun rain
ribaudye noun coarse jesting, ribaldry
to riden out verb to go campaigning
riotoures noun, pl. profligates, debauchers
roche noun rock
rokkes noun, pl. rocks
roialliche ybore adj. royally carried
ronnen verb ran
roote noun foot
rote noun stringed instrument
roten adj. rotten
rouncy noun carthorse, nag
route noun company, group of people
routhe noun compassion, pity
routhelees, routheless adj. ruthless, without compassion
rowne verb whisper
rowned verb whispered
rownynge verb, pst. prtcpl. whispering
rowteth verb, 3rd prs. sg. snors
rowtyng verbal noun snoring
rubible noun a kind of fiddle
Ruce Russia
rudeliche noun crudely, ignorantly
rymeyed adj. rhymed, versified
ryver noun river
sad adj. serious
sadly adv. firmly
sadnesse noun seriousness, constancy
saleweth verb, 3rd prs. sg. greets
salue verb greet
saluyng verbal noun greeting
sans faille without doubt
sapience noun wisdom
sapiences noun mental abilities
saucefleem adj. pimpled
sauf adj. safe
saufly adv. safely, confidently
saugh verb, pst. sg. saw
sautrie, sawtrie noun psaltry (a harp-like instrument)
save prep. except (that)
savour noun 1. smell, odor; 2. flavor
savory adj. pleasant
savynge adj. except
sawnyng, sangwyn adj. 1. red, ruddy; 2. florid, bright, ruddy
scathe noun a pity
sclaundre noun disgrace
sclendre adj. lean, feeble
science noun knowledge
scole noun, sg. school
scole noun, pl. schools
scoleye verb study, attend the schools of the university
scoler noun student
scriptures noun books, writings
seche verb seek, search
secree noun secret information; adjective private, discreet
see noun sea
seege noun siege, a military operation
seeke, sike adj. sick
seel noun seal
seelde adj. seldom
See of Grece the eastern Mediterranean
seet verb sat
Seint Julian patron saint of hospitality
Seinte Loy St. Eligius
Seinte Poules St. Paul's Cathedral (in London)
seke verb 1. visit; 2. examine, look for
sely adj. innocent, hapless, ignorant, foolish, insignificant
semblable adj. similar
semycope noun short cloak
sentence noun 1. meaning, saying; 2. decision, command
sergeant of the lawe noun a lawyer who belonged to the highest order in his
profession (from this group of legal officers the judges of the King's courts were
serpent noun snake
servitour noun servant
servysable adj. willing to serve, attentive
serye noun argument, chain of thoughts
seson, sesoun noun season
seten verb sat
sette his howve make a fool of him
seurete, seuretee noun pledge, promise
sewed verb pursued
seye verb seen
seynd adj. broiled, smoked
sey sooth tell the truth
shadwe noun shadow
shamefast adj. modest
shamefastnesse noun modesty
shapen verb destined
sharpeth verb, 3rd prs. sg. sharpens
she-ape noun female monkey
sheene, shene adj. bright, beautiful
shende verb destroy
sheere, shere noun scissors, pair of shears
sheres noun scissors
shette verb, pst locked
shifte verb provide
shiten adj. dirty, defiled
shirreve noun sheriff
sho noun shoe
shoon verb shone
shoop verb prepared, intended
shour noun, sg. rain
shoures noun, pl. rain showers, hardships
shoures soote sweet showers, rain
shrewe verb curse, beshrew; noun curse, cursed person
shrewed adj. cursed
shrewednesse noun wickedness
shrift, shrifte noun confession
shryven verb confessed
sighte noun 1. foresight; 2. view
Significavit noun order for imprisonment (the first word of a writ in which the
imprisonment of an excommunicated person is ordered)
sik, sike, seeke adj. sick
siker adv. certain
sikerly, sekirly adv. certainly, truly
sikernesse noun certainty, security
similitude noun complement, counterpart
sire noun father
sith adv. since
sitthe adv. afterwards
slake verb verb diminish
slakke adj. slow
sleep verb slept
sleighte noun trick, trickery
slider adj. slippery
slogardie, slogardye noun sluggishness, slothfulness, laziness
sle, slee verb kill, slay
sleen verb kill, slay
sleeth verb, 3rd prs. sg. kills, slays
sleer noun slayer
slewthe noun sloth, laziness
slouthe noun sloth, laziness
slow verb killed, slew
slyde verb slip away
slyghte noun trickery
slyk adj. sleek, shining
smal noun 1. little, slender; 2. high (of voice)
smale adj. small
smale tytheres noun those reluctant to pay full tithes
smart adj. brisk
smerte verb suffers
smoklees adj. naked (without a smock)
snybbed verb rebuked, reprimanded
snybben verb rebuke
sobre adj. serious, grave
sobrely adv. seriously, gravely
sodeynly adv. suddenly
softe adv. 1. gently; 2. quietly; adj. 1. gentle; 2. quiet
so greet repair many visitors
sojourne verb remain
sojourned verb remained
sokyngly adv. gradually, step by step
Sol noun the sun
solempne adj. dignified, important
solempnely adv. ceremoniously, solemnly
solempnitee, solempnytee noun ceremony
Soler Halle noun the King's Hall, a college at Cambridge
somdel, somdeel adv. somewhat, partly
somnour, somonour noun a server of summonses for an ecclesiastical court
sonde noun servant, messenger
sondry adj. various, different
sondry folk noun various sorts of people
sondry londes noun various countries
sondry tonges noun various languages
sondry wise, sondry wyse noun various ways
songe verb sung
sonken verb sunk
sonne noun sun
soong, song verb, pst. sg. sang
soor, soore adv. sorely, bitterly; adj. painful, sore; noun misery, pain
soote adj. sweet, sweet-smelling
sooth, soothe, soth, sothe noun truth
soothfastnesse noun truthfulness
soothly adv. truly
soothnesse noun truth, reality
soper noun dinner
sophyme noun sophism, plausible but faulty argument
sort noun destiny, fate, lot
sorwe noun sorrow
sorweth verb grieves
sothe (sooth) noun truth
sother comp. truer
sotilly adv. skilfully
soukynge verb sucking
soul adv. solitary
soun noun sound
soutere noun cobbler, a person that mends and repairs shoes
soutiltee noun trick
sovereyn adj. best, outstanding, most excellent
sovereyn pestilence noun ultimate wickedness
sovereyn prys noun outstanding reputation
Sowdan noun sultan
Sowdanesse noun sultaness
sowded verb united
sowe verb sown
sowne verb 1. imitate; 2. play, sound, resound
sowple adj. compliant
space noun 1. time; 2. opportunity
sparhauk, sperhauk noun sparrow hawk
sparre noun (wooden) beam
sparth noun battle-axe
spectacle noun eyeglass
speed verb hurry
spedde verb hurried
spille verb destroy, put to death
spitously adv. 1. angrily, spitefully; 2. loudly
sporned verb stumbled
spouse noun husband
spousaille noun wedding
spray noun branch
squaymous sqeamish, easily nauseated or disgusted
squier noun squire, a young knight in the service of another knight
stal verb stole
stalke noun piece of straw
stant verb stands
stape adj. advanced
starf verb, pst. died
steede noun war-horse
stele noun handle
stele, stelen verb steal
stent verb stopped
stente verb, pst. sg. ceased, stopped
stere noun rudder, guide, steering wheel
sterelees adv. rudderless, disorientated
sterve verb, prsnt. die
sterven verb die
stevene noun voice, speech
stif adj. strong, powerful
stille adv. silently, motionless
stirte verb rushed
stot noun horse
strangled with killed by
straunge strem foreign river
straunge strondes foreign shores
stree noun straw
streit adj. narrow, small
streite yteyd adj. tightly fastened
stremes noun, pl. currents
stryvyng verbal noun strife, quarrelling
sturdy adj. cruel, harsh, strong
sturdinesse noun cruelty, harshness
stuwe noun fishpond
stynk noun stench
styth noun anvil
subget noun subject
sublymed adj. purified
sublymyng verbal noun sublimating, purifying
substance, substaunce noun 1. majority, (essential) quality; 2. (fixed) income,
subtiltee noun craftiness, trickery, subility
suffisaunt adj. suitable
suffrance noun patience, forbearance
suffren verb allow
superfluitee noun abundance
surcote noun outer coat
suretee noun security, certainty
surquidrye noun arrogance, pride
suspect noun suspicion
suster noun sister
swayn young gentleman
swalwe, swelwe verb swallow
swapte verb fell suddenly
swatte verb sweated
swerd noun sword
sweven noun dream
swich pro. such
swich poraille such poor people
swonken verb, pst. worked
swore verb promised
swymme verb float
swynes-heed noun pig's head
swynk noun verb work, toil
swynke, swynken verb, prsnt. work, toil
swynkere noun labourer, worker
swyve verb copulate with
swyved verb copulated with
symple adj. simple, modest
symple and coy adj. unaffected and quiet, modest
syn conj. & prep. since
syngynge verb singing
synne noun sin, misbehaviour
synnes sevene seven deadly sins (Avarice, Envy, Gluttony, Lust, Pride, Sloth, Wrath)
taas noun heap
table dormant noun table fixed in its place, as distinct from one taken down between
tables noun backgammon
tabour noun drum
tappestere noun barmaid
tapycer noun tapestry-maker, weaver of tapestries, rugs, etc.
Te Deum (Latin) To you O God
teene noun trouble, vexation
teeres, teeris noun tears
telle verb count
tempest noun storm
tercelet noun male falcon
testif adj. head-strong, testy
theef noun thief
therbiforn adv. previously
therto adv. moreover
thikke knarre noun stout fellow
thilke demonstr. adj. that (same)
tholed verb suffered
thombe noun thumb
thonder noun thunder
thonder-clappes noun, pl. thunderstrokes
thonder-dent, thonder-dynt noun thunderstroke
th'orisonte noun the horizon
thral noun slave, servant
thraldom noun slavery, servitude
thre num. three
threpe verb assert, affirm positively
thridde num. third
thrift noun prosperity, welfare
thrifty adj. suitable, servicable, proper
thriftily adv. carefully, properly
throng verb thrust
throop noun village
throte-bolle noun Adam's apple
throwe noun while
thurgh prep. 1. through; 2. because of
thurgh-girt adj. pierced through
thynges noun duties, rites, business
tikel adj. ticklish, unreliable, unstable
tithe noun a 10th part of one's income paid for the support of a church
tobreketh verb, 3rd prs. sg. shatters, breaks in pieces
tobreste verb shatter, break in pieces
tobrosten verb shattered, broken in pieces
tolis noun, pl. tools
to lyte too little
tombesteres noun, p. dancing girls
tonge noun language
tonne noun wine barrel
took his wit verb calculated
toon toes
torace verb, prsnt. sg. tear to pieces
torente verb, pst. sg. tore to pieces
tormentrie noun torture
tormented verb tortured
totere verb tear to pieces
toty adj. dizzy
toun noun town
tour noun, sg. tower
toures noun, pl. towers
toute noun rump, human buttocks
t'overbyde verb to outlive
towaille noun towel
trad verb copulated with
travaillynge verbal noun in labor
tregetoures noun illusionists, jugglers
trench noun path
trenchant adj. sharp
tresoor noun treasure
tretee noun negotiation
tretis, tretys noun treaty, negotiation
trewe adj. true; adv. truly
trewe noun truce, a temporary agreement to cease hostilities
trewely adv. truly
triacle noun medicine, remedy
trompe noun trumpet
trone noun throne
trouthe noun 1. fidelity, loyalty; 2. pledge, promise
trowe verb think, suppose
trowed verb believed, thought
trussed verb packed
tuwel noun anus
tweye num. two
twight adj. & verb pulled
twiste verb tortured
twynne, twynnen verb, prsnt. depart, separate
twynned verb, pst. separated
unbrent adj. unburnt
undertake verb affirm, declare
undigne adj. unsuitable, unworthy
unheele noun misery
unkonnynge noun lack of skill, ignorance; adj. unskillful, ignorant
unkouth adj. exotic, rare, unfamiliar
unkyndely adv. unnaturally
unlyklinesse noun unsuitability
unnethe, unnethes adv hardly, with difficulty
unreste noun distress
unsely adj. unhappy
unshette verb unlocked
unthank noun bad luck, curses
unthriftily adv. poorly
untrewe adj. 1. inaccurately; 2. unfaithful
unwar adj unaware, unexpected
unweelde adj. feeble
unwemmed adj. unblemished, undefiled
unwist adj. uninformed, unknown
unwityngly adv. unknowingly
unyolden verbal noun unyielding
upon lond adj. in the countryside
urynales noun glass flasks
usaunt adj. accustomed
vapour noun emanation, influence
vassellage noun prowess
vavasour noun feudal landholder, landowner
veel noun veal
veluettes noun velvet vlothes
venerie verbal noun hunting
venial, venyal adj. pardonable, capable of being excused or forgiven
venym noun poison
vernage noun a white Italian wine (vernaccia)
vernycle noun miniature reproduction of St. Veronica's sacred cloth, bearing the
imprint of Jesus' features
verraily adv. truly
verray adj. true
verre noun glass
veyne noun vein (of the plant)
veyn adj. foolish, wrong, idle
veyn ymaginacioun noun wrong conception, idle fancy
viage noun journey
vigilies noun, pl. vigils, feasts/services held on the eve of a religious festival
viker noun vicar
vileynye noun 1. evil, rudeness, shame, dishonor; 2. injury
vileynsly adv. rudely, shamefully
vinolent adj. drunken
virytrate noun hag, ugly old woman
visage noun face
vitaille noun victuals, provisions, stock of food
voirdit noun verdict
volupeer noun nightcap
vouche-sauf, vouche sauf verb agree, grant
voided, voyded, yvoyded verb removed
voyden verb get rid of, remove
voys noun 1. opinion; 2. report
waast verb waist
wafereres noun, pl. sellers of wafer-cakes
walet noun pouch, knapsack
wanges noun teeth
wang-tooth noun molar
wanhope noun despair
wantowne adj. pleasure-loving, jovial
wantownesse noun affectation
war adj 1. aware; 2. prudent
warde noun custody
warde-cors noun bodyguard
wardeyn noun 1. master of the college; 2. guard, guardian
ware noun merchandise, goods
warente verb protect
warisshe verb recover
warisshynge noun cure, healing
warye noun curse
wastel-breed noun expensive fine white bread
watres corosif noun acids
wawes noun, pl. waves
wayk, wayke adj. weak
waymentinge, waymentynge noun lamentation
webbe noun weaver
wedde verb, prsnt. marry; pst. (y)wedded married
weddede verb married
weddynge noun wedding
weel, wel adv. well
weep verb wept
weex verb became
weighte, wighte noun weight
wele noun happiness, prosperity
welle noun source, spring
wem noun harm
wemmelees adj. spotless, without blemish
wenche noun 1. girl; 2. maid, female servant
wente noun path
wepene noun, pl. weapons
werche noun work
were adj. defend, protect
wered verb wore
werre noun war
werreye verb, prsnt. wage war on
werreyed verb, pst. waged war on
werte noun wart, a small benign growth on the skin, usually hard and rounded, caused
by a virus-induced abnormal growth of skin cells and thickening of the epidermis
wessh verb washed
wexe verb, prsnt. become, grow, increase, breed
wexeth verb, prsnt. becomes, grows, increases, breeds
weyve verb turn aside, neglect
wezele noun weasel, a small brown carnivorous mammal
whelkes noun pimples, pustules
whelp noun dog, pup
whennes adv. whence, why
whetston noun whetstone
whileer adv. just now
whilom adv. once, formerly
whippeltree noun cornel-tree
wight, wyght noun person, creature, being
wiste verb, pst. sg. knew; wist pst. prtcpl. known
wit noun intelligence, mind, judgement
witen verb know
withalle adv. indeed, moreover
with o voys adv. unanimously
withholde verb forced to remain
withseye verb renounce, deny
wityng noun knowledge
wlatsom adj. disgusting, loathsome
wo noun woe, regret, sorrow, pain
wodedowve noun wood pigeon
wolde verb, pst.sg. intended to, desired; wolden verb, pst.pl. intended to, desired
wone noun practice, custom
wone verb dwell
woned verb, pst. dwelt
wonyng noun dwelling
wont accustomed
wood adj. crazy, mad, insane
woodnesse noun madness
woostow do you know
woost verb, 2nd pers. prsnt. sg. know
woot verb, 1st & 3rd pers. prsnt. sg. know, knows
worthy adj. respectable, eminent
worthynesse noun respectability, dignity, eminence
worshipe noun honour, good reputation
woxen verb grown, become
wrestling verbal noun wrestling
wraw adj. grumpy, ill-tempered, peevish
wreche noun vengeance
wrecchednesse noun misery, wretchedness
wrek verb avenge
wreke, wreken verb 1. avenge, avenged; 2. revenge oneself
wreye verb betray
wrooth, wroth(e) adj. angry
wrye verb cover
wydwe noun widow
wyf noun 1. wife; 2. woman
wyke noun week
wyket noun wicket gate
wympul noun wimple, a head dress that covers all but the face
wynke verb close both eyes
wynnyng noun profit
wyte verb blame
yaf verb, pst. gave
yave verb, pst. would give
ybete verb, pst. prtcpl. embroidered
ycleped (cleped) verb, pst. sg. called
ycorve, ycorven, ykorven verb slit, cut
ydelly adj. in vain, in idleness
ydolastre noun idolater
ye noun eye
yeer noun years
yeerd, yerd noun enclosed garden
yeld verb give back
yelde verb reward, repay
yelden verb 1. surrender; 2. pay
yeman noun yeoman, freeborn servant
yen noun, pl. eyes
yeve, yif verb, prsnt. give
yeve, yeven verb give, given
yevest verb, 2nd prs. sg. give
yeveth verb, 3rd prs. sg. gives
yfeere, yfere adv. together
yfostred verb brought up, raised
yglewed verb glued
ygrave verb buried
yhid adj. & verb hidden
yifte noun, sg. gift
yiftes noun, pl. gifts
yis adv. yes indeed
yiven verb, pst. prtcpl. given
ykembd (kembd) adj. & verb combed
ylyk adj. alike, equal, like
ynogh, ynough adj. & noun enough
ynorissed, ynorisshed adj. bred, raised, educated
yolden verb yielded
yolleden verb yelled
yowthe noun youth
ypayed verb paid
ypocryte noun hypocrite
ypreved verb proved
ypunysshed verb punished
yshryve verb confessed, penitent, shriven
ysene adj. visible
ysprad verb spread
yswonke verb toiled, worked
yvel adj. evil, wicked
yvele apayd, apayed adj. displeased
Zephirus noun the west wind that blows in Spring